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Full text of "A history of Coggeshall, in Essex : with an account of its church, abbey, manors, ancient houses, &c., and biographical sketches of its most distinguished men and ancient families, including the family of Coggeshall from 1149, to the re-union at Rhode Island, U.S.A., in 1884"

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A History of CoggeshalL 



33rtntrtj bg <ljfoin potter, 
fje Coggrsfjall iPrcss, Cssti. 



A HISTORY 



OF 



COGGESHALL, IN ESSEX 



WITH AN ACCOUNT OF ITS 

ep, (THanore, Ancient Igoueee, gc. 

AND 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 
OF ITS MOST DISTINGUISHED MEN AND ANCIENT FAMILIES 

INCLUDING 

THE FAMILY OF COGGESHALL 
From 1149, to the re-union at Rhode Island, U.S.A., in 1884. 



BY 



GEO. FRED. BEAUMONT 

One of the Local Secretaries of the Essex Archaological Society. 



JTonbmt : 
MARSHALL BROTHERS, 



PATERNOSTER ROW. 



dioggtsbaU ; 

EUWIN POTTER, 
MARKET END. 



MDCCCXC. 



O tfjc bclofarti iiHcmorg at 
JOSEPH BEAUMONT 
o ijtrt at Cojjgesfjall, 3ulg istfj, 1889 



(preface* 




HE following pages contain the embodiment of notes 
collected during some few years of research, with the 
intention in the first instance of simply allowing them 
to remain in manuscript, and providing as far as possible for their 
preservation for the historian of some future day. As these notes 
increased in bulk, and were not arranged in any particular order, 
and as I conceived that there were many of my contemporaries 
both at home and abroad, who would be glad to know something 
of the Church, the Abbey, the Manors, the Charities, the Chapels, 
the families, and the ancient houses of this interesting town, I de- 
termined to mould the collected materials into a " History of 
Coggeshall." 

To the end that the work might be as complete as possible, 
the Court Rolls of the Manors of Great and Little Coggeshall, 
the Registers of Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials, from their com- 
mencement to the present time, the other parish papers unfortu- 
nately but few and of modern date, very many ancient deeds 
and other muniments have been subjected to personal examination ; 
and such time as could be spared has been spent in the Public 



viii Preface. 

Record Office and in the Library of the British Museum, resulting 
fortunately in the unearthing of some few items of interest. 

The valuable early i8th century MS.S. of Holman (now in the 
Colchester Museum), so far as they relate to this town and the 
family which bears its name, have been transcribed, and I have 
not hesitated to draw freely from this antiquarian store. " Dug- 
dale's Monasticon," " Weaver's Funeral Monuments, " Newcourt's 
Repertorium," " Morant's Essex," " Dale's Annals of Coggeshall," 
the various papers contributed by the Rev. Dr. E. L. Cutts, and 
Mr. H. W. King to the Journal of the Essex Archaeological 
Society, and other well known and reliable authorities have been 
frequently consulted and have furnished many interesting details. 

To the non-antiquarian reader it will seem that there has been 
an unnecessary introduction of personal names and genealogical 
notes, but this will be understood when it is stated that the work 
has been prepared in the interest not only of the general reader, 
but also of those who may desire to connect the families of to-day 
with those of past ages ; a desire which is now singularly pregnant 
in New England, Australia, and the other Colonies. In order 
that the task of the genealogist may be rendered as easy as prac- 
ticable I have supplied an Index of all the personal names occur 
ring throughout the volume. 

As the importance of place names in connection with the his- 
tory of a parish is now fully recognised by antiquaries, I have felt 
it incumbent upon me to put on record the field' and other names 
occurring here, and to add a few notes with reference to the local- 
ities and their appellations, in the hope that, with the assistance 
of the map which is supplied, they will be found interesting as 
well to the local antiquary and general reader as to the onama- 
tologist. 

For much valuable aid in the production of the illustrations, 



Preface. ix 

I am indebted to Mr. J. D. Webster, whose excellent photographs 
of local views have been of great service. The Ancient Gateway, 
the Interior Elevation of St. Nicholas Chapel, and the Norman 
Capital are from drawings kindly lent to me by Mr. Robert Wil- 
liams, A.R.I.B.A. Most of the other illustrations have been 
sketched by my wife, whose willing help in this and many ways in 
preparing the work for the press I gratefully here acknowledge 

Every endeavour has been made to render the work as accu 
rate as possible, but as it has been prepared during the short 
hours of leisure which follow the professional labours of the day 
I dare not entertain the hope that it will be found faultless. 

The communication of notes bearing upon the history of this 
place, and the notification of errors occurring in the following 
pages will be much appreciated. 

GEO. FRED. BEAUMONT. 



THE LAWN, 

COGGESHALL, 

January, 1890. 



gintrotmction. 



PAGE. 



General Description Geology Early History Etymology. i 



Site of an Early Church Church of St. Peter-ad- Vincula 
General Description The Registers Monumental 
Inscriptions The Churchyard The Clergy The 
Rectory and Vicarage Chantries and Obits. 



General Description The Abbots Abbey Farm. 



Manors of Great Coggeshall Little Coggeshall Cogges- 
hall Hall 109 



Nonconformist 

The Independents The Society of Friends The Baptists 

The Wesleyan Methodists ... ... ... ... 136 



Sir Robert Hitcham's School Thomas Paycocke's Thos. 
Guyon's Sir Mark Guyon's Swallow's Gooday's 
Land in West Street Ann Richardson's The Market 
Houses or Wordsworth's Crane's The Almshouses 
or Greenwood's Johan Smith's or the Tilbury Bread 
Money Hibben's Cottages The National and British 
Schools. ... ... ... ... ... ... 150 



Contents. 



The Cloth Trade Tambour Lace Silk Throwsting 

Isinglass Breweries Seed Growing... ... ... 183 

l^otaBlc f nmilir anti S$cn. 

The Coggeshalls Du Canes Hanburys Paycockes 
Guyons Fabians Thomas Hawkes and other Mar- 
tyrs John Jegon, Bishop of Norwich John Godard, 
Mathematician Nathaniel Rogers, " One of the Fa- 
thers of the New World " John Carter, the Lip-artist. 
&c., &c. .................. 197 

ancient HOUJJCB, 2Trate Signs, jFieia #ame, &c. 230 
ire, ^usstoms, JFoIfc ?Lore anO /^tftceUaneous. 249 
.................. 263 




of 



Interior of Coggeshall Church 

Carved Head from S. Peter's Well 

Corbel, with Keys and Chain 

Arms of Guyon 

Thomas Paycocke's Brass 

John Paycocke's 

Joan Paycocke's ,, 

Arms of Carter 

Arms of Skingley 

Arms of Townsend . 

The Lych Gate and Church Tower 

Coggeshall Church (Exterior) 

Dr. Owen, the Puritan Divine 

Rev. W. J. Dampier 

Rev. C. P. Greene 

Rev. H. M. Patch . 

Abbey Farm .... 

Seal of the Abbey . 

Arms of the Abbey 

Ambulatory .... 

Norman Capital 

St. Nicholas Chapel, Exterior . 

Ditto, South Elevation, Interior 

A Cistercian Monk 

Coggeshall Hall .... 



Frontispiece. 

page 15 

19 

40 

4i 

42 

42 

45 
46 
48 

53 
70 
70 

,- . 7 
70 
70 
87 
93 
94 
97 
99 
100 

101 

1 06 

124 



List of Illustrations. 



Congregational Chapel ..... page 136 

Sir Robert Hitcham's School . . . . 150 

Arms of Sir Robert Hitcham . . . . 152 

Tomb of Sir Robert Hitcham . . . . 152 

Paycocke's Ancient Gateway . . . . .161 

Arms of the Coggeshall Family . . . . 197 

The Burning of Thomas Hawkes (Martyr) . . 213 

Bishop Mant ..... . . 216 

John Carter, the Lip-artist . . . . .218 

Stephen's Bridge ....... 235 

Coggeshall Volunteers ..... 254 

Arms of Beaumont ...... 262 

Map of Coggeshall . . . . . 263 




CORRIGENDA. 

Page 1 1, line 24, for Ansum, read Ansam. 

26 ,, 13, for Malchus with Judas, read St. Peter with Malchus. 

,, ,, ,, 14, for Repentance, read Denial. 

,, ,, ,, 24, for busts of Angels, read emblems of St. Peter. 

,, 44 ,, 31, fot Quoadam, read Quondam, 

> 45 > 34 f or Grimes, read Grime. 

66 ,, 1 6, for The Rev. E. W. Mathew, read Col. W. Mathew. 



INTRODUCTION. 




JOGGESHALL comprises two parishes, intersected by 
the ancient course of the river Blackwater, the greater 
part of which now bears the name of " The Back 
Ditch." To the north of this channel lies the parish 
of Great Coggeshall, and to the south, Little Coggeshall. The 
larger parish covers an area of 2,632 a. i r. iop., exclusive of the 
detached portion* comprising 5 a. ir. 15 p. adjoining the bridge at 
Blackwater, making a total of 2,6373. 2 r. 2 5 p., of which about 
47 acres are roads and 12 acres water. The smaller parish con- 
tains i, 107 a. 2r. i7p., exclusive of the detached portion f near 
Rye Mill, Peering, containing 6 a. 2 r. 7 p., making a total of 
i, 014 a. or. 24 p., of which about 20 acres are roads and n acres 
water. The former parish is in Lexden Hundred and the latter 
in Witham Hundred. 

The highest point is by Nunty's Farm, near Monk Wood ; 
here an elevation is reached of upwards of 228 feet above the 
mean level of the sea, gradually descending to about 88 feet, O.D. 
in the pastures by the river. The whole area is drained by the 
river Blackwater and its contributory streams, the chief of which 
is Robin's Bridge Brook. 

The principal street traverses, approximately, the old Roman 
Road from Verulamium to Camulodunum, and at its western ex- 
tremity is known as Stock Street; from Highfield's Farm to Market 
End it is called West Street ; proceeding towards Colchester the 
name is changed to East Street or Gallows Street, and beyond 
the Mount it is degraded to Rotten Row. From Market End, 
Stoneham Street runs at right angles to the Roman Road, and in 

* Amalgamated with Pattiswick Parish on 25th March, 1889. 
t Now part of Feering Parish. 

B 



Introduction. 



a northerly direction towards Halstead, bifurcating at the ' York- 
shire Grey ' and changing name to Robin's Bridge Road and 
Tilkey Road, the former leading to Halstead and the latter to 
Mark's Hall. From Market Hill, Church Street .takes a north- 
easterly direction and leads to the Church and thence to Earls Colne 
and Great Tey. Beyond the Church, on the one hand, and the 
Mount on the other, Church Street is connected with East Street 
by Dead Lane. Bridge Street, the upper part of which was 
formerly called Cellar Lane, leads from the Market Place past the 
two bridges, when its name is changed to Grange Hill and Point- 
ell Street [Tedric Pointell had property at Coggeshall at the time 
of the Domesday Survey] ; at the Hamlet is a road running to 
the mill and called Pointell Mill Lane. Bridge Street is con- 
nected with West Street by the Gravel. Church Lane, Back 
Lane, or Queen Street runs to the north of and almost parallel with 
Church Street. There are also minor ways known as Wayne or 
Vain Lane, Horn Lane, Crouches Alley, Curd Hall Lane, and 
Cuthedge or Coleman's Lane. 

From 4,198 inhabitants, in the united parishes, in the year 
1 86 1, the population has gradually decreased, the last census 
(1881) giving the number of inhabitants at 3,361, of whom 2,998 
resided in Great Coggeshall and 363 in Little Coggeshall ; since 
1 88 1 these figures have been further considerably reduced. The 
number of houses in 1881 was in Great Coggeshall, 683, inhabited 
by 704 families or separate occupiers, and in Little Coggeshall 82 
houses occupied by 85 families or separate occupiers. 

Great Coggeshall was from very early times in the Diocese of 
London, and so remained until the year 1845 when it was trans- 
ferred to Rochester. It is now in the See of the Bishop of St. 
Albans, which was founded about 1877. 

Little Coggeshall, until 1846, was a peculiar of Canterbury, 
and the Vicars of Coggeshall up to that date attended the Visita- 
tion of the Archbishop's Commissary, the Dean of Becking. In 
this year the parish was removed from the Archbishop's jurisdic- 
tion by Act of Parliament or Order in Council. 

Coggeshall is in the Archdeaconry of Colchester, and was for- 
merly in the Lexden Rural Deanery, but, on the ist January, 1846, 
it was transferred to a new Deanery, which comprises the parishes 
of Coggeshall, Peering, Inworth, Messing, Easthorpe, Layer Mar- 
ney, Layer Breto*n, Copford, Tiptree and Stanway, and is called 



Industries and Local Institutions. 



the Coggeshall Deanery. The two parishes were in Witham 
Union until its dissolution in 1880, when they were transferred to 
Braintree. 

For legal purposes of a civil nature the inhabitants are within 
the Braintree County Court District, while the Justices of the 
Witham Division of the county exercise jurisdiction in criminal 
matters, and in such administrative affairs as come within the cog- 
nizance of magistrates. Coggeshall returns a member to the 
County Council. Wills and letters of administration to the 
effects of persons dying here are proved or taken out either in 
the Ipswich District Registry or in the Principal Registry of the 
Court of Probate. 

The nearest Railway Station is at Kelvedon, about 2\ miles 
distant, and is easily accessible by ' Moore's Bus,' which travels to 
and fro three times daily. 

The principal industries are the brewing of beer, the growing 
of garden seeds and the manufacture of gelatine and isinglass. 
Tambour lace is still made here, but the cloth trade which once 
flourished has become extinct. There are two Banks, the London 
and County and Messrs. Sparrow, Tufnell & Co. 

A few ancient domestic buildings have escaped to some extent 
the vandalism of past generations, and the frieze of one in Church 
Street bears date 1565, another in East Street, 1585 ; while Pay- 
cocke's house, in West Street, was doubtless built between four 
and five centuries ago. 

A local magazine was established, in 1870, under the name of 
the ' Coggeshall Parish Magazine,' and is continued to the present 
time, but its name was changed in 1875, when an extra sheet was 
introduced so as to embrace the news of the rural deanery, and 
the title is now 'The Coggeshall Ruri-Decanal Magazine.' The 
numbers should be kept and bound periodically, as also should 
the excellent ' Coggeshall Almanack,' first issued in 1883, by Mr. 
Edwin Potter, and containing much local information with a sup- 
plement of the principal events of the year preceding its issue. 



* I A HE solid geological formation which underlies the parishes 

JL of Great and Little Coggeshall and extends for many miles 

in all directions, is known as the London clay, and consists of a 

B 2 



Introduction. 



very tenacious bluish grey clay, which near the surface weathers 
into a brownish colour. Few fossils are found in this district, and 
such as are to be obtained are very friable. The depth attained 
by the London clay in this neighbourhood varies of course with 
the contours of the surface and substratum. The well at Messrs. 
Swinborne's Gelatine Factory, about 120 ft. above Ordnance 
Datum, disclosed beneath about 2 ft. of soil a depth for the 
London clay of about 173 ft., of which i8ft. was yellow clay, 
1 30 ft. blue ditto, 5ft. sand, and 20 ft. brown clay. Passing 
through these beds, the borers pierced 38 ft. of the Reading Beds 
and 31 ft. of Thanet sand, reaching chalk at 244ft. below the 
surface, and boring into this for i6ft., they obtained at a total 
depth of 260 ft. an abundant supply of water, which rose to within 
1 4 ft. from the surface. 

The well at Mr. Gardner's Brewery, in Bridge Street, situate 
about 90 feet above Ordnance Datum, disclosed 25 feet of gravel, 
1 20 ft. of London clay, and 60 ft. of slate coloured sand, a green- 
ish sand being reached at 205 ft. 

The well at the Gravel Brewery, about 95 O.D., bored in 
1887, and commenced at the bottom of the old bore hole, no ft. 
from the surface, showed Dead sand 7 ft., Running ditto 4 ft., 
Loamy ditto 2 ft., Dead ditto 8 ft., Pebbles and brown sand 5 ft., 
Brown running sand i6ft., White sand 3ft., Mottled clay 5ft., 
Greensand ioft., Grey ditto 9 ft., Green ditto 6 ft., and Grey ditto 
41 ft., Chalk being reached at 226ft. from surface, and being 
bored to a further depth of 79 ft., water rose about 2 ft. above the 
surface and gave over 36 gallons per minute. 

The preceding details have been thus fully set out, as they will 
doubtless be of service to any who may contemplate the luxury of 
an abundant supply of pure water from a depth of from 250 to 
300 ft. The supply from the chalk bearing stratum has great 
advantages for brewing purposes, but for domestic requirements 
Coggeshall has an ample surface store of good water. This 
supply is furnished by the rains which are absorbed by the high 
level areas. Its reservoir is an extensive bed of glacial gravel, 
covered with the boulder-clay in part and the brick-earths in other 
part, these prevent evaporation, while the impervious London clay 
below arrests filtration. 

The geological beds which are exposed to view in this district 
are those of the glacial series and the valley gravels, and brick- 



Geological formation. 



earths of later date. The Boulder-clay, which is the chief of the 
glacial series, is a heterogeneous collection of fragments of rocks 
from many parts of the kingdom, but mainly composed of London 
clay and chalk, with slabs of Kimmeridge clay containing innu- 
merable fossils, pieces of the oolitic formation and of the lias 
limestones with belemnites and other remains of a former world, 
and here and there may be found rounded, polished and striated 
blocks of granite. It was deposited during an intensely cold period 
of time, when the whole of our district was submerged to a con- 
siderable depth in oceanic waters, the enormous blocks of foreign 
rocks being borne here by glaciers and icebergs. Passing upwards 
from the glacial series of deposits, we come upon the gravels and 
brick earths of later date. These were formed during the gradual 
re-elevation of the land from the depths of the sea. The coast 
line by degrees receded from the north-west, and we picture the 
waves of the ancient sea beating upon the uplands by Bourchiers 
Grange and Hovels, and again, some centuries later an enormous 
river sweeps in its pre-glacial course, denuding here and re-assort- 
ing there, gravel in one place, sand in another, and brick-earth 
elsewhere ; and thus, and only thus, can we account for the road- 
mending material we now find 50 ft. or more above the present 
river, and the earth for the potter's wheel, near Fabians or Hill 
Farm, beyond the Church and elsewhere. 

So far as the personal researches and enquiries of the writer 
have been pursued, no traces of palaeolithic or neolithic man have 
been discovered in this district, but well polished flint implements 
of neolithic man have been found at Peering and at Inworth, and 
sooner or later the diligent observer will probably be rewarded 
with similar "finds." Fossil bones of the elephant and other 
mammals have been found in the gravel pit in the Vicarage Field 
and elsewhere, but they are generally so fragile that they can 
seldom be preserved entire. 



A LTHOUGH we have no traces of an early British occu- 
1\_ pation of this place, there is, nevertheless, satisfactory 
evidence that the Romans were for some time dwellers here. 
The road which we traverse every day when we pass along East 
Street and West Street is a remnant of one of the great works of 



Introduction. 



this noble race, a race to whom England owes its mediaeval and 
its modern greatness. Let the reader walk along this road, and 
although he cannot now gaze upon the barrow of British 
or Anglo-Saxon date, which probably occupied a place in the 
locality of the 'Mount,' yet, when he descends the gentle slope 
towards the town, he will find in the field opposite the western end 
of Starling Leeze, that a portion of the original road is still extant, 
and may be traced by the raised ground or highway.* The bar- 
barians, who succeeded the Romans, it would seem at this point 
diverted the road a few yards to the north and on the ancient 
way built their miserable hovels, and so the original road is now 
lost beneath the houses which occupy the south side of the 
present highway. But the old road is again plainly seen opposite 
the Vicarage and the Hitcham School, and on its crown, Pay- 
cocke's House, the Fleece Inn, and other houses now stand. 

Dr. Holland, in his translation of Camderfs Brit., p. 449, and 
Weever also, p. 619 (see also Newcourt Rep., Vol. II., p. 158), 
tell us : " That in a place called Westfield, three-quarters of a 
mile from Coggeshall, and belonging to the Abbey, there was 
found by touching of a plough a great brazen pot ; the plough- 
man supposing it to have been hid treasure, sent for the Abbot 
of Coggeshall to see the taking of it up, and he going thither 
met with Sir Clement Harleston, and desired him also to accom- 
pany him thither. The mouth of the pot was closed with a 
white substance like past or clay, as hard as burnt brick ; when 
that by force was removed, there was found another pot but that 
was of earth, that being opened there was found in it a lesser 
pot of earth of the quantity of a gallon covered over with a 
matter like velvet and fastened at the mouth with a silk lace; 
in it they found some whole bones and many pieces of small 
bones wrap'd up in fine silk of flesh color, which the Abbot took 
for the Reliques of some saint and laid up in his Vestiary." 

If one refers to the ordnance map of Great Coggeshall, he 
will have no difficulty in finding the West Field of the govern- 
ment surveyors of 1875, for it appears in large type under the No. 
314. It is doubtful whether there is any authority for calling 

* Krom earliest times the principal roads appear to have been raised above 
the level of the adjoining ground ; thus in Numbers xx 19, the Israelites 
state that they will go by the raised road or highway, and in the I7th 
verse, it will be noticed, they call the road, the King's Highway, just as 
we do at the present day. 



Early History. 



this field West Field, for in the title deeds it is not so called ; 
in the Morden College Survey of 1740, it is called Crow Barn Field, 
and in the tithe map its name is Lower Crop Barn ; one can 
therefore only conclude, that the surveyor having ascertained that 
many Roman remains had been found in this field, set it down 
without further enquiry as-the West Field of Camden. The Rev. 
Dr. Cutts, who knew Crow Barn Field well, when writing (1855) 
on the Roman remains of Coggeshall, evidently did not consider 
it possessed the name of West Field, for in quoting from Camden 
he parenthetically suggested that the place in question was near 
West Mill* 

A search at the Public Record Office among the rolls of the 
Duchy of Lancaster (Bundle 58, No. 726) enables me to produce 
the following from the Court Rolls of the Manor of Coggeshall 
Hall, dated 1517. "At this Court the Steward by command 
of the Lord granted out of the hands of the said Lord to John 
Aylward and Benedicte his wife, certain enclosures and crofts 
of land called Colvercroft, late in the tenure of John Aleward, 
his father, while living, lying between the way called Colmannes 
Lane, on the one part, and enclosures of the Lord Abbot called 
Westfields and Bawnes Shott, on the other part, one head 
thereof abutting upon land of the said Abbot called Boune- 
shott, and the other head upon the field called Westfield." The 
fields called Colvercroft or Cutlers Crofts are shown on the 
map of Coggeshall Hall manor and are the same as Nos. 79, 
8 1, and 82 on the tithe map of Little Coggeshall. No. 109 in 
the same map is called Boonshots, and Colemans Lane is now 
called Cuthedge Lane. From these facts we may learn approxi- 
mately the locality where the remarkable pot was found, which so 
delighted the Lord Abbot of Coggeshall. 

The Rev. E. L. Cutts (Essex Arch. Soc. Trans.) says (1855) 
that in a couple of fields, called Crow Barn and Garden Fields, 
on the north of the road from Coggeshall to Braintree, a little 
distance west of the town, gravel has been excavated for some 
years back, and he was told that from time to time a considerable 
number of Roman urns had been discovered, a drawing of one of 
which he possessed. The dimensions of this urn were io| in. in 
height and about Sin. in width, and he adds, several had more 

* There are West Fields near West Mill, but they are at least a mile and a 
half from the town. 



8 Introduction. 



recently been discovered, and two of them, smaller ones, were 
preserved tolerably entire. One of these was enclosed within 
a larger vessel, whose impress he saw in the bank of earth, 
but its fragments had been thrown among the gravel and carted 
away ; these urns were deposited as is usual in Roman sepulchral 
deposits on the top of the gravel which lies about 2 ft. beneath 
the surface of the soil ; human bones had also been found here, 
and there were two'plots of soil of some yards square, in each of 
which was a layer of black ashes, perhaps the trace of funeral 
pyres ; and in the middle of Crow Barn Field was found a large 
quantity of Roman bricks, which were taken out and used to 
repair the farm premises. The space over which these urns were 
scattered is about three acres. Dr. Cutts continues To the east 
of this cemetery, with one field intervening, is the park-like field 
in front of Highfield House ; an avenue of fine elm trees extends 
from the house to the road, running from north to south ; the east- 
ernmost row of trees is planted on the edge of an artificial dyke, 
in the hollow of which runs the drive up to the house. This bank 
and hollow way have very much the appearance of the agger and 
ditch of a Roman camp. From the southern extremity of this, 
another very similar ditch runs westward in the direction of the 
Roman cemetery ; there are faint indications of a continuation of 
this along the western side ; and the line of the hedge along the 
nothern side would complete a square enclosure of about an acre 
and a half in extent. Dr. Cutts says his attention was first called 
to the eastern and most conspicuous of these lines of embank- 
ment by hearing it spoken of as Roman ; but there was not any 
general tradition of the kind, and the intimation may have been 
merely the echo of the opinion of some previous antiquary. 

Weever (Funeral Monuments), writing in 1631, makes the 
following observation : " Adjoining to the Rode called Coccill- 
way, which to this towne leadeth, was lately found an arched 
vault of brick, and therein a burning lampe of glasse covered with 
a Romane tyle some 14 in. square, and one urne with ashes and 
bones, besides two sacrificing dishes of smooth and polished red 
earth, having the bottom of one of them with faire Romane 
letters inscribed COCCILL. M. I may probably conjecture this 
to have been the sepulchrall monument of the Lord of this towne, 
who lived about the time of Antoninus Pius (as by the coyne 
there likewise found appeareth), the affinitie between his and the 



Early History. 



now towne's name being almost one and the same. These remain 
in the custody of that judicious great statesman, Sir Richard 
Weston, Knight, Baron Weston of Nealand, Lord Treasurer of 
England; and of the most honourable Order of the Garter Com- 
panion, who for his approved vertues and industrie, both under 
father and sonne doth to the publique good fully answere the 
place and dignitie." 

As a detached portion of Coggeshall until recently adjoined 
the bridge at Blackwater, it should be mentioned that when that 
bridge was re-built between thirty and forty years back, the remains 
of several successive timber bridges were discovered, and planks 
were found at a considerable depth below the present bed of the 
river, having the darkness and heaviness characteristic of very old 
oak; and Mr. Murdock, the clerk of the works, entertained the idea 
that the river might have been paved with these planks to form a 
ford ; for, as the soil is boggy at this particular spot, some such 
paving would have been necessary to make a ford passable on a 
road so much frequented. Mr. Cutts observed, after recording these 
facts (Roman Remains at Coggeshall), that the Romans invariably 
bridged over the streams which were crossed by their great 
military roads ; the bridges over insignificant streams being some- 
times composed of a horizontal roadway of planks laid upon 
abutments of piles. Among other interesting antiquities found at 
Blackwater, and, be it observed, at a considerable depth below the 
bed of the stream, were a portion of a glass vessel, described 
by Mr. Murdock as like in quality and appearance to Roman 
vessels of glass which he had seen ; the upper part of an earthen- 
ware drain pipe, the upper orifice enlarged for the insertion of the 
next pipe, which resembled Roman aqueduct or drain pipes*; a 
portion of a brick, honeycombed with deep irregular holes like 
rustication ; a vertebra of a large ox ; and perhaps most important 
of all, an iron instrument, believed by antiquaries to be a horse- 
shoe for a horse with a diseased hoof, having two tags of iron 

* I have not seen this pipe, but it would seem to be similar to two I have in 
my possession, taken by me from a field (341 ordnance survey) on the 
Abbey Farm. These are 4 in. square at one end, tapering to about 3^in. 
at the other, and measuring 2 ft. \ in. in length, with circular bore of 
i-jjin. in diameter. The pipes have sockets and enlarged orifices, and 
were disinterred from a disused clay pit. My own opinion is, they are of 
mediaeval date and were used by the monks as conduits for the carrying 
of the pure water of the hill sides to the domestic offices of the monastery. 



10 Introduction. 



which may have been clasped over the hoof, and the shoe being 
further fastened by a rope attached to the hook at the hinder part 
of the shoe (see illustration in Mr. Cutts' paper). 

Many Roman coins have been found in Coggeshall and the 
immediate neighbourhood, but, wit'h the exception of one of the 
Emperor Vespasian, found in 1887 in Mr. Beaumont's orchard 
opposite the Church, and one of Constantinus (locality where 
found unknown), a second bronze of M. Aurelanus found on the 
Abbey Farm (1888), and some others in my possession which are 
illegible, it has not been found possible to add to the following 
list compiled by Dr. Cutts : 

M. Antoninus (31 B.C.), a denarius found at Curd Hall Farm ; 
Nero (A.D. 54-68), 2nd bronze; two of Vespasian (69-79), 2nd 
bronze; two of Domitian (81-96), 2nd bronze; Trajan (98-117), 
2nd bronze; Hadrian (117-138), 2nd bronze; ditto 3rd bronze, 
found in the field in front of Scrip's Farm; Antoninus (138- 
161), mentioned by Weever; ditto, second bronze; Faustina 
(wife of Antoninus), 2nd bronze; M. Aurelius (161-180), 2nd 
bronze; Commodus (180-192), 2nd bronze; Julia Domna, wife 
of Severus (193-211), a denarius; Gallienus (253-268), 3rd 
bronze; Victorinus (265-267), 3rd bronze; Claudius Gothicus 
(268-270), 3rd bronze ; Tetricus (267-272), 3rd bronze ; Claudius 
Tacitus (275), 3rd bronze; Diocletian, 284-305), 3rd bronze; two 
of Carausius (287-293), 3rd bronze; Maximinus (308-313), 3rd 
bronze; seven of Constantine (323-337), 3rd bronze; Magnentius 
(35-353)> 3 r d bronze ; Theodosius (379-395), 3rd bronze ; Head 
of Constantinopolis ; four undecypherable. Ancient urns have 
also been found at Bouchiers Grange, by the side of an old pond 
filled in some years ago, but the workmen did not preserve 
them. 

As Hovels (otherwise Holfield, Holville or Oldfield) was the 
manor house of Great Coggeshall, it is probable that it is the site 
of a Roman villa, which, when its buildings had fallen into decay, 
and the population of the place had migrated to the Saxon ham, 
or home, where our town now is, became very properly known 
as the old-ville, afterwards corrupted into various forms. Whether 
Hovels Farm, or Holfield Grange, is the original Oldville it is 
impossible to say, but the road north of Holfield Grange should 
be noticed; then there are the Vineyard, and the Stock Street, 
close by, and although the Vineyard may have been planted by 



Early History. u 

the monks in later days, it is well known that the Romans intro- 
duced the vine into this country. The survival of the name, Stock 
Street, in a locality where there are only three or four houses, is 
decidedly indicative of former importance. 

Scrips Farm, with its Church Field and Kitchen Field, in 
Little Coggeshall, may also be the site of a Roman villa, as to 
which it should be stated that, in addition to the Roman urn 
mentioned by Camden, several Roman coins have been found on 
this farm, and the reader is invited to compare the plan of its 
fields with the plan of a Roman holding, at Much Wymondley, 
given by Seebohm, in his Village Community. Coggeshall Hall 
is also a locality which should receive attention. 

Let the reader glance at the ordnance map of Coggeshall, in 
the neighbourhood of Highfields Farm and some distance west- 
wards, and discover, if he can, why the field lines are not parallel 
with and at right angles to the ancient road from Colchester to 
Bishops Stortford, and say, was there an older way, a British or a 
Roman road from Aldham or from Halstead, which formed the 
base upon which the surveyor worked, when he divided the lands 
into separate enclosures. 

It may be mentioned that Coggeshall has at different times 
been considered the site of one of the Roman stations mentioned 
in the Itineraries of Antoninus, some writers contending for 
Canonium, while others thought it Ad Ansum, and with regard to 
the latter station a recent writer,* though "not placing it at Cog- 
geshall, fixes upon the neighbouring village of Kelvedon or Peering 
as its proper site. 



THE word Coggeshall is of uncertain derivation. We first 
meet with the town's name in a grant in the time of 
Edward the Confessor, where it is rendered Coggashael ; in the 
Domesday Book, 40 years later, viz. 1086, we have Cogheshal, 
and since then corruptions in nearly every form may be met with, 
thus, we have Cogshall, Coxal, Gogshall, Coggashael, and many 
others. We have seen in a previous page what Weever has to say 

* Mr. H. F. Napper, East Anglian Notes and Queries, Vol. II, pp. 278, 304, 
332, and Vol. Ill, p. 6. 



1 2 Introduction. 



upon the matter, and it will be remembered that this learned 
writer found an affinity between the name of the person inscribed 
upon the Roman patera and the name of the town, and to make 
his conjecture the more apparent he speaks of the Coggeshall 
road as the Coccil way (pronounced Cocksill), and so he con- 
cluded that the town belonged in Roman times to the Lord 
Coccillus, whereas the inscription COCCILLI. M. means, as is now 
well known, Coccilli manu, i.e. : by the hand of Coccillus the 
potter. 

Dunkin (Monumenta Anglicana) says that it has been 
ingeniously conjectured that this name was compounded of two 
Celtic words, Cor or Cau (enclosure), and Gafael (hold) ; or 
otherwise was derived from Coed (wood), and Caer or Gaer 
(camp), Coed-Gaer, Cogger, i.e. camp in a wood. The Saxon thane 
might have occupied the Caer with the house and out-houses, and 
the rustics would call it Coed-Gaer's Hall or Coggeshall. This 
derivation seems almost too far-fetched. 

The learned Essex historian Morant, was of opinion that the 
true and original name was Cocks-hall, and his view is supported 
by the fact that the seal of the Abbey is charged with three cocks, 
but he does not give any reason for the appropriation of this 
name to our town. 

The following suggestions are also offered, first, that it is just 
possible that the earliest Christian Church here, was, as the pre- 
sent is, dedicated to Saint Peter, and on some part of it figured 
prominently a cock (A.S. a Cog), not only as an indication of 
the dedication, but also as a mark, warning the people against 
the sin of denying their Redeemer, whence the building was 
called by the inhabitants the Cog's-hall, and later on the parish 
itself was distinguished by that name. Secondly, that Coggeshall 
may mean nothing more nor less than North Hall, just as the 
Welsh Prydain y Gogledd is equivalent to North Britain, and 
this name it may have received from the position it occupied in 
regard to Kelvedon or Peering, the Canonium of some antiquaries, 
as at both these places Roman and Anglo-Saxon remains have 
frequently been found. 

It is worthy of note, that the Galatians in Asia Minor, who 
spoke the same language as our ancient Gauls, had, as St. Jerome 
says, a little shrub which they called Coccus, with which they 
made a deep red or scarlet colour, and that very colour is at this 



Etymological. 13 



day called Coch in the British language. Camden observes, that 
in the names of all the ancient Britains there appears some 
intimation of a colour which without doubt arose from the custom 
of painting, and he fancied that this word Coch or Goch laid 
couched in such names as Cogidunus and Argentocoxus, and if 
his imagination served him aright, there would seem reason in 
tracing the same indication of colour in the word Coggeshall. 

It may be remarked that whereas part of this parish is known 
as Crowland, on the other hand, part of the parish of Crowland, 
in Lincolnshire, is called Gogguslands. 

There are several places which bear a similar appellation to 
that of our town, such as Uggeshall and Cockfield in Suffolk, 
Cogshull in Cheshire, Cogges in Oxfordshire, Cockley-Cley and 
Coxford in Norfolk, and Coxall Knoll in Herefordshire. 



REAT Coggeshall or some part of it appears to have been 
V_T at one time called Sunnydon, and is mentioned by this name 
(Sunnedon) in the agreement between the Abbot of Coggeshall 
and the Vicar of the same place, in or about the year 1224, and 
Holman, speaking of the place early in the eighteenth century, 
thus quaintly puts it : " Tis scituated somewhat lowly, some part 
of it on the declivity of a hill, but so pleasant that part which 
leads to Colchester and Fering is called in old deeds Coggeshall 
alias Sunny Bank, as 1 am informed by that oracle of the law, 
John Cox, Esq." 




ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 




|F the early ecclesiastical history of this place very little 
is known, but it may be mentioned that, in 1851, when 
the recent restoration of the present church was com- 
menced, pieces of brick were found in the walls, and 
among them were some fragments of scored and flanged tiles, 
which the Rev. E. L. Cutts pronounced to be undoubtedly of 
Roman date. This fact, however, tends to show nothing more 
than that there were Roman buildings in this locality, not neces- 
sarily ecclesiastical. 

There was probably a Saxon church here, for the Great Domes- 
day Book tells us that there was a Priest at Coggeshall at the time 
of the survey, and we may consequently not unreasonably infer 
that there was a building in which he ministered to his flock. 
The site of this Saxon building it is believed has never been sug- 
gested ; there was without doubt an earlier church in the same 
position as our present building, but that the earliest place of wor- 
ship stood here appears improbable. 

The origin of the town is apparently due to the convergence 
of minor roads to a point on the Roman road or Stane Street 
leading from Camulodunum (Colchester) to Verulamium (St. 
Albans). At this point our Saxon forefathers from divers villes and 
hamlets met and transacted their primitive sales and purchases. 
This eventually resulted in the establishment of a market, and 
around the place of mart, known as Market Hill, the rude houses 
of those who decided to settle here gradually grew up and formed 
a town. The market was held at regular intervals, and after the 
business of the day had been completed we can picture the 
homely traders and farmers with their wives, children, and depen- 
dents gathered round the missioner, who had been sent out by 



Site of the Early Church. 



the Bishop of the Diocese to spread the doctrines of Christianity 
As the population of the place increased and the inhabitants 
became converted, a church, wherein they might assemble for wor- 
hip became necessary, and it is probable our Saxon forefathers 
erected one of their wooden buildings for the purpose. 

We now come to consider the question, where did this church 
stand ? It is improbable that it stood on the same site as the 
present one ; a spot which, by reason of its distance from the 
market place, would have been most inconvenient ; we must there- 
fore look for a more suitable locality, and having found it consider 
the surrounding circumstances. 

Our town, in early Saxon times, was probably nothing more 
than a hamlet or cluster of small houses on the Stane street. 
These houses in time extending northward formed the way called 
Stanham or Stoneham Street, above what we still call Market Hill, 
and running almost at right angles with the Roman Road. If 
this surmise be correct the site of the church was probably in 
Stoneham Street, above the market place just below Church Lane. 
For convenience the position is unequalled, and the following facts 
support the proposition : There is a well near the corner formed 
by the junction of Church Lane with Stoneham Street, in the yard 
at the rear of the cottage 
opposite the Congrega- 
tional Chapel ; it is said 
to have been called 'Pe- 
ter's Well,'* and when it 
was repaired, about 50 
years ago, a stone, with 
what was believed to be 
the head of St. Peter 
carved on it, was found 
embedded in the stean- 
ing. It is evidently the 
central boss of an arched 

portion of a Church. It CARVED HEAD FROM s. PETER'S WELL. 




* Not to be confounded with the better known Peter's Well, near Wayne 
Lane, which would seem to be the old church pond reduced in size and en- 
closed in a circular brick wall. The enclosing of this pond appears to have 
been effected nearly two centuries ago and is referred to by Bufton thus : 
".1689 In June the Church Pond was cast, it cost 503." 



1 6 Ecclesiastical History. 

now belongs to Mr. Edward Catchpool, of Peering Bury. Beneath 
the boss was another stone with the cross keys carved on it in 
relief. This was removed when the well was repaired, but the 
stone with the carved head was allowed to remain till about 20 
years ago, when Mr. William Smith, of Stoneham Street, assisted 
in removing it. 

This is doubtless the well to which Bufton refers as follows : 
" 1696, Sept. Peter's Well was very well repaired by the Consta- 
bles :" and it is also the well in which Joseph Dor was drowned ; 
the fact being recorded in the Parish Register of Burials : " i4th 
June, 1765, Joseph Dor, drowned in Peter's Well." He could 
hardly have been drowned in the shallow Church Pond. 

The custom of giving names to wells is of the most remote 
antiquity, and it is not improbable that the well near Stoneham 
Street was dedicated to St. Peter shortly after the introduction of 
Christianity into this country, and it may be that this was the 
baptistery of our Saxon forefathers.* 

Then again on the west of this site are the fields known as 
' Crouches,' strongly indicating that a cross, possibly the church 
cross stood here ; and to the south west of Crouches are the lands 
which belong to the Vicarage as glebe, and have been so held for 
a certainty since 1223 (see the agreement between the Vicar of 
Coggeshall and the Abbot and convent), and probably long before 
that date. 

And yet again, immediately above Saint Peter's Well (where 
the Congregational Chapel now stands) is a property which, in 
1710, was known as ' Old Ales,f signifying that here was the old 

* Staveley, in -his History of Churches, says that "fonts were first set up in 
private houses, and subsequently in more peaceful times, at a little distance 
from the church or oratory; afterwards they were placed in the church porch, 
and lastly in the church itself near the entrance, on account of baptism being 
the sacrament of initiation or admittance into the church, and have ever since 
retained the name of font or fountain, from the primitive custom of immersion 
in rivers and fountains. Anciently there was but one font in a city and that in 
or near the principal church, which peculiarity still obtains in some cities in 
Italy. Fonts were anciently adorned with the images of Saints and Holy men, 
to the end that such as were baptised might have before their eyes the re- 
presentations of those persons eminent for holiness and virtue, whose actions 
they were to imitate." 

It is not suggested that the stone with the figure on it is more than from 
five to seven centuries old. It may have come from the demolished Abbey 
Church, and have been placed in the position where found between two and 
three centuries ago. See also Arch. Jour., Vol. xxxv. p. 86. 

t Ale means a feast in its original sense. See Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i. 279. 



Site of an Early Church. 17 

Play Place, where the inhabitants of the past were wont to assem- 
ble on certain feast days and engage in dances, bowls, shooting at 
butts and other sports. These play grounds generally adjoined or 
were but a short distance from the church.* 

It may be mentioned also that, in addition to the easy access 
to this spot from the market place, there are two roads on the 
north which converge just above it, and if we assume that Church 
Lane and the footpath through the Vicarage Fields and Crouches 
are ancient ways, then we also have approaches to the very site of 
the church both on the east and on the west. 

To recapitulate the evidence in support of the suggestion that 
the church of our Saxon ancestors stood in Stoneham Street, on 
the south of Church Lane, we have : (i) Proximity to the Market 
Place. (2) A well, dedicated to St. Peter. (3) Crouches Fields 
on the west and the Glebe Lands on the south west. (4) ' Old 
Ales ' on the north. (5) The convergence to this point of several 
roads or ways. 

Attention has been thus fully called to these coincidences in 
the hope that when any excavations are being made in the locality 
care may be taken to note the occurrence of any foundations of 
an early character, and if any Saxon or other coins should be 
found let the discoveries be duly recorded, as this is the one great 
way to obtain more accurate knowledge of the distant past. 

It has been estimated that, during the i2th century, no 
fewer than eight thousand ecclesiastical buildings were erected 
for public worship ; and, bearing in mind the fact that in those 
days our town was one of the most important in this county, we 
may safely conjecture that our Norman ancestors, with the assist- 
ance of the conquered Saxons, early in this same century on the 
site of the present structure erected a place of worship to which 
for two centuries the townspeople of Coggeshall resorted. These 
enthusiastic builders doubtless had the advantage of the advice 
and guidance of the monks who had settled on the southern side 
of the river, and were at the same time erecting the monastery- 
church which they dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. 

Evidences of an earlier church having existed on the same site 

as the present building have been found on several occasions ; 

thus, when the church was seated with benches, about 1863, there 

were unmistakeable signs of a former church having a south aisle ; 

*See post, under title, ' Fairs, Customs, and Folk-Lore.' 

C 



1 8 Ecclesiastical. 



and, while the excavations were being made, in 1886, for the heat- 
ing apparatus, the writer detected immediately beneath the north 
wall, the foundations of which are six feet deep, fragments of 
human bones, showing that a burial ground existed where the north 
aisle now stands. Some ancient tiling was also found in 1863 ; and 
in the early days of the present restoration of the nave, which 
commenced about 1851, fragments of masonry of later Norman 
or Early English character were found, and in the composition of 
the present building may now be seen pieces of brick of early 
date. 

The church which immediately preceded the present appears 
to have been small, for its dimensions may to some extent now be 
traced on the tower, which also served the purposes of that earlier 
building. Thus, there can be seen the remains of the two diago- 
nal buttresses which, until they were cut away, stood within the 
present building. There are also on the tower marks of the 
former roof, which was high pitched, and sprang from a height cor- 
responding with the top of the arches of the present building. 
From these facts we gather that the nave of the former church 
was about the width of the tower and that there was no clere- 
story. There was probably a south aisle but no aisle on the north. 



of 



'TPHE present church is situate in the north-eastern corner of 
JL the town, about 50 feet above the River Blackwater, which 
flows in its winding channel through the fertile valley on the south. 
The position, though not so convenient as a more central one, has 
the advantage 'of a healthy elevation and possesses commanding 
views of the surrounding country. To the south, in years gone 
by, might be seen the grand old Abbey Church, dedicated to St. 
Mary, with the multifarious monastic buildings clustered around 
her ; beyond, in the distance a glimpse is caught of the tower of 
Peering Church, and in the farther distance, on the gentle slope 
towards Tiptree Heath, the massive tower of Inworth Church 
stands boldly out to view. The principal approaches are by way 
of Church Street and Church Lane, the latter being also known 
as Queen Street or Back Lane. 

The present building is one of the few churches in this country 
whose dedication is to St. Peter-ad-Vincula, or St. Peter-in-Chains 



The Church. 




Its dedication to Saint Peter is testified not only by tradition but 
by the symbols of that apostle the cross keys which figure pro- 
minently in many parts of the Church, notably on the shields on 
the outer side of the walls between the plinth and the ground line. 
The second corbel from the east wall of the 
chancel, in the north clerestory, is a figure of 
an angel bearing on an escutcheon a chain 
between two keys erect. The most satisfactory 
evidence, however, of the true dedication of 
the church is to be found in the will of William 
Goldwyer,* of Coggeshall, dated the 26th 
January, and proved loth March, 1514-15. 
He directs " My body to be buried in the 
quere of Saint Peter-ad- Vincula ther as 
the legende is redde [the lectern] by the sepulture of my wif." And 
the fact that the Fair, which the Abbot of Coggeshall was licensed 
to hold, under Letters Patent, granted in 34th year of King 
Henry III., was to last for eight days every year from the vigil 
and on the day of St. Peter-ad-Vincula and for six days following, 
is certainly confirmatory of the dedication ; for, it will be remem- 
bered, that the Latin feria, whence we derive fair, is the ecclesi- 
astical term for saints' day. The Feast of Dedication is held on 
the ist August, and not on St. Peter's Day, the agth June. In 
the year 1500, there was in the chancel the image of St. Peter; 
for we read in the will of Thomas Halle,f a resident of this town, 
directions that his body should be " Cofered and buried within 
the quere of the parish church of Coksale, near to the sepul- 
ture of my wife." He then bequeaths " Towarde makeyng of 
a tabernacle for the Image of Saint Peter the Apostle in the 
quere of the said Church of Coksale X marcs, if it be made 
within 3 years after my decease, else to be disposed in deeds of 
charity for my soul and my friends' souls." This will is dated 
i5th Jany, 1499-1500. 

The church, which is almost as perfect as when first erected, 
was built in the reigns of Kings Henry IV., V. and VI., in other 
words in the first quarter of the i5th century. It is said, by an 
eminent authority on the subject [Hadfield EccL, rc. Architec. of 
Eng., 1848], to be one of the very best specimens in the county 
of the perpendicular period of Christian architecture; and he goes 



* Essex Arch. Journal, Vol. I, N.S. 177. 



fib. 
C 2 



20 Ecclesiastical. 



on to say that there are very few churches in the kingdom equal 
to it It consists of a nave, with north and south aisles, from which 
it is divided by five bays or arches ; a chancel, with similar aisles 
separated therefrom by three bays. There is a tower at the west 
end, and on the south side is a porch, which is the principal en- 
trance to the building, a turret on the north and another on the 
south side of the building. 

The general plan of the church is convenient and architec- 
turally good, but it has been suggested that it would have been 
improved by extending the internal length so that it might be 
exactly equal to twice its internal width, and by dividing it into 
nineteen equal parts, devoting fourteen to the nave and five to the 
chancel, that is to say, to make the nave seven bays in length and 
the chancel two and a half. 

The size of the church is surpassed by few* in the county, 
probably two only ; viz., Saffron Walden, measuring 200 feet in 
length by 82 in breadth, and Thaxted, which is 183 ft. by 87 ft. 

The dimensions (taken internally) of our building are as 
follows : Total length (excluding tower), 120 ft. 7 in., total width, 
62 ft. 9 in. The chancel, to the centre of the western arch, is 
51 ft. ii in. long and 28 ft. 3 in. wide. North chancel aisle, 51 ft. 
1 1 in. long and 1 7 ft. 3 in. wide. South chancel aisle, 5 1 ft. j i in. 
long 1 7 ft. 3 in. wide. The north aisle, 68 ft. 8 in. long 1 7 ft 3 in. 
wide. The south aisle, 68 ft. 8 in. long 1 7 ft. 3 in. wide. The 
tower, 13 ft. ii in. by 13 ft. 9 in. The nave is about 36 ft. in height 
at the sides, rising somewhat higher in the centre. The aisles by 
the arches are about 26 feet in height. The tower, from base to 
top of parapet, 66 feet, thence to top of turret, 6 feet. The chan- 
cel is elevated about 6 inches above the nave, from which it is 
separated by a fine arch of the width of 20 ft. 10 in. having a hood- 
moulding terminating with a floral decoration. The altar is ap- 
proached by 3 steps. Each of the chancel aisles is separated from 
the nave aisle, of which it is a continuation, by a plain arch. 

The tower, nave, and porch are composed for the most part of 
flint rubble, with some fragments of brick. The walls of the 
chancel and its aisles together with the north turret are of Kentish 
rag. The parapets, which surmount the north and south walls of 
the chancel, are of brick of more or less modern date. The para- 
pets of the other parts of the church are in keeping with the 
walls upon which they are built. 



The Porch. 21 

The roof of the chancel is of pine and rests on oak rafters 
supported by plain oak brackets standing upon stone corbels 
carved in relief, most of them probably original but some of 
recent date. 

The roof of the nave is far richer than that of the chancel 
and is entirely of oak. The beams are well moulded and have 
floral bosses. The corbels are chiefly modern, of Bath stone, 
carved in relief with figures of angels and saints. Most of these 
were inserted shortly after the commencement of the latter half of 
the present century when the restoration of the roof was effected. 
The canopied figures, beautifully carved in oak and resting upon 
the corbels, represent the twelve apostles, and were presented to 
the church by Mr. John Parkinson Hall, of Yarmouth, who for 
many years served the office of churchwarden of this parish. 
The roofs of the aisles are ornamented with bosses of various 
designs. The stone corbels are carved with heads of saints or 
grotesque figures. 

Under the East window outside was formerly a carved repre- 
sentation of the Crucifixion, of which traces only now remain. 

There is a stoup for holy water on the east of the priest's 
door, the basin has, however, been cut off flush with the wall. 



HP HE Porch is of flint rubble with stone quoins and dressings 
* and is supported by a diagonal buttress at its south-eastern 
and south-western corners. It is entered by a doorway of stone 
with a pointed arch, over which is a dripstone terminating with 
two heads crowned with a wreath. The doors are of oak. The 
north doorway of the porch is a depressed arch of stone within a 
rectangular frame, and over this there is a label, the spandrels 
being filled with a shield within a quatrefoil. 

The double door is of massive oak, beautifully carved by Mr. 
Barley man about 35 years ago, in a design of perpendicular cha- 
racter. [Mr. Barleyman afterwards went to New Zealand and 
became a barrister-at-law.] There is an east and a west window 
each of two lights. The floor is paved with inverted monumental 
slabs, and the ceiling is groined, and in the centre is a boss, a 
pelican in piety, but it is said that the original boss was the 
Virgin and Child. 

The room over the porch, which is known as the Record 



22 Ecclesiastical. 



Room, has probably at different times been used for various pur- 
poses, and, from the fact that Thomas Howell, sexton, was buried 
in the porch in 1680 (April 15), it is just possible that in his 
day the room above was the private apartment of the sexton. 
This room is entered by a door in the north-east corner, access 
to which is gained by a narrow stone staircase approached from 
the interior of the Church. In the north-eastern corner is a 
modern fire-place ; on the south is a window of two lights, and 
on the east and west a window of one light. The roof is sup- 
ported by massive beams of oak. There is little of interest in 
this room save the old oak parish chest with three locks, but this 
is of no great size nor of handsomely designed character. 



IN comparison with thp body of Church the tower is low. It 
is of flint rubble with fragments of brick, and is supported 
by four diagonal buttresses, the eastern two being now built into 
the walls of the Church. The bells are rung from the ground 
floor, above which is a disused chamber, reached by a staircase in 
the turret at the south-eastern corner, and continued upwards to 
the belfry and thence to the leaden roof. 

There are eight bells, which bear the following inscriptions : 

The 8th (Tenor) "Cast by John Warner & Sons, London, 1877. 
This bell, cast in the year 1692, was re-cast June, 1877. C. P. 
Greene, Vicar, J. S. Surridge and A. T. Warwicker, Churchward- 
ens." The former inscription was "James Bartlet made me, 1692, 
Thomas Keble, Robert Townsend, Churchwardens." 

The 7th "Thos. Gardiner, fecit 1733, Isaac Potter, John 
Tayler, C.W's." 

The 6th "Tho. Gardiner, fecit 1757, William Moss, Church- 
warden." 

The 5th "Thomas Gardiner, Sudbury, fecit 1733." 

The 4th "Miles Graye made me, 1681." 

The 3rd "John Bryant, Hertford, fecit 1806, W. Swinborn, 
T. Alleker, C.W's." 

The 2nd "Cast by John Warner & Sons, London, 1876, 
W. J. Dampier, Vicar ; H. T. W. Eyre, Curate ; J. S. Surridge, 
A. T. Warwicker, Churchwardens, 1876." 

The Treble " Cast by John Warner & Sons, London, 1876. 



The Tower. 23 

Through the exertions of the Rev. H. T. W. Eyre, Curate, this 
peal was augmented to eight bells, Easter, 1876." 

Button has the following notes anent the bells : " November 
8th, 1 68 1, three bells were run in Mr. Ennow's barn, and the 
other three, December 23rd, 1681." 

"In September, 1682, the 6th bell and 3rd bell were new run 
at Colchester." 

"In April, 1683, the 5th bell was carried to Colchester and 
there was made thereof a little bell less than the least before." 

"In May, 1692, the great bell was earned to London to be 
new shot, and was brought home again in July." 

"In June, 1693, the 4th bell was carried to Sudbury to be 
new shot, and the rest were chipped to make them tuneable." 

"In Jan. 1693-4, the 4th bell was split and carried to Sudbury 
to be new shot and brought home about May 7, 1694. Then it 
was made too little, and was carried to Sudbury to be new shot 
and made bigger, and was brought home about June 18, 1694, 
and were first rung after that June 22, 1694." 

The bells are in the key of F ; the tenor weighs 20 cwts., the 
treble 5f cwts. 

The following items, concerning the bells, are said to have 
been in the churchwarden's accounts (Dale's Annals of Cogges- 
hall\ but these accounts have never been seen by the present 
churchwardens, nor have they any knowledge as to what has 
become of them. The only accounts and books kept by these 
officials which are now extant are those of more modern date : 

" 1807 Sept. loth. To Briant, for recasting bell, ^"17 IDS. 

" 1808 April 17. To Thomas Hughes' bill for bells, 
.15 175. iid. 

" 1813 July 14. Paid the ringers for Lord Wellington, \. 
July 22. Ditto, Anniversary. Aug. 3 Battle of Vittoria. Aug. 
12 Prince Regent's birthday. Sept. 22 King's Coronation. 
Nov. 4 Battle of Leipsic. 

" 1814 April 7th. Allies entering Paris. April 9 Buonaparte 
dethroned." 



'TpHE east window of the chancel is a splendid specimen 

JL of perpendicular work ; and, with regard to it, Hadfield 

says, "A finer example of the style perhaps is not to be found in 



24 Ecclesiastical. 



England, there is decidedly nothing to compare to it in the 
county." The window is of seven lights, and measures from the 
sill to the spring of the arch, 12 ft. 6 in., thence to the apex n ft. 
10 in., making a total height of 24 ft. 4 in.; its width, from jamb 
to jamb is 14 ft. 8 in., and each light is slightly over i ft. 8 in. 

This window was re-glazed in 1848, the glass of it having been 
painted by the vicar, the Rev. W. J. Dampier. In July, 1866, it 
was replaced by the beautiful stained glass of Messrs. Clayton & 
Bell, inserted (according to a note in one of the parish books) by 
Osgood Hanbury, Esq., and Osgood Hanbury, Jun., Esq., in me- 
mory of Helen and William Hanbury, and it bears the following 
inscription : " In memory of Helen Caroline Hanbury, wife of 
Osgood Hanbury, Jun., died 5th April, 1865, aged 31, after giving 
birth to her son, Osgood, who died, i4th May, 1865 ; also of S. 
William D. Hanbury, H.M.S. 'Nerbudda,' lost off Simons Bay, 
Africa, about nth June, 1855." 

The pictures are representative of the principal incidents in 
the life of Christ, the tracery lights being filled with figures of the 
saints. 

In this window, Holman says, there was in his day, " an es- 
cutcheon Argent, 3 lions rampant, 2, i, gules, within a border 
engrailed azure." 

The east window of the north chancel aisle represents ' The 
Agony,' 'The Crucifixion,' 'The Resurrection,' and 'The Ascen- 
sion,' and bears the following : " To the honor and glory of God, 
this window is erected in affectionate remembrance of Richard 
Townsend, who died, August 4, 1852, aged 80 years, and of Mary 
Johnson Townsend, his second wife, who died, 4th December, 
1858, aged 69 years, by their children, G. Gretton Townsend and 
Mary Ann Gretton Townsend." 

The east window of the south chancel aisle was presented by 
Thomas Sadler, Esq. ; subject, " The History of David ; inscrip- 
tion, " Deo dedit et ecclesiae, Thomas Sadler, Anno Domini, 
1863." 

The east windows of the chancel aisles, the three windows in 
the south chancel wall, and the easternmost window of the north 
chancel wall, have four lights and are of a pattern different to the 
other principal windows of the Church which are of three lights. 
The clerestory windows are of three lights, those in the chancel 
being of later date than those in the nave. 



The Windows. 25 



Proceeding from the east end of the Church, and taking the 
north wall, the first window is at present plain, but will soon be 
replaced with stained glass by the Young Women's Help Society, a 
fund for which is being raised under the energetic secretaryship 
of Miss Margaret Gardner. The subject will probably be the life 
of St. Katherine, as this aisle is dedicated to that saint. 

The next window is "To the memory of George Decks Skingley, 
who died June i6th, 1888, erected by his widow, Mary Isabella 
Ellison Skingley," and contains in the central light, ' The Good 
Shepherd,' and in the side lights are quarries with the sacred 
monogram and other designs. There are also appropriate texts 
interspersed. This is the work of Messrs. Heaton, Butler & Co. 

The third, a rich stained glass window, was inserted "In 
memory of Susan Bowles, the wife of Major G. D. Skingley, who 
died i gth October, 1878." [This is the date of her burial, she 
died 1 4th October, 1878.] The subject is ' The Sermon on the 
Mount.' In the centre is the figure of Our Blessed Lord in a 
sitting posture, uttering to the listening multitude the eight Beati- 
tudes ; below are the words of the sixth Beatitude : " Blessed are 
the pure in heart for they shall see GOD." Among the multitude 
are men and women, young and old, listening to the words of the 
Saviour, whilst in the tracery lights are angels looking downwards 
and adoring Him ; at His feet among the wild flowers is a lily 
of thevalley, the emblem of purity. The window was designed 
and executed by Messrs. Meyer, of Munich. 

Leaving the chancel, the first window in the nave on the north 
side is the gift of Osgood Hanbury, Esq., as a memorial to his 
deceased father and mother. This work, of Messrs. Clayton & 
Bell, represents 'The Presentation of our Saviour in the Temple;' 
a label from the mouth of S. Simeon has on it, " Mine eyes have 
seen Thy Salvation ;" and below is the inscription : " In memory 
of Osgood Hanbury, died 4th November, 1873, aged 79, and of 
Eleanor Willet, his wife, died 26th March, 1870, aged 75." 

The next window depicts ' The Adoration of the wise men,' 
and was presented " To the Glory of GOD and in memory of 
William Appleford, who died 1874, and of Bithia, his wife, who 
died 1 88 1 " by their children. This is also the work of Messrs. 
Clayton &: Bell, and is similar in design to the last described 
window, but of a more conventional character. In the centre 
light is the Virgin Mother with the Divine Infant in her arms, the 



26 Ecclesiastical. 



side lights containing representations of the kings offering their 
gifts, and beneath : " In Whom we have redemption through 
His blood." 

The principal window of the tower was given by "Ann 
Skingley, in memory of her daughter, Ellen Brown, who fell asleep 
in Jesus, October iv., MDCCCLII." Subject, the three Marys ; one 
of whom bears a plate, another a lily, and the third a box of 
ointment. 

The window at the nave end of the south chancel aisle is of 
four lights with several openings in the upper, or tracery, portion. 
The eight pictures illustrate as many incidents in the life of St. 
Peter, they are placed as follows ; viz. in the upper row : ' The 
Call of St. Peter' 'The Gift of the Keys ''St. Peter and Malchus' 
'St. Peter's repentance.' Underneath these, 'St. Peter and St. 
John at the beautiful gate ' ' St. Peter cast into prison ' ' St. 
Peter released from prison ' ' The martyrdom of St Peter.' The 
spaces between are filled with canopy work. In the tracery 
openings four angels fill the four largest pieces and they hold a 
scroll upon which is inscribed the following lines : " In this 
window is shown forth the life and martyrdom of St. Peter, a 
servant and an apostle of JESUS CHRIST." Between the upper 
and lower tiers is this text : Peter was kept in prison but prayer 
was made without ceasing of the Church unto GOD for him." In 
the other four tracery lights are emblems of St. Peter. At the 
base of the window is the following : " To the glory of GOD 
and in memory of Joseph Smith Surridge, 21 years churchwarden 
of this parish, who fell asleep, 23 July, 1888." 

The window was designed and executed by Messrs. Lavers 
and Westlake, and cost about 200. It is certainly a work of 
great merit, and a most suitable memorial to one who, for so many 
years devoted such unceasing labour to the work of restoring and 
beautifying the Church. 

The only window in the south wall of the nave, which is of 
stained glass, is the easternmost. This, the work of O'Connor, 
portrays 'The Transfiguration of Our Blessed Lord," with the 
superscription, " This is My beloved Son, hear Him ;" and an in- 
scription records that the window was erected " To the Memory 
of Arthur Gardner, departed Jan. 7, 1867, aged 21." 

Some old glass was found during the restoration, about 1851, 
under one of the benches, but it is not known what became of it. 



Mural Decoration. 27 



The glass of the two westernmost windows of the north clerestory 
was painted by Mr. Charles Bonton. In the centre light of the 
westernmost window are the arms of the Diocese of Rochester. 
Arg., on a saltier gu., an escallop shell or., with the bishop's mitre 
above. The middle light of the other window contains the arms 
of the DuCane family, the patrons of the living. Arg., a lion ramp 
sa., ducally crowned or., on a canton az., a chevron of the 3rd 
between 3 acorns slipped and erect : Crest a demi lion ramp sa., 
ducally crowned or., supporting with the paws an anchor erect of 
the same. 

QHuraf ecoraftone. 

THE first mention, regarding the colouring of the walls, is in 
Bufton : " In the months of July and August, 1684, Coxall 
Church was whited and painted." And here, perhaps, the follow- 
ing from the same diarist may not be inappropriately quoted : 
" In 1692-3, the new King's Arms and ye 10 commandments 
were set up in ye church." 

From a paper read before the Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects, by the Rev. Edward L. Cutts, sometime Curate of this town, 
we learn that the walls of our church were not profusely decorated 
with paint. There was a line of red in the moulding round the 
edge of the window splays. The bell of the capitals of the pillars 
was coloured red. The arches across the chancel and its aisles 
had a few stripes of plain colour, chocolate, bright red and yellow. 
The east walls of the chancel and aisles were formerly painted 
over with a tapestry pattern of a character common about the reign 
of Henry VII., which pattern returned a short distance along the 
adjoining walls to form an enrichment above the altars. The sim- 
plicity of this decoration Mr. Cutts attributed to the desire of the 
decorators to give emphasis to the chief architectural features of 
the building, and to act as a foil to bring out the brilliant colouring 
of the windows, all of which were probably at one time filled 
with stained glass. 

There were formerly eight consecration or dedication crosses 
painted on the walls, either in fresco or distemper, but these were 
destroyed or covered over in the early period of the present res- 
toration. Two were under the windows of the north wall of the 
north chancel aisle, and one higher up on the right hand of the 
east window of that aisle, one under the east window of the south 



28 Ecclesiastical. 



chancel aisle and four others under the windows in the south wall. 
They were all of the same character, namely a cross patee, dark 
red within a circular rim of dirty grey or perhaps faded green. 
Before each of these, on the anniversary of the dedication and at 
certain other times there was probably burned a taper, candle or 
lamp. 

In 1882, the first portion of the polychromatic decoration 
which now adorns the chancel was commenced, and consisted of 
a dado of chocolate on the east wall and the return walls of the 
sacrarium. The work was continued, at the latter end of 1886, as 
far as the apex of the easternmost arch. Early in 1889, the 
painting was finished through the munificence of an anonymous 
donor. The whole design was by Messrs. Clayton & Bell, by 
whom also the work was executed. On the north of the great 
window Our Saviour's Resurrection is beautifully depicted in 
various colours. At his feet are the holy women and among them 
an angel bearing the legend : " He is not here, but is risen." 
Beneath this picture are the words : " I am the Resurrection and 
the Life." On the south side of the window is a very fine repre- 
sentation of the Ascension, with the inscription : " I ascend unto 
my Father." It is impossible to give any detailed description of 
this decoration, but it may be shortly stated that the coloring is 
chiefly chocolate, with gold, green, red, blue, and other tinctures, 
harmoniously interspersed. Immediately below the string course, 
is the text : " Worthy is the Lamb * * * * for ever 
and ever," and beneath this are cameos containing an angel hold- 
ing a scroll, thereon "Alleluia." 



QJerefcoe. 

THE first stone of the reredos, which preceded the present one, 
was laid on the 26th August, 1843, immediately after the 
2nd lesson at morning prayer, by William Dampier and Maria 
Elizabeth Dampier, two of the children of the vicar. The reredos 
of 1843 was f stone in five bays, in the centre panel, I.H.S., the 
other panels being filled with the Creed, Lord's Prayer, and Ten 
Commandments. At the date of its erection it was an ornament 
to the dilapidated church, but, with the vast improvements effected 
under the zeal and guidance of Mr. Dampier, it was considered 
that its place should be supplied with one of nobler character and 
richer design. 



The Reredos. 2 9 



On the 2oth November, 1878, at Ramsgate, the Rev. William 
James Dampier entered into his " long home." He had often ex- 
pressed a wish to see a new reredos in our church ; and, although 
the wish was not consummated in his lifetime, his desire was not 
forgotten, and, under the honorary secretaryship of the Rev. E. 
Hall, rector of Myland, about ^300 was collected, with the result 
that on the i8th October, 1880, the new reredos was unveiled. 
The framework of the reredos, including the rich floriated cornice 
and canopies, is of alabaster; the figures being in Caen stone, 
carved in high relief. There are three principal panels, the central 
one of which contains a representation of the Crucifixion of our 
Lord, with Mary His mother, and Mary the wife of Cleopas, on 
either side, and Mary Magdalene at His feet. In the left panel, 
the sacrifice of Isaac is portrayed, while the right contains the 
Feast of the Passover. Each of the four minor panels contains 
the figure of an Archangel beneath a trefoliated canopy. The 
whole work is beautifully designed and remarkably well executed. 
A brass plate with these words inscribed was afterwards affixed : 
"To the Glory of GOD, and in memory of William James 
Dampier, vicar of this parish, 1841-1876, by his brother priests, 
friends and parishioners." 

ge font 

/ TT V HE font is of early English date, and was originally in Pattis- 
JL wick Church, from which it was removed, and for some 
time used as a horse trough, and afterwards as a flower stand in 
the garden of Mr. William Mayhew, who gave it to Mr. Dampier 
in 1841, by whom it was set upon new pillars and completely re- 
stored, and presented to the church in 1852. It was temporarily 
fixed in the south chancel aisle, but afterwards removed to the 
position it now occupies in the nave. In 1871, the shafts which 
support the basin, were reduced a few inches in height, and the 
brick steps were replaced by a stone base. 



IS an arched niche of stone in the south wall, under the eastern- 
most window. The drain consists of four holes ; the pro- 
jecting part of the basin has been cut off flush with the wall. In 
each spandrel there is a thistle. 



3 Ecclesiastical. 



was, until comparatively recent times, a handsome 
JL screen in the chancel arch, and in the arches between the 
chancel and the north and south chancel aisles. These were with- 
in the remembrance of Mrs. White, of West Street, whom Mr. 
Dampier, in 1863, interviewed with reference to the internal state 
of the church when she first knew it in her youth. Mr. Dampier 
states in his note, that this lady was then nearly 100 years old. 
Mrs. White did not remember any screen filling the western arches 
of the chancel aisles, but the carved oakwork found in 1863, 
serving as joists of the pew flooring, seemed to Mr. Dampier to 
be the screen work of those western arches. 

The rood loft was reached by the turret, on the north side of 
the church, the opening for the doorway on a level with the loft 
being still plainly visible from the inside of the turret. Behind 
the door leading from the church into the turret, may be seen a 
small recess, the use of which is not quite apparent, but it may 
have served as a stoup for holy water. 



THE pulpit, which immediately preceded the one now in use 
and which can be recalled by most of us, was painfully 
plain and totally unworthy of a place in the fine old church. It 
is almost unnecessary to say that it was not the pulpit of pre-Re- 
formation days, but was of i8th century date, as we find from the 
entry of the burial of its builder, which appears in the parish 
register thus : " 1775, April 7th, John Morton, Carptr. & Joyner, 
he made the pulpitt." 

In August, 1871, the old pulpit was replaced by the present 
structure, which is of oak, carved by Mr. W. B. Policy, of this 
town. The central panel contains the figure of Saint Peter, with 
the cross keys in his right hand, and a volume in his left ; and the 
panels on the right and left are respectively occupied by the effi- 
gies of St. John with a cup, and St. James with a sword. The 
projecting cornice is handsomely carved with a flowing conven- 
tional thorn. The woodwork rests on a stone base, whereon is 
carved a wreath of geranium. 

Organ. 

HP HE Organ, which was built in 1819, stood in the gallery at the 
* west end of the Church. It was replaced, in 1839, by one 



The Organ. 3 1 

given by Henry Skingley, Charles J. Skingley, Esqrs., and Major 
George Decks Skingley, in compliance with the wish of their 
deceased father, Henry Skingley, Esq. It remained in the gallery 
till about 1852, when, on the demolition of its resting place, it was 
removed and was afterwards placed in the position in the south 
chancel aisle, in the rear of the middle bay, where the present 
instrument stands. The fine instrument now in use, was built by 
Messrs. Holditch. The subscription list was opened by Mr. Joseph 
Beaumont, in 1865, but nothing further was done until 1870; in 
this and the following years great activity was displayed, with the 
result that, on the i8th December, 1873, the organ was opened, 
Mr. C. Warwick Jordan, Mus. Bac., Oxon, presiding at the instru- 
ment. 

The Organ consists of three complete manuals, with a compass 
of CC to F, 54 notes, and an independent pedal organ, from 
CCC, 1 6 ft. to E, 29 notes. 

The Great organ contains 10 stops ... 648 pipes. 
The Swell organ 8 ,, ... 540 

The Choir organ ,, 6 ... 312 

The Pedal organ 3 .... 87 

Couplers ... ... 6 



Total ... 33 1,587 

The case of the organ is of pine, ornamented with a conven- 
tional pattern in chocolate. The pipes are partly diapered. 



WE have no record of the earliest sitting accommodation 
of the Church, but Bufton tells us something of the 
pews of two hundred years back, thus: "In 1678, betwixt 
Michaelmas and Christmas, 2 new pews were set up in our 
Church one for Counsellor Cox, ye other for Mr. Thomas 
Stafford. In July, 1679, there was a new pew, very fine and 
large, set up in our Church by John Thorne and George Abbot, 
and was pulled down againe in Aprill, 1680. In November, 1684, 
a new pew was set up in the chancel, near ye door, by Samuell 
Sparhawk and Samuel Smith. In November, 1685, a new pew 
was set up againe in our Church, where there was one set up 
before in 1679, an d pulled down in 1680." 

The nave of the Church was re-seated in 1863, the old pews, 



3 2 Ecclesiastical. 



which were then removed, had existed for at least a century, and 
were about 3 ft. 8 in. in height and constructed of deal. 

The nave and its aisles are now seated with comfortable 
benches of oak, the ends by the centre passage being carved with 
heraldic shields, alternating with some floral or other suitable de- 
sign. The shields represent, among others, the arms of the Sees 
of Canterbury, and Rochester, and of the families of DuCane, 
Hanbury, Dampier, Martin-Leake, Townsend, Sadler, Drummond, 
Honywood, but they in no manner indicate that the seats to 
which they are attached are appropriated to, or were ever even 
occupied by the families bearing those arms. 

The following notes, in the handwriting of the Rev. W. J. 
Dampier, may be quoted here : " 1842 two old chairs presented 
and placed within the altar rails, having high carved backs. 1843, 
Passion week two benches substituted for the Vicarage pew, at 
private cost, and with the Bishop's sanction. 1847 the free pews 
extending from the chancel door, westward, to the arch, which 
were high and of various sizes, &c., were taken down and replaced 
by three rows of open sittings of the ancient pattern, low, uniform, 
and looking north ; this was done with the sanction of the Incum- 
bent, the Churchwardens, and the Archdeacon." 

The chancel is seated with handsome benches of carved oak, 
adorned with figures of angels. The carving of all the benches 
was done by Mr. W. B. Policy. 



RE three in number, cut in the south wall of the sacrarium, 
and are all of the same elevation. 



A 

tin 

Ornantente and Ifonaffer jfwntifure. 

'""PHERE are two chalices or Communion cups of silver, 6| 
in. in height, and bowl, 3 in. in diameter, one inscribed, 
"Sacred to GOD and the Church of S. Peter, Coggeshall, 1783, 
Richard White, William Walford, Chwns." Three patens of silver, 
one 9 in. in diameter, inscribed, " Sacred to GOD and the Church 
of S. Peter, Coggeshall, 1783;" another, 8|in. in diameter, in- 
scribed, "In Mem., John Doane Forster, MDCCCLVII, " and the 
third, 6 in. in diameter, inscribed, " S. Peter, Coggeshall, sacred 
to the memory of Arthur Gardner, 7th June, 1867." One flagon 
or cruet of silver, 13 in. in height, inscribed, "Given to S. Peter's 






Restoration of the Church. 33 

Church, Coggeshall, by Georgiana Ann Barnard, in memory of 
her father, Abraham Lawkin Barnard, who died at White Notley, 
July 1 7th, 1857." An alms bason of silver, measuring pin. in 
circumference, and inscribed, " Sacred to GOD and the Church of 
S. Peter, Coggeshall, 1783." 

There are six altar frontals and five super frontals, fair linen 
cloths, two brass and two oak candlesticks, moveable brass desk, 
a credence table, two glass cruets for wine and water, a silver 
spoon and a shell for baptisms. 

The survey or inventory of church plate, jewels, vestments and 
other ornaments, which was ordered to be made early in the reign 
of Edward VI., is, so far as it concerned Coggeshall, believed to 
be lost. After the Reformation, many of the valuable ornaments 
of our Church were sold, and the proceeds expended in the gen- 
eral restoration of the building. In the sixth year of Edward VI. 
a further survey was taken, and, though in many cases it furnishes 
a mine of information upon the subject of church furniture and 
goods, yet, in the case of Coggeshall, we only learn that the cer- 
tificate, as it was called, was made on 3rd November, 1547, by 
Anthony Waynflet and Thomas Baker, Churchwardens; who state 
that they had sold, by the assent of the town, so much plate 
as cometh to the sum of ^10, whereof they had received 6, 
and had bestowed the same, some in the reparation of the Church 
and the highways next adjoining, and the other 4 remained in 
the hands of Master Thomas Playter, Esquire. 






SOME idea of the magnificence of our Church in pre-reform- 
ation days, is to be gathered from the Paycocke wills, ex- 
tracts from which appear on another page. It will be seen that 
in the early part of the sixteenth century, there were, besides the 
High Altar, an Altar of Saint Katherine, a Tabernacle of the 
Trinity at the High Altar, and another of Saint Margaret in Saint 
Katherine's aisle. Mr. H. W. King, the learned secretary of the 
Essex Archaeological Society, who has made considerable extracts 
from the Paycocke's Wills,* thus writes, " I, for one, do not doubt 
that Coggeshall Church owes its architectural grandeur as largely 
to the piety and zeal of the clothworkers of the town, as perhaps, to 

* Paper read before the Essex Arch. Soc. at Coggeshall, on igth October, 1888. 

D 



34 Ecclesiastical. 



the benevolence of the Cistercian fathers. We can only imagine, 
we cannot realise, the ancient splendour of its internal decoration ; 
the value of the sacred vessels and other ornaments of metal 
work ; the richness of the woven and embroidered fabrics used in 
the services, for the English embroidery excelled all other ; but we 
do get just a gleam of light in the dedication, by Thomas Pay- 
cocke, of the two tabernacles with sculptures of the Holy Trinity 
and Saint Margaret, for which he bestowed, for the carving and 
gilding of them, one hundred marks ; all else we must suppose to 
be conformable in gilding and color." Mr. King has explained * 
that the Tabernacle of the Trinity was a niche, with probably a 
lofty canopy or spire, containing a sculptured representation of 
the Holy Trinity; the Almighty Father or Ancient of Days, in 
the form of an aged person, seated and holding a crucifix upon 
which the emblem of the Holy Spirit is alighting ; these taber- 
nacles were often so lofty that the spire reached nearly to the roof. 
We have read elsewhere of the gift by Thomas Halle of ten 
marks towards the making of a tabernacle for the Image of Saint 
Peter, the apostle, in the choir of the Coggeshall Church. 

But though so magnificent in the past, our Church, by reason 
of the destruction wrought during the reign of Edward VI. and 
in the days of the Commonwealth, and through the indifference 
of the clergy and laity of later years, presented such an appear- 
ance that Holman, in the beginning of the iyth century, was 
doubtless justified in saying, " The inside has nothing of that 
beauty and ornament which its outside promises to the transient 
spectator, but is ill-kept and runs to decay." This running to 
decay was not arrested until the late Rev. William James Dampier 
was presented to the Vicarage in 1841. No sooner was he in- 
ducted than he determined to " Gather of all Israel, money to 
repair the House of your GoD,"f and, by Divine Grace, after thirty- 
five years of patience, perseverance, and unceasing labour, he 
might in his last hours have added, "And the work was per- 
fected, and they set the House of GOD in His state and strength- 
ened it." $ The restoration of the Church of S. Peter-ad- Vincula, 
Coggeshall, is a standing memorial of the never-to-be-forgotten 

WILLIAM JAMES DAMPIER. 

* Essex Arch. Journal, Vol. Ill, N.S. p. 91. 
t 2 Chron. xxiv. 5. + Ib. 13. 



Restoration of the Church. 35 

Among the notes he made in one of the Church books, we 
trace some of his early works, and learn that, during Advent of 
1842, the altar rails were fresh painted [carved oak rails with 
angels, now take the place of the old rails], and in December fol- 
lowing, two of the tower windows were brought out to view and 
repaired, at the cost of two individuals. On 26th August, 1843, 
the first stone of the reredos [not the present one] was laid, and 
in the following year, on 4th October, two open benches of oak 
with a front of open work, were placed in the chancel as his gift. 
Then, in 1845, we find our great benefactor making memoranda 
of " Things which I have projected to do if GOD bless me in 
them (inter alia) : Have the Church re-seated (open if possible) 
for the better accommodation of the parishioners, especially the 
poor. Have the south porch restored to its former state. Re- 
store the pinnacles and 4 crosses on the tower, the cross at the 
east end, the west window of the tower, the entrance at the west 
and open the tower arch." 

In 1847, the chancel had been repaired by the lay-rectors, Mr. 
Western and Mr. Skingley, the improvements comprising a new 
roof and the opening of three north clerestory windows, and the 
raising of the pavement 9 in., to the level of the floors of the 
aisles. 

On 9th January, 1848, Mr. Dampier notes that "a high wind 
(the east window being still unglazed) blew down the woodwork 
in the chancel, put to protect the reredos, breaking the lectern to 
pieces and utterly destroying the old communion table, which was 
very unworthy of its purpose and made of common deal, the 
fragments of which were reverently burnt in the Church the next 
day by the curates with the churchwarden's sanction." 

The restoration of the nave commenced about 1851, and, from 
the appeal issued by the committee and its most energetic hono- 
rary secretary, the Rev. Edward L. Cutts, then curate of Cogges- 
hall, we gather that the roof of the nave was defective in princi- 
ple and its timbers insufficient permanently to support the weight 
discharged upon them ; and it was considered that any further 
settlements would cause the tie-beams to be drawn from the walls 
and fall inevitably into the church, hence a new roof was found to 
be indispensable. The roofs of the aisles were also unsafe, some 
of the buttresses and the clerestory walls of the nave required re- 
building, and new mullions, tracery, jambs, and arches were neces- 

D 2 



36 Ecclesiastical. 



sary for the repair of the windows, and, such was the general 
state of the building, that for substantial repairs alone, it was esti- 
mated a sum of ^4,000 was required. 

In 1863, the work of restoration had so far progressed, that 
the committee could report that the fabric of the nave and aisles 
had, under the directions of Mr. Ewan Christian, the architect, 
been substantially restored, but there remained to be done the 
benching of the nave and nave aisles, the lighting and warming of 
the Church, to say nothing of a new organ, and the general deco- 
ration of the building. 

In 1875, it was estimated that no less than ^7,460 had been 
expended upon the church, independently of the outlay upon the 
chancel, which had been substantially repaired at the cost of the 
lay-rectors. Since 1875, man y additions and improvements have 
been made, and upwards of ^1,040 has been spent by the 
Restoration Committee, to which must be added the private gifts 
of many benevolent individuals, most of which gifts have already 
been mentioned under their proper headings. 



'TPHE earliest book is of parchment, in part a transcript, and 
J_ commences as to baptisms, in April, 1584 ; as to marriages, 
in October, 1561 ; and as to burials, in December, 1558. Each 
page, up to the year 1599, is signed at its foot by "Laur New- 
man " who was vicar, and " Richard Constantyne, * and Nicholas 
Gray, churchwardens." Among the burials is the following note, 
" 1597, May 15, Helen Robson, see the 'former register for her 
end and manner of death.'" This volume was rebound in 1885. 
The entries on many of the pages are totally obliterated, but 
otherwise the book is in fairly good condition. The former re- 
gister referred to above, has not been among the parish books for 
many years, and nothing is known about it. 

Registers were first ordered to be kept by Lord Cromwell, 
Vicar-General, in the year 1538, but many parishes did not comply 
with the order until some years later. A further order was issued 
in 1558, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, but the first of the now 
existing registers, is the result of a mandate issued in 1597, when 
the clergy of Canterbury, in convocation, with the approval of 



* A house on Market Hill is called ' Constantines. ' 



The Registers. 37 

Queen Elizabeth, commanded that every minister, at his institu- 
tion, should declare that he would keep the register book accord- 
ing to the queen's injunctions. The yoth canon of 1603, directed 
that every parish should provide itself with a parchment book, 
and that the entries from the old paper books should be tran- 
scribed therein, each page being authenticated by the signature of 
the minister and churchwardens, so far as the ancient books there- 
of could be procured, but especially since the beginning of the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth ; and that the parchment book should 
be kept in a " sure coffer with three locks ;" and that for further 
security against loss a true copy of the names of all persons 
christened, married, or buried in the year before should be trans- 
mitted every year to the bishop of the diocese within a month 
after Easter, to be preserved in the episcopal archives. This 
latter injunction was in very many, if not most cases totally 
disregarded. 

The other volumes are in a fair state of preservation, but, as 
continuity has not been observed in keeping the books, space does 
not allow the contents of each volume to be set forth here, but it 
may be mentioned that particulars as to the dates, condition and 
number of the registers should be found in a Blue-book, published 
in 1833, and also in a return made to the Archdeacon of Colches- 
ter, in 1887. This latter return, however, is not quite accurate. 

Beside being a record of births, deaths, and marriages, the 
registers frequently contain items of a quaint or noteworthy cha- 
racter ; a perusal of the various books enables one to reproduce 
the following entries : 

"1558 Dec. 17. Robert Whelpsted, Undertaker " (Buried). 
" 1558 Dec. 28. Jo. Lawrence, Sexton, of Coggeshall " (Buried). 
The above are the first two entries in the burial register the 
undertaker and the sexton ! 
" 1578 Aug. 10. Lore, the wife of Jo. Smith (buried). 

" This Lore Smith was ye instrument the Lord used to bring 
the infecon of the plague into this towne. She was the first 
y l> dyed of that infectious sicknes, and the most of theise 
that followed dyed of the same, until the cold winter time 
came, when the Lord in mrcie stayed the same. The woman 
was commonlie noted to be a notable harlot." 
" 1580 Dec. 28. Thorn. Paycocke, who gave iicli [^200] to buy 
lands for the use of the poor of Cogshall for ever " (buried). 



3 8 Ecclesiastical. 



" 1590 March 24. Nic. Coma, slaine in the stocke of the fulling 
mill" (buried). 

"1591 May 13. >jc Wm. Trewe [burd.] This Wm. Trewe and 
all hereafter noted with this mark :Jc with mennie others dyed 

of an extraordinarie which disease the 

more the phisitions labore to cure the more sharpe and vehe- 
ment it grewe." 
There are 74 persons marked sf: buried between 25th Nov. 

1597 and ist May, 1598. 

" 1592 Aug. ist. Thomas Warner found murthered with a knife 
in his throate in standing wheat in Great Windmill Fields, 
for which murther Geor. Haven (?) of Coxall was executed." 

" 1600 June 3. Peter Marcant was slain in campinge on Sun- 
day " [buried]. 

C Between these dates the names of 7 persons 
" 1603 Dec. ist. ) . . , 

f ,, , , < buried are followed by the remark 
"1604 March 26- ) , , 

I "exfestc. 

" 1606 Feb. 22. Robert Ennow, church clarke " [buried]. 

" 1608 May 30. Father Brewer " [buried]. 

" 1608 July 1 6. Mother Bruer " [buried]. 

" 1612 Oct. 22. Henry Vane and William Wentworth, slaine 
both by the fall of a barne in a wynde." 

" 1613 Aug. 24. Robert Clench [buried] eod [i.e. same day] ux 
George Tailor dying exc. [excommunicate] was violently 
brought and cast into the grave made for Clench." 

At the end of Vol. I. " A true record of al such apprentices 
which have been bound by Indenture according to law. Henry 
Oliver bound with Francis Page by Indenture for the terme of 
seven years, beginning at St. Michael, the Archangel, 1623, and 
to expire 1630." " Daniel Byeby, bound with the sayd Francis 
Page 7 years, beginning the 22nd day of May, 1626, and then 
2 year of King (Kater?)" "Abigail Lennard taken as a Cove- 
nant Servant by James . . . . of St. James' Parish, in St. 
Edmund's Bury, for a year this 7th day of August, the sayd 
Lennard giving three pence to the said Abigail for a covenant 
to tye her, the said Abigail, to him the said Lennard and his wife, 
for a yeare, in ye presence of Nehemiah Dodd and Nicholas 
Northey. Dated the aforesaid 7th day of August, 1634, and the 
loth yeare of King Charles." 



The Registers. 39 

In Vol. II. are the following entries : 
" Persons who received certificates to be touch'd by his Majestye 

for the Evill. 
" 1683 March 21. Mary, daughter of John and Hesther Tayler. 

24. Mary, daughter of Daniel and Katharine 

Emmin. 

25. Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. David Batty, ye 

second time." 
" 1707 April 15. Margaret Harrington, daughter of Jane Clifte." 

Among the marriages in this volume : 

" 1753 June 24. Thomas Coker, widower, and Susanna Nicholls, 
spinster. These were the first couple married at the Com- 
munion Rail." 

" Marriages I doe approve and allow of ye choice made by ye 
major part of ye inhabitants of Coggeshalls Create and Little 
of John Brightwen being elected by them to be their parish 
Register, according to a late Act of Pliament in that case 
made and provided, and accordingly I have given him his 
oath, this 3oth of September, 1653. 

(Signed) D. WAKERINGE." 

Marriages, between 1653 and 1656, were contracted in the 
presence of either Jeremy Aylett, Esq., J. P., William Harlacken- 
den, of Earls Colne, Esq., J.P., or Dionysius Wakeringe, Esq., 
J.P. In 1657, before Herbert Pelham, Esq., J.P. 



QHonumenfaf 



" T N the Floor of this Church and Chancell have been several 
J. fair Grave stones with portraitures and inscriptions in 
Brasse, which are torne off by sacrilegious hands or worn out by 
frequent calcation, so that the remembrance of the persons interrd 
had utterly perished if it had not been for some remains preserved 
by Mr. Weever and Mr. Symonds in their collections." Thus 
wrote Holman, and since his day how many more of these memo- 
rials have either perished or been destroyed ? Weever, speaking 
of some of the tombs, says, " I have not seen such rich monu- 
ments for so meane persons." 

The following memorials in italics are no longer extant. The 
others still remain. 



4 Ecclesiastical. 



<8>uj>on 




e. 

A LARGE tomb of black marble, which formerly stood on the 
^* 1 south side of the present entrance from the vestry to the 
chancel, was some years ago moved further east to its present 
position. On the western end of the 
tomb are the arms of the Guyon family. 
Ar., three bendlets az., on a canton sa., 
a lion passant guard or. Crest a demi 
lion ramp guard or., gorged with a 
collar per pale az., and sa., but the 
tinctures are not depicted on the tomb, 
they were, however, on a hatchment in 
ARMS OF THE GUYON FAMILY, faz church many years ago. On the 
south face are these words : 

" Hie jacet corpus Thomae Guyon Gener, qui obiit 240. No- 

vembris AO. Dom. 1664. ^Etatis suse 72. He bequeathed 

two hundred pounds to be laid out in land, for a weekely 

allowance of bread to the poore for ever." 

In the south chancel aisle near the door was a grave-stone of 

gray marble, at the head the Guyon arms, with this inscription 

beneath : "Here lieth the body of Thomas Guyon, eldest son of 

George Guyon, Gent., son of Thomas Guyon, Gent., he was 

borne the i$th of June, 1652, and departed this life the 

13 th of June, 1673." 

Epitaphium. 

Died he so young, then learn we all by this 
To think of death and to prepare for bliss. 
He died so we are sure and now injoies 
The fruits of labore everlasting joy es." 

A stone within the chancel, near the easternmost arch of the 
south side, was covered by the new pavement in 1865, it bore the 
Guyon arms and the following inscription : 

"Here lieth t)ie body of Matthew Guyon, Gent., who died the $rd 
day of March, 1678, and in the forty-sixth year of his age." 

Holman described the position as on the south side of the 
chancel by the partition, and says the gravestone was of black 
marble enclosed with iron rails. 

There is also another stone in the centre of the chancel, but 
now covered by the pavement. It bears the following inscription : 



Monumental Inscriptions. 



" Here lyeth Sr. Mark Guy on, Knight. 

Anno Domini, 1690." 

Beneath the altar is a large black marble slab thus inscribed : 
" Another Dorcas, or the remains of Dame Dorcas Guyon, 
who departed this life October ye 2nd, 1714, aged 58 
years, waiting the happy summons of ' Tabitha, arise.' 
On her left hand lyeth Dorcas Boys, her daughter, who 
dyed November ye and, 1714, aged 20 years." 

On the wall of the south chancel aisle is a marble tablet 
bearing the following : 

" In a vault in the middle aisle of this church are deposited 
the remains of Mr. Mark Guyon, late of White Colne, 
who died May 3131, 1839, aged 47 years. This tablet 
was erected by his beloved wife." 



'T V HERE were formerly several memorial slabs of the Paycocke 
family in the north chancel aisle, but two only, and one in 
part destroyed, now remain. One is to the memory of Thomas 
Paycocke, who was buried in the north 
chancel aisle, his place of sepulture being 
marked by a stone bearing the figure of 
a man in a long civil gown, his hands 
folded in the posture of devotion ; from 
his mouth there was formerly a scroll 
bearing the words, " Only fayth justifyeth," 
and round the edge of the stone was the 
following legend engraved in brass, which, 
except the italicised part may still be read : 
" Here lyeth buried Thomas Peaycocke, 
the sonne of Robert Peaycocke, who de- 
parted this lyfe the xxvith day of Decem- 
ber, 1580, and left behinde hym two 
daughters, Johan and Anne, ivch Thomas 
Peaycocke Dydd gyve CC pounds to buy 
land for the continuall relief of the poore 
of Coxall for ever." At the feet of the 
effigy are the following lines : 




THOMAS PAYCOCKE. 



" Thou mortall man yt wouldest attayne 
The happie haven of heavenly rest, 



Ecclesiastical. 



Prepare thyself : of graces all 
Fayth and repentance are the best." 

At each corner of this stone was an escutcheon, long since toin 
off, and above the figure was a merchant's mark, which showed 
him to be a clothier. 

There is no account of this tomb-stone in Weever's Funeral 
Monuments ; the next four inscriptions are recorded therein, but 
the stones bearing the inscriptions are either covered over or 
destroyed : 

" Hie jacet Thomas Paycocke quondam Carnifex (i.e. butcher ) 
de Coggeshal, qui obiit 21 Maii, 1461, et Christiana uxor 
ejus quorum animabus." 

There was another large grave-stone of gray marble in the 
north chancel aisle, which had engraved in brass this inscription : 
" Prey for the soul of Robert Pay cock, of Coggeshall, Cloth- 
maker, for Elizabeth, and Joan his wyfs, who died 21 Oct., 
ZJ2O, on whos soul . . . " 





JOHN PAYCOCK. JOAN PAYCOCK. 

In the north chancel aisle is a large grave-stone of grey marble 



Monumental Inscriptions. 43 

that had inlaid round the ledge a large fillet of brass, thereon the 
Creed in Latin curiously insculpt, " Credo in Deum Patrem" &c., 
but this is gone. In the middle the effigies of a man and woman, 
their hands folded in an attitude of devotion, still remaining. 
The matrix shows that there were labels out of the mouths of the 
two effigies. At the head of the stone the effigy of our Saviour ; 
at each corner an escutcheon. Underneath, on a plate of brass 
inlaid, was this inscription in Gothic letters : 

" Orate pro anima Johannis Pay cock et Johanne uxoris ejus 
qui quidem Johannes, obiit 2 Aprilis, 1533. 

And beneath that a kneeling group on one side and a figure 
kneeling on the other, and labels over them. 

Another stone had on it : 

"Here lyeth Thomas Pay cock, Cloth-worker, Margaret and 
Ann hys wyfs : which Tho. died the 4 of September, 1518." 



A BRASS plate of diamond shape was many years ago found in 
** the Aylet vault, at the east end of the north chancel aisle. 
It formed a coffin plate and was taken out of the vault by Mr. 
Mathews, when he was vicar here. It is now fixed to the south 
chancel wall, but was formerly on the north wall. It bears in the 
centre the arms of the Aylet family : A fesse embattled between 
three unicorn's heads erased ; Crest, a demi unicorn reguardant 
issuing out of a helmet and beneath the following inscriptions : 

"Primogenito suo Pr Chariseimo Thoma Aylet Hospiti 
Lincolis Armigero Posuit Thoma Pater superetes." 

" Ab hac migravit Luci Clariori, the 4th August, Anno Domi, 
1638." 

"With ynch of time hee to ye best impous 
Of greater hopes, free loving and belovid : 
His lose so soon us leaves all ful of sorow 
Hee sets tonight, we follow him tomoroo 
Who thus his couse doth finish in his prime 
Runs through much bisnis in litel time. 
Anno Domi 1638." 

On a grave stone of blue marble there was formerly the 
following : 



44 Ecclesiastical. 



"Here lyeth buried the body of Thomas Ay let f, Gent., Lord of 
the Manor of Coggeshall, who departed this life the 
day of October, 1650, in the 8ist year of his age." 



ON the south side of the chancel there was formerly a slab 
with the figures of a man and two females. On another 
stone were the figures of a man and his two wives with two groups 
of children below and a saint above ; scrolls proceeding from the 
mouths of the females, and a horizontal scroll over the head of 
the man, and this inscription at their feet : 

" Orate pro anima Gulielmi Goldwyre et Isabelle et Christiane 
uxorum qui quidem Gulielmus obiit * .... 1514. 

" Mary Moder may den dere 
Prey for me William Goldwyre 
And for me Isabel his uyf 
Lady for thy joyes fyf-'r 
Hav mercy on Christian his second wyf 
Sivete Jesu for thy wowndys fyf. \ 

In his will, dated 26th January, 1514-15 and proved on loth 
March following, he directs " my body to be buried in the quere 
of Saint Peter-ad-Vincula, there as the legende is redde by the 
sepulture of my wif." 

This is, probably the William Goldwer to whom, in 1488 (3 
Henry VII) the Lord of the Manor of Coggeshall granted " a 
tenement and garden in Church Street, called Cachpoles, to hold 
by the rodde at the Lord's will, paying to the Lord yearly 125. 
rent Fyne 2 capons." 



I 



N Symond's collection is recorded a memorial, which was in the 
chancel in the seventeenth century : 

" Orate p. aia Rid Farrington Quoadum vicarii istius ecdi qui 
obiit 8 die Octob, 



* The month and day of the month are blank in Weever, edit. A.D. 
1631, and in Holman. 

t The five joys and five wounds, not joyes syf as in Dale. 
\ Weever. 



Monumental Inscriptions. 



45 



Which may be translated 

Pray for the soul of Richard Farrington, sometime vicar of 
this church, who died 8th day of October, 1479. 

Oiftattt and QtSrenwinge. 

ON a brass plate, now in the chamber over the porch but 
formerly embedded in a stone of grey marble, is the 
following : 

" For the memorye of John Oldam, of East Tilburye, Gent. 
who dyed the 24 day of August in the yeare of our Lord 
1599 and of his age the XXXth Frances ye daughter of 
Richard Brewninge, of Wimeringe in the County of South- 
ampton Esqvire and his late wife mother to one only 
davghter by him named Marye, hath set this to remayne. 






ARM s OF THE CARTER FAMILY. 



ON the north wall of the north chan- 
cel aisle is a large marble monu- 
ment, bearing the following inscrip- 
tions beneath arms, or., a chief sable 
charged with 3 escollops : crest, a 
lion's head erased or. 

"In memory of The Honble Lieu- 
tenant Colonel John Grime, 

Esqr. (late Of this town) who 

served in several campaigns in Flanders and the Spanish 
Netherlands with His Grace the late Duke of Ormond. 
He was a brave and experienced soldier, and King William 
III. of Glorious Memory at his return from abroad gave 
him a pension for his Life for his bravery and courage 
which he enjoyed till his Death, which happened the 2nd 
day of Novr. 1714, in the 74th year of his age. 

" Also in memory of Samuel Carter, his Grandson, Esq. 
(late of this town) who died the 24th day of October, 1773, 
aged 73 years." 
The Grimes family resided in the house in Church Street, 

known as ' Plumbers,' belonging to Mr. E. T. Scott, midway 

between Swan Lane and Bird-in-Hand Lane. 

Col. Grime was baptised at Coggeshall, "4th Aug., 1640, John 

sonne of Wm. Griem and Joane his wife," and buried here on 7th 

Nov., 1714. 



4 6 Ecclesiastical. 



JttCfer, 

"\ X 7ITHIN the chancel on the south pier of the large arch, 
* * which divides the nave from the chancel, is a marble 
tablet with this inscription : 

" Memoriae Sacrum Gulielmi Fuller, Hujus Parochias 
Generosi, cujus animi probitas, morumque integritas, 
In Deum pietas, erga socios, aequitas, omnibus, qui 
Ilium reapse norint, clarissime effulserunt. Has 
virtutes fervidas (quod ipse maluisset) non flaminam 
sed lucem eficientes, nos visuros Credite posteri. 

Morti cessit Die May i 5 th Anno { S" 1 ^ 48 
Hoc Marmor nitidum tarn charo capiti, grates 
persolvens dignas Henricus Fuller, Filius ejus 
superstes, humillime Dat. Dicat. Dedicat. 



O 



N a marble tablet, in the north-western corner of the chancel, 
is a monument 

" In memory of Henry Skingley who departed this life Aug. 
3rd, 1793 aged 53 years, also of Mary his wife who de- 
parted this life November 3oth 1815 aged 75 years." 

On the south wall of the sacrarium is a marble slab bearing 
the Skingley arms : Az., on a cross 
engr ar., between 4 garbs or., an oakslip 
fructed ppr between as many roses gu 
barbed and seeded also ppr ; a chief 
indented of the second, thereon three 
lions ramp, of the fourth : crest : Be- 
tween two branches of oak a demi lion 
ppr charged with a bend ar., thereon 
ARMS OF THE SKINGLEY FAMILY, two roses a.5 in the arms holding be- 
tween the paws an escutcheon gu., charged with a garb or., [Mr. 
Probert, 'Arms and Epitaphs of Essex,' Vol. i, Brit. Mus. 33,520- 
29, says that Windsor Herald told him these arms were granted 
by the College in 1827], and the following inscription : 

" Sacred to the memory of Henry Skingley, Esqr. who died 
July 5th, 1837, aged 68 years, and of Ann, his widow, who 
after surviving him 23 years died August i4th, 1860, aged 




Monumental Inscriptions. 47 

79. Her remains rest in the vault of her family in this 
churchyard. Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord." 
On another tablet, below the last 

" Sacred to the memory of Henry Skingley, son of Henry and 
Catherine Skingley of Wakes Hall in this County who 
died April ist, 1839, aged i year and 10 months." 
On the north wall of the sacrarium is a marble slab with the 
Skingley arms and the following lines : 

" In memory of Charles Joseph Skingley, Esqr., second son 
of the late Henry Skingley, Esqr., and Ann his wife, of 
this parish, who departed this life on the 9th March, 1853, 
aged 43 years. His remains are deposited in the chancel 
of this church. This tablet is erected by his two surviving 
brothers." 

Another stone placed on the north wall of the sacrarium is : 
" In memory of Susan Bowles, the beloved wife of Major G. 
D. Skingley, who died, i4th Oct., 1878, aged 47." 

also of 

" Major G. D. Skingley, who died, i6th June, 1888, aged 76. 
Buried at Kensal Green." 



A 



utoett an& 

MURAL slab of marble in the north chancel aisle bears the 
following inscription : 
" Sacred to the memory of the Rev. John Duddell, Rector of 
Wormington, Gloucestershire, and for thirty-three years 
Curate of this town, who died, January 8th, 1826, aged 82 
years. And also to Margaret his widow, who died the first 
day of November, 1833, aged 85 years ; by whose daughter 
Ann, the wife of Henry Skingley, Esq,, this monument 
was erected." 



~D ENEATH the arms of this family, (which were granted on 5th 
*-^ June, 1718, Ar., on a chevron between three escalops az., as 
many estoiles of the first : crest, on a mount vert a buck sejant 
ppr attired or., supporting with the dexter foot, a lance erect gu., 
headed of the third,) is a large marble monument on the north 
wall of the church : 



48 Ecclesiastical. 




"Sacred to the memory of the Honour- 
able Robert Townsend, Esq., 
son of Robert Townsend, in this 
town, Gentleman. He was an 
officer in the seven ever-mem- 
orable campaigns under the late 
Glorious Duke of Marlborough, 
and at the time of his death 

Colonel in the King's first Reg- ARMS OF THE TOWNSEND FAMILY. 

iment of Foot Guards In which posts, from faithful and 
appoved services he merited the valuable character of a 
brave and experienced soldier. The distinguishing quali- 
ties of a gentlemen he possessed in so eminent a degree 
that the esteem he justly deserved all who knew him libe- 
rally gave, and if any were wanting in that esteem to them 
he was not known. 

Reader, may the particulars of his good character (as he him- 
self would desire) live rather in thy imitation than his ex- 
traordinary praises, and be thou an instance of his laud- 
able worth and goodness. He died, Nov. 26th, 1728, aged 
46, lamented by many friends by none more than by his 
only surviving brother, Mr. William Townsend, who erect- 
ed this monument." 
On the south wall, beneath the Townsend arms : 

" Sacred to the memory of William Townsend, Esq., Attorney, 
who died, March 8th, 1789, in the 65th year of his age. 
Also his brother, Charles Townsend, Gent., who died May 
5th, 1777, in the 52nd year of his age. Also William 
Townsend,' Esq., son of Charles Townsend, who died, 
March 2nd, 1806, in the 48th year of his age; by whose 
desire this monument is erected." 

Also on the south wall is another monument to this family, 
bearing the arms with a crescent, indicating that the deceased was 
a second son or of the second house. The shield is also charged 
with an inescutcheon bearing the Townsend arms : 

"Sacred to the memory of Richard White Townsend, who 
died July 7th, 1823, aged 32 years; also of Helen Emm 
Townsend, who died Septmbr. 3oth, 1818, aged 8 months, 
and of his son Arthur Townsend, died Novr. 3rd, 1879, 
aged 63 years, Buried at Shalstone, Bucks." 



Monumental Inscriptions. 49 

On the same wall : 

" This Tablet is placed as a small tribute of respect, esteem, 
and regard to the memory of Mary Ann, the beloved and 
affectionate wife of the Revd. N. R. Dennis, M.A., Chap- 
lain to His Majesty's Forces, and eldest daughter of Mr. 
Townsend, of Ferriers. She died near Villa de Conde in 
Portugal, on the 8th March, 1827, aged 38 years." 



HpHERE is a marble slab on the north wall, inscribed : 
-*- " Sacred to the memory of Richard White, who died, March 
22nd, 1806, aged 44 years. 

GOD the supreme disposer of events, 
In judgment ever righteous will'd it so, 

His will be done. 
This unadorned monument is erected by his widow, as a 

small token of affection." 
Beneath the above, on another stone : 

"Richard Meredith White, died January 3rd, 1796, aged 

58 years." 

" He that hath pity upon the poor, lendeth unto the Lord, 
&c." 



O 



N the wall of the north chancel aisle, is a slab : 
" Sacred to the memory of Thomas Andrew, Esqr., of this 

town, Solicitor, whose mortal remains lie deposited in a 

vault near this spot." 
" He was removed from the midst of health, enjoyment and 

prosperity, by an instantaneous death, without one previous 

fear or moment's warning, on the 27th June, A.D. 1826, in 

the 53rd year of his age." 
" Be ye also ready, for in such an hour as ye think not, the 

Son of man cometh." 



T N the chancel, beneath the Communion table, on a large black 
-* marble slab, bearing arms, a winged griffin rampant, passant 
within a border : 

"Exuvias hie deposuit Reverendus Vir Jacobus Boys, A.M., 
Hujus Ecclesise per XLIV. Annos Vigilantissimus Pastor, 

E 



5 Ecclesiastical. 



Qui per totum sui Ministerii cursum vestigia premens 
Apostolica assiduo conatus est. 

' To give no offence in anything that the ministry be not blamed.' 
II Cor. vi. 3. [In Greek] 
Nat. vinvo Martii MDCL. Obt Xmo Octobris MDCCXXV." 

On the north wall of the sacrarium is a marble tablet which 
records quite a family history : 

" Here lies (near the remains of his ancestors) the body of 
Mr. William Boys, Gent, eldest son of the Revd. Mr. James 
Boys, late Vicar of this parish. He married Hester, the youngest 
daughter of John Cox, Esq., and Ann, his wife, who was the 
daughter of Major-General Haynes, of Copford Hall, in this 
county. John Cox, was of Emmanuel College, in Cambridge, 
and of Grays Inn, London, Barrister-at-law, and (late) of Mount 
Hall, in this parish. A gentleman justly esteemed and respected 
as an eminent and able Councellour, an Honest and Upright man 
and a good Christian. Hester, wife of the said Mr. William 
Boys, departed this life, May 3oth, 1742, aged 53 years and was 
buried in this chancel, where by his own desire his remains are 
also interred, after a long life spent in piety and good works ; his 
great care and study in particular was to instruct the poor and 
ignorant in the knowledge of their Christian duty. Witness the 
many good books he dispersed for that purpose. Witness that 
charitable donation to the parish of Great Bardfield, to perpetuate 
the same pious design to the end of the world. Thus lived this 
good man, and thus he died, July 25th, 1768, aged 83 years. 

" Beatus servus ille, quern quum venerit Dominus ejus invene- 
rit ita facientem. 

"The Revd. Mr. John Harrison, Nephew and Executor of the 
deceased, to testify his respect to his memory caused this monu- 
ment to be erected." 



Near the chancel, on the north of the central passage, is a 
stone with the following inscription : 

"Jane Boehm born ye 8th of August, 1737, died ye igth of 
May, 1738; she was daughter of Charles Boehm, of 
London, and Jane, his wife, daughter of Richard DuCane 
Esq., of Coggeshall. 



Monumental Inscriptions. 51 

Elizabeth, twin sister of the above Jane, died 26 Sep- 
tember, 1738. 

Jane Boehm, the second, born ye 4th December, 1738, 
died 1 3th April, 1740. 

Richarda Boehm, sister of the above, born 26 June, 
died 27th September, 1742." 



HP HERE is a stone of gray marble, in the north chancel aisle, 
*- with the deceased's merchant's mark, and the following me- 
morial inscription : 

" Here lyeth buryed the body of George Lawrence, the sonne 
of John Lawrence, sometyme Clothier of this towne, 
which George died the xiii daye of November, in the 
yeare of our Lorde God, 1594. 



the floor of the north chancel aisle, partly concealed by 
a pew, is a stone inscribed : 
" In memory of Elizabeth, wife of John Gladwin, Gent., who 
died, Feb. 8th, 1771, aged 73 years. 

"Also in memory of John Gladwin, who died, Septbr 
ist, 1773, aged 77 years. 

" The hour .... and .... 

As Flower fadeth so man dieth 
O man be wise, consider now your latter end, 
pray do." 



a marble slab on the wall of the south chancel aisle is this 
inscription : 

" Hoc marmor, memoriam filioli hocce in templo conditi, 
Edwardi Coldham Mathew, nati, Jul. 26, mortui, Dec. 21, 
1820; in seternum proferre voluit pater hujus parochiae 
vicarius. Necnon patruelis carissimae Helenes Mariae 
Mathew quae a parentibus multum desiderata annos quin- 
decim apud Anglos commorata in patriam tandem reversa ; 
vix prius visa quam extincta, heu vitae nimia brevitas. 
Anno aetatis undevicesimo, Calcuttae, Feb. 10, 1822, 
animam efflavit. 

E 2 



5 2 Ecclesiastical. 



" Germen flosque, novo suhsecti tempore veris ; 
Caelo vos numen fronde virere sinat." 

Among other memorials no longer extant are the following : 

o<j<jee(ia{l 

. . . . Coggeshal .... Coggeshal .... mil 
MCCC."* 

Weever says " For which of the name this broken inscription 
should be engraven I cannot learne, but I find that these Cogges- 
hals, in foregoing ages were gentlemen of exemplarie regard and 
knightly degree, whose ancient habitation was in this towne, one 
of which familie was knighted by King Edward the 3rd, the same 
day that he created Edward his eldest son Earl of Chester and 
Duke of Cornwall, Anno, 1336." 



pro animabus Johannis Kebul et Isabel le et Johanne 
ux ejus Quorum, &c. About the verge of the stone in 
brasse a Paternoster inlaid : Pater Noster qui es in celts sancti- 
ficetur nomen tuum, and so forth to the end of the praier. Upon 
the middest of the marble this Ave Maria : Ave Maria gratia 
plena ; Dominus tecum ; Benedicta tu in mulieribus ; et benedictus 
sit fructus ventris tui Jesus. Amen. " f 



" i~\RATE p. aiabj Petri Worseter de Coggeshall, Mercer, obyt 
8 Sept., 1471.'' (Symonds). 



"Here under lyeth the body of Thomas Sandford, late of this 
parish, Gent., whoe departed this life ye eight day of May, 
Anno Domini, i6j6." 

In the church of Horndon on-the-Hill there is a slab recording 
the death, in 1633. f Susan Sandford, daughter of Thomas Sand- 
ford, late of Coggeshall. 

In the north aisle there were formerly divers grave-stones with 
the inscriptions gone. The clerk in Holman's time had it by 
relation that they belonged to the Coleman's, who were clothiers. 

* Weever. See further under the family of Coggeshall. t Weever. 



The Churchyard. 



53 




THE LYCH GATE. 



^ I A HE Churchyard is entered through a handsome lych-gate, 
_L presented by Messrs. Charles and William Bonton, as a 
memorial to their mother. It was designed by Mr. Edwin J. 
Dampier, a son of the late vicar, and is of i5th century character. 
It is of oak and is covered with tiles ; on the south side is the 
text : " Through the grave and gate of death we pass to our 
joyful resurrection." 



54 Ecclesiastical. 



The principal tombstones now remaining in the churchyard 
are those to the memory of the Buxton family, ancestors of Sir 
Thomas Fowell Buxton, and of Edward North Buxton, Esq., 
High Sheriff of this County, in 1888. The name occurs among 
the earliest entries in our parish registers, the first record of the 
family being that of the marriage of William Buckston with Ka- 
therine Roche, on the 14 Dec., 1561, and from that day, if not 
earlier, down to the present time the family has been connected 
with this town either by residence or as owners of property. 
Their arms are argent ; a lion rampant, tail elevated and turned 
over the head sable, between 2 mullets of the second, and were 
confirmed to them by the Herald's College, in 1634. Their crest 
is a buck's head couped gules, attired or., gorged with a collar of 
the last, therefrom pendent an escutcheon argent charged with an 
African's head, sable. The African's head upon the pendent es- 
cutcheon is doubtless commemorative of the philanthropic exer- 
tions of Thomas Fowell Buxton for the abolition of the slave 
trade. For his great services in this respect he was created a 
baronet, on 6th July, 1840. He died in 1845 [A Memoir with 
the correspondence of T. F. Buxton, was edited by his son, 
Charles Buxton, in 1848]. 

To revert to the tombstones and their inscriptions, there are 
the following in the churchyard. A marble slab covering a brick 
tomb with this inscription : 

" Here lyeth the body of Thomas Buxton, of Great Cogges- 
hall, Cloathier " [The Clothiers or cloth manufacturers of 
those days may be compared with the wealthy brewers of 
the present time. In these districts their position was little 
below the rank of the squire.] " Who departed this life 
the 1 6th of October, 1713, and in the yoth year of his 
age. 

Here also lyeth the body of Elizabeth Buxton, the wife 
of Isaac Buxton, of Coggeshall, Cloathier, who departed 
this life the izth of December, 1713, in the 4oth year of 
her age. 

Here also lyeth the body of John Buxton, Esq., who 
departed this life the 22nd of July, 1751, aged 49. 

Also 

Thomas Buxton, Esq., who died the 5th February, 1777, 
aged 82 years. 



The Churchyard. 55 



Also 

Ann Buxton, his 3rd wife, obt. Sept. 5th, 1782, get. 63." 
A tomb of obelisk form, about 7 feet in height, has on it : 
"In memory of Charles Buxton, Esq., of Great Braxted, in 
this County, Citizen and Lace Merchant, of I -ondon, fourth 
son of Isaac and Elizabeth Buxton. He died, 22nd Sept., 
1777, in the 74th year of his age." 
On another marble stone over a brick pedestal : 
" Here lieth the body of Judith, wife of Thomas Buxton, 
Clothier, who died the i6th of September, 1719, aged 78. 
As also the body of Isaac Buxton, Clothier, her son, who 
departed this life, the 26th of December, 1732, aged 60." 
On another similar tomb : 

" Here lieth the body of Samuel Buxton, son of Isaac Buxton, 
who was buried under the stone adjacent. He died, Sep- 
tember the 1 5th, 1737, aged 26. 

Here also lieth the body of Sarah, wife of John Buxton, 
who died, February the 7th, 1736, aged 34. 

Here also lieth the body of Miss Mary Buxton, daughter 
of John Buxton, Esq., who departed this life the igth of 
June, 1750, in the 2ist year of her age. 

Also John Buxton, Esq., of Highbury Place, in the 
County of Middlesex, who departed this life, May i6th, 
1802, aged 69." 

There are also the following inscriptions : 
" Sarah Buxton, daughter of the late John Buxton, Esq., died 
at Camberwell, in the County of Surrey, January the i5th, 
1815, aged 41 years. 

Also the remains of Mary Buxton, Relict of John Bux- 
ton, Esq., and mother of the above Sarah Buxton, who 
died, at Camberwell, December 29th, 1838, in the 95th 
year of her age." 

" Hannah Buxton, daughter of Charles Buxton, Esq., whose 
remains by her desire were here deposited, died February 
28th, 1780, aged 37. To her memory this monument, at 
her request, was erected by Anna Unwin. 

Why are friends ravisht from us ? 'Tis to bind 
By soft affection ties on human hearts 
The thot of death which reason too surpine 
Or misemployed so rarely fastens there. 



5 6 Ecclesiastical. 



Here 

Are deposited the remains of Anna, the daughter of 
Thomas Buxton, Esq., late of this town, the wife of Jacob 
Unwin Brewer, who died, 1763, she was born in the year 
1737, married in 1761 and died in 1798. 

Also are deposited the remains of John Buxton, Esq., 
of Denmark Hill, Camberwell, in the County of Surrey, 
who died, Nov. i6th, 1843, aged 72. 

Also the remains of Hannah Buxton, Relict of the 
above John Buxton, Esq., of Denmark Hill, who died, 
Nov. 25, 1861, aged 95. 

Also here was interred the body of Anne, daughter of 
Josh. Bentley, of Leicester, and 2nd wife of Thomas 
Buxton, Esq., who died, Aug. 19, 1747, aged 44 years. 

This memorial was inscribed by her daughter, Anna 
Unwin, 1780." 

Another tomb has inscribed : 

" Deposited in this vault are the remains of William Forbes, 
Esq., of Camberwell, in the County of Surrey. He was 
married at Coggeshall Church, on the ist of July, 1778, 
and died there while on a visit, on the 2oth of Sept., A.D., 
1818, in the 65th year of his age. 

Also the remains of Elizabeth Forbes, widow of the 
above William Forbes and daughter of Thomas Buxton, 
late of this town. She was born at Coggeshall, on the 
22nd day of January, A.D., 1751, and died at Camberwell, 
on the 23rd day of August, A.D., 1825." 

There were also either in the church or the churchyard the 
following inscriptions : 



IJERE lyeth the body of William Carter, Gent., who died 
1 2th Nov 178 (5 ?) aged 72 years. Also the body of Mary 
his wife, who died 8th July, 1795, aged 80 years." 



" T TF.RF. lyeth ye body of Mr. Ambrose Sutton, who departed 
this life, the ijth day of May, A.D. 1688, aged 63." 



. "Body of James Mullings, who dyed the jth of Jan., 
1726, aged 40 years" 



The Churchyard. 57 



..... " the body of Mr. John Chignell, who departed 
this life the loth day of October, 1720, in the 3 2nd year of his age." 



" TLJERE lyeth the body of Thomas Cockerel I, Yeoman, who died 
2oth September, 1564" (Symonds). 

There are also tombs of the families of Abbot, Appleford, 
Bonton, Cable, Cox, Fuller, Gardner, Godfrey, Hall, legon, Rich- 
ardson, Richmond, Sach, Tupper, and many others. 

There are a few quaint epitaphs but of no particular merit. 
A stone is still extant with these lines on it : 
" Lord, Thy grace is free, 

Why not for me ? 
Death is to me no gloomy shade 

While JESUS is in view. 
Oh, may my ashes then persuade 

Others to love him too." 

This stone is to the memory of one Thomas Hance, a clothier, 
who (The Excursion for Essex, dated 1818, says) died a bank- 
rupt, and on his tomb one of his creditors wrote a reply to the 
query contained in the first two lines : 

" And the Lord answered and said 

Because thy debts ain't paid." 

In 1819, the churchyard was enlarged by taking in a piece of 
Church Green, and the Parish Register has this entry, "1819, 
June 20, Hannah Birles ist interred in ye new ground, consecrated 
ye i yth of June, 1819, by William, Lord Bishop of London, age 
51." A sketch of the ceremony is in the possession of Mr. 
Thomas Simpson, whose wife's grandfather, Mr. William Swin- 
borne, one of the Churchwardens, is a prominent figure in the 
picture. 

By an Order in Council, dated 2ist July, 1855, burials 
were discontinued in the churchyard as from the ist February, 
1856, an exemption being made in favor of the existing family 
vaults on condition that such vaults should be opened without 
digging up the soil of the churchyard, and that each coffin be em- 
bedded in a layer of powdered charcoal, 4 inches at the least in 
thickness, and be covered over with brickwork properly cemented. 



5 8 Ecclesiastical. 



In this year about 3 acres, part of Pitt or Overchurch Field, was 
bought by the Burial Board, since which, with very few exceptions, 
interments have taken place in the cemetery. 



THE first mention we find of the Vicars of Coggeshall, is in 
the taxation of the Borough of Colchester, 24, Edw. I. A.D. 
1296. 
"JOHN, THE VICAR OF COGGESHALL, has on the day 

aforesaid, 3 quarters and a half of oats, price per quar., 2S., 

sum 75. Out of that the 7th,/i2d." Rol. Parl. Vol. I. p. 228. 
RUSHENDEN, * Richard de, presented Ides, June, 1330. 
SEW ALE, William, diac 6 Ides, May, 1333. 
GALFRIDUS, dictus Chappell de Bury. 

BROOKS, Stephen, Id. Oct., 1362, on resignation of Galfridus. 
WEADLINGBURGH, John de, 12 Kal. May, 1369, on resig- 
nation of Brooks. 
BELTESFORD, John. 

HYDE, Richard, 6 Feb., 1384, on resignation of Beltesford. 
PHILPOTT, Roger. 
BURGERSETH or BURGHWASH, Henry, 22 nd Sept., 1425, 

on resignation of Philpott. 

WHITE, Robert, i8th Oct., 1426, on resignation of Burgerseth. 
HUBERT, Nicholas, 8th Oct., 1450, on resignation of White. 
SPROTBURGH, Richard, presented Nov., 1456, on death of 

last vicar. 

SOUTHYN. John, 3rd July, 1461, on resignation of Sprotburgh. 
FARRINGDON, -Richard, 26th July, 1475, on resignation of 

Southyn. Buried at Coggeshall, see memorial inscription. 
GYFFREY, John, presented i4th Oct., 1479, on death of Far- 

ringdon. 

BULGEN, John, A.M., 27th April, 1510, on death of Gyffrey. 
MYTTON, Stephen, L.B., 5th Aug., 1534, on death of Bulgen. 
VAUGHAN, Hugo, L.B., 2oth July, 1545, on death of Mytton. 

Presented by Bishop Bonner, Vicar of Great Bardfield, 1533; 

Rector of Gestingthorpe, in 1537; and Vicar of Halstead, 

1537-40. 

* A reference to Newcourt's Repertorittin will in most instances disclose 
the name of the previous cure held by the incumbents. 



The Clergy. 59 

STOCKTON, Robert, 6th May, 1558, on resignation of Vaughan. 

NEWMAN, Lawrence, A.M., roth Feb., 1575, on death of Stock- 
ton. Fellow of Emmanuel Coll., Camb., B.D. of Oxford in 
1610, afterwards D.U. Buried at Coggeshall, ist March, 
1599. He was vicar here when the transcript of the earliest 
register was made. His daughter, Martha, was baptised here, 
1 3th July, 1588, and Elizabeth, 3ist Jany., 1590. In the 
Register at Dr. William's Library, Somerset House, is record- 
ed the burial on 2oth June, 1585, of his daughter, Rebecca ; 
while the Parish Registers here record the following burials : 
1621, July 23, Nathaniel Newman, son of Mr. Lawrence 
Newman; and 1621, Jany. . . . Newman, widow of Mr. 
Lawrence Newman, sometime vicar of Coggeshall. 

DYKE, W'illiam, was preacher here at the time of Aylmer's Visit- 
ation, but he is not mentioned in Newcourt's Rep. Brook, 
in his Lives of the Puritans, in reference to this man, who in 
error he calls Daniel (Neal, 1284), says, "Because he con- 
tinued a deacon and did not enter into priests' orders, which 
the Bishop supposed he accounted Popish, and because he 
refused to wear the surplice, and troubled his auditory as his 
grace signified with notions which thwarted the established 
religion, he was suspended and at last deprived in the year 
1589." The distressed parishioners being concerned for the 
loss of their minister, petitioned the Lord Treasurer Burleigh 
to intercede with the bishop in their behalf, but the Treasurer 
did not meet with success. Dyke died in 1614. He had a 
son baptised here, as appears from one of the earliest entries 
in the Register: " 1584, Oct. 13, Hieremy, son of Wm. Dike, 
Preacher of Coggeshall." 

TUKE, George, was a preacher here in 1587, as appears from an 
entry in the Register of baptisms : " 1587, Aug. 20, Elizabeth, 
daughter of George Tuke, Preacher." 

JSTOUGHTON, Thomas, presented i2th Dec., 1600, on death of 
Lawrence Newman. He was deprived in 1606. 

CUDWORTH, Ralph. S.T.B., presented 4th April, 1606, on de- 
privation of Stoughton. Fellow of Emmanuel Coll., Cambs. 
He died, 1624. 

HEYLEY, John, presented 8th March, 1607, on resignation of 
Cudworth. Resigned, 1609. 

DODD, John, presented 5th May, 1609, on resignation of Hey- 



60 Ecclesiastical. 



ley. On the cover of one of Bufton's Books in my posses- 
sion, is the following note : " I have often heard it reported 
of holy Mr. Dodd, yt. when one, inraged at his close con- 
vincing doctrine, pick't a quarrell with him, smote him on ye 
face and dashed out two of his teeth, this meek servant of 
CHRIST spat out the teeth into his hand and said, ' See here 
you have knocked out two of my teeth and that without any 
just provocation, but on condition that I might do your soul 
good, I would give you leave to dash out all the rest.' " 
The Baptismal Register for Coggeshall has : 
" 1612 June n, Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. John Dodd, 
Vicar. 1625 Dec. 4, John, son of Mr. Nehemiah Dodd 
and Elizabeth his wife. 1628 Sept. 21, Nehemiah, son of 
Nehemiah Dodd and Elizabeth his wife. 1632 May 13, 
Robert, son of Nehemiah Dodd and Elizabeth his wife. 
1635 Sept. 29, Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. Nehemiah Dodd 
and Elizabeth his wife." And in the Burial Register we find: 
"1630 July 25th, Martha, wife of John Dodd, Vicar ; and 
1639 April 1 8, Mr. John Dodd, Vicar of Coggeshall." 
SEDGWICK, Obadiah, S.T.B., presented 6th July, 1639, on the 
death of Dodd. Born at Marlborough, Wilts, 1600; edu- 
cated at Queen's College, Oxford, afterwards tutor of Magda- 
len Hall ; at a later period he was preacher to the inhabitants 
of St. Mildred's parish in Bread Street. He preached before 
parliament on several occasions. A print of one of his ser- 
mons in my possession is thus entitled : " England's Preser- 
vation, or a Sermon discovering the only way to prevent 
destroying Judgements. Preached to the Honourable House 
of Commons at their last Solemn Fast, being on May 25, 
1642, by Obadiah Sedgewick, Batchalour in Divinity, and 
Minister of Coggeshall, in Essex. Published by order of that 
House." His induction is recorded in the Parish Register of 
Burials, anno 1639, the entry, however, is much obliterated 
by damp : 

" Obadiah Sedgwicke .... Vicarius de Coggeshall, 
Julie 15, Anno Dm. 1639, presentibus Nobilitiam . . . 
doio & patron .... Robert .... Warwick 
Nehemiah Sedg . . . doio, Tho. Aylet, c. . . . 
Articules relig Anglian & ... public - - Testibus 
Neh. Dod, Tho. Aylet, Rob. Crane, William Gladwine, 



The Clergy. 61 

Tho. Coxe, Guliel Tanner, Richard Shortland, Johi Allis- 
ton, Johi Sparhawke, Benjamin Hawes, Jacob Aylet, Sam 
Crane, Tho. Guyon, Ric. Shepheard, Joseph Scot, Jo. Pick- 
ard (? Pickeld) ; and from the Register we also find that he 
and his wife Priscilla had the following children baptised 
here: Francis, on 2 July, 1640; Robert, on 19 October, 
1641; Susannah, on 17 January, 1642; and Priscilla, on 7 
Sept., 1645 ; and one child buried, viz : Robert, on 30 Oct. 
1641. 

OWEN, John, not mentioned in Newcourt's Repertorium, but, 
it appears from the Journals of the House of Lords, that an 
order was made by that House, on the i8th August, 1646, 
authorising and requiring Dr. Aylett, or his lawful deputy, to 
institute and induct Mr. Owen, clerk to the Vicarage of Cog- 
geshall, in the Diocese of London, void by the resignation of 
Mr. Obadiah Sedgwick, late vicar there, upon Mr. Owen pro- 
ducing the presentation thereto under the hand and seal of 
the Right Honble. Robert, Earl of Warwick, and others. 
John Owen was the second son of Henry Owen, Vicar of 
Stadham in Oxfordshire, and was born at the Vicarage, in 
1616. Educated at Queen's Coll., Oxford. In his iQth year 
he took his M. A. degree ; was a staunch puritan and an able 
preacher ; was Vicar of Fordham, Essex. Married Mary 
Rook, by whom he had eleven children, of whom one only, 
a daughter, lived beyond childhood. His son, John, was bap- 
tised at Fordham, on 20 December, 1644, and his daughters, 
Mary, Elizabeth, and Mary, were baptised at Coggeshall, on 
1 8th July, 1647, loth Feb., 1649, and i8th Feb. 1649, re- 
spectively ; and one daughter (probably Mary, for the register 
here is illegible in parts) was buried on 25th July, 1646 or 7. 
He wrote several works, and on more than one occasion 
preached before the House of Commons. He became Chap- 
lain to Cromwell, retaining at the same time the Vicarage of 
Coggeshall, from the dutes of which he appears to have ab- 
sented himself, in favour of the apparently more congenial 
companionship of Cromwell during his visits to Ireland and 
Scotland. On the 18 March, 1651, Owen was made Dean of 
Christ Church, Oxford, and ceased to be Vicar of Coggeshall. 
He held very many different offices, and in 1654, sat in the 
House of Commons as member for the University. His first 



62 Ecclesiastical. 



wife died in 1676, and shortly afterwards he married Michal, 
widow of Thomas D'Oyly, of Chiselhampton, near Stadham, 
by which alliance he received a considerable fortune, and 
this, with his own property and a legacy that was left him 
about the same time by his cousin, made his condition easy 
and even affluent, so that he was able to keep a carriage 
during his remaining years, and also a country house at 
Baling, in Middlesex, where he died, on 24th August, 1683. 
He was buried in Burnhill Fields. (See very full account of 
this Puritan Divine in Davids' Nonconformity in Essex,') 

JESSOP, Constantine, not mentioned by Newcourt, nor is the 
date of his presentation known, but Anthony Wood, in his 
MS. says, that " He closed with the Covenanters and suc- 
ceeded Owen in the ministry of that factious town in Essex, 
called Coggeshall." 

SAMES, John, not mentioned in Newcourt, but as Vicar of Cog- 
geshall, in April, 1654, he was appointed a trustee of Good- 
ay's Charity. In 1656, Cromwell appointed him a Commis- 
sioner of Religion, On nth July, 1656 "Deborah, daughter 
of Jo. and Anne Sames, Vicar," was baptised. On 16 Dec., 
1672, "Mr. John Sames" was buried. Coggeshall Register. 

LOWRYE, Thomas, not mentioned in Newcourt, but in the 
Parish Register are these baptismal entries : 

" 1 66 1 May i8th, Obadiah, son of Thomas and Bridgett 
Lowrye, Vicar. 1662 Sept. 28th, Robert, son of Thomas 
Lowrye, Vicar;" and these burials: "1662 Sept. 28, wife 
of Mr. Thomas Lowyre. 1664 Sept. 29, Abigail, daughter 
of Mr. Lowyre, Minister of Coggeshall." 

RANEW, Nathaniel, rst. March, 1660. 

JESSOP, Thomas, 3rd Oct., 1662. Bufton has preserved notes 
of many of the occasions on which Mr. Jessop preached 
funeral sermons, as also the greater part of many of the ser- 
mons themselves, and these are now in my possession ; ex- 
tracts from them will be found in a subsequent page. He 
was buried at Coggeshall, 3ist January, 1679, without a ser- 
mon, (Bufton). His first wife was buried at Coggeshall, I4th 
Jany., 1672, "Mrs. Mary Jessop, wife of Mr. Tho. Jessop, 
Minister of Coggeshall." On roth March, 167!, he married 
Elizabeth Calandrine, of Marks Hall, (Marks Hall Register). 
On 2ist Feb., 1674, their daughter Esther was baptised at 



The Clergy. 63 

Coggeshall. Mr. Thomas Jessop, citizen of London, who 
was buried at Coggeshall, 6th April, 1670, was doubtless the 
father of Thomas, the Vicar. 

BOYS, James, M.A-, 16 Feb. 1679, on death of Jssop. He is 
the last vicar mentioned in Neivcourfs Rep., published 1710 ; 
by mistake he is called John Boys. He was a son of the 
Rev. John Boys, Dean of Canterbury, whose family is said 
to have come over with the Conqueror and settled in Kent. 
The Rev. James Boys had a son, James, who was a barrister- 
at-law, and the father of Lucy Boys, who married the Rev. 
Charles Ley, Rector of Layer Marney, great grandson of the 
Rev. Philip Ley ; descended from James Ley, of Westbury, 
Wilts, created Lord Ley of Ley, in Devonshire, 22 James, 
and Earl of Marlborough, i Charles [See Benton's Rochford 
Hundred, 417]. Bufton's notes of several sermons preached 
by Mr. Boys are in my possession. 

The following entries relating to this family are to be found 
in the Coggeshall Marriage Registers: "1683 Sept. 5, Mr. 
James Boys and Mrs. Martha Bennett. 1688 Sept. 21, Mr. 
John White and Mrs. Ann Boys. 1697 March 3, Richard 
Boys and Mary White. 162! January 4, Mr. William Boys 
and Hester Cox." And the Coggeshall Baptismal Register 
has, "1681 Dec. 4, Rebecca, daughter of William and Jane 
Boys. 1684 Aug. 3, William, son of James and Martha 
Boys. 1693 March 24, James, son of James and Dorchas 
Dame Guyon, born ye 2ist Feb. 1694 Aug. 9, Dorcas, 
daur. of James Boys and Dorcas Dame Guyon. 1696 
March 29, Martha, daur. of James Boys and Dorcas Dame 
Guyon." And the Coggeshall Burial Register contains : 
" 1725 Oct. 13, The Rev. Mr. Boys, late Vicar of Coggeshall. 
1768 July 30, Mr. William Boys, interred in the chancel 
within the communion rails, son of the Rev. Mr. James Boys, 
vicar 44 years." 

Bufton has the following notes concerning this family : 
" 1682 Nov. 26, Mr. Boy's brother's son of n years' old 
died at the vicarage, of the small pox, and was carried to 
Colchester to be buried. 1683 Sept. 5. Mr. Boys was 
married to a kinswoman of Mr. Thomas Keeble's; her 
name was Bennet. Her father was a poulterer in London. 
1685 Nov. n, Mr. Boys had a son buried three days' old. 



6 4 Ecclesiastical. 



1685 Nov. 1 8, the first wife of Mr. Boys was buried; 6 
gentlewomen carried up ye pale with white hoods and white 
veils, and Mr. Livermore preached at her funeral, and I was 
gone to London. 1688 Sept. Mr. John White was married 
to Mrs. Ann Boys. 1692 April 5, Mr. Boys was married 
to the Lady Guyon. 

BURNP^T, Gilbert, 1725, on the death of Boys. He was for 
some time Minister of St. James's, Clerkenwell. Died at 
Coggeshall, 28th January, 1746. 

GULLIFER, Joseph, M.A., 1746, on death of Burnet. Heap- 
pears to have been Curate here many years prior to his pre- 
sentation to the Vicarage, for on ist April, 1739, he records 
in the register, that Sacheverall, the son of Ernal and Mary 
Dullen was "the first infant baptised by Jos. Gullifer, Curate." 
The following entry is in Vol. II. of the Registers, "The 
Rev. Joseph Gullifer. A.M., Corpus Christi College, in Cam- 
bridge, was inducted into the Vicarage of Coggeshall, June 
the 27th, 1746, at the presentation of Peter Du Cane, Esq. 
He was inducted to the Vicarage of Burnham, February 16, 
1749, at the presentation of the Right Hon Benjamin, Earl 
of Fitzwalter, and one of his lordship's chaplains." Whose 
son Joseph Gullifer was does not appear, but the family of 
that name seems to have been connected with this place as 
early as 1679, as on 22, 23, 24 March, 1679-80, a great many 
persons were baptised the entry concluding with these words, 
"by Mr. Gulliford baptised." The names of the god-parents' 
are set opposite the several entries, an addition which is 
exceptional. On nth July, 1682, Ann, daughter, of Josiah 
and Ann Gulliver, was baptised here ; and the following 
burials are entered in the Registers, "1713, Oct. 8, Mr. Joseph 
Gulliver. 1754, Nov. 6, interred in the vestry about i in the 
morning, Mrs. Rachel Gullifer, wife of the Rev. Mr. Jos. 
Gullifer, Vicar, who died of the small pox, Nov. 3, 1754, 
aetatis 41. 1767, March 22, The Rev. Mr. Joseph Gullifer, 
Vicar, interred in the vestry, died 13 March, 1767." 
Josiah Gullifer, who was Vicar of Messing, died 1704. 

COTT, John, was Vicar in 1768 (See Baptismal Register) 

DU CANE, Henry, son of Peter Du Cane, Esq., by his marriage 
with Mary, only daughter of Henry Norris, Esq., of Hackney. 
He married Louisa Desmadrille, and had issue the Rev. 






The Clergy. 65 

Henry Du Cane, of Witham Grove, Richard, Charles, Louisa, 
Anna Maria, and Sarah, all of whom were baptised at Cog- 
geshall. He lived at the Home Grange, but died at Witham ; 
He does not appear to have taken active duty at Coggeshall, 
but to have left the care of the parish with 

DUDDELL, John, who was Curate here for 33 years (see Memorial 
inscription) ; and afterwards with 

BULL, John. He had a son, baptised here on 24th Nov., 1807, 
by name Elijah Serle. His daughter, Susanna, was buried in 
the churchyard here, and on her tomb was this inscription : 
" In memory of Susanna, daughter of the Rev. John Bull, 
sometime Curate of this parish, and Mary, his wife, who died, 
3ist March, 1810, aged 7 years." 

MANT, Richard, M.A., was inducted on 2nd May, 1810. Born 
on 1 2th Feb. 1766, at Southampton, where his father was 
Rector of All Saints; educated at Trinity Coll., Oxford; 
Fellow and Tutor of Oriel ; ordained, 1 802 ; Bampton Lec- 
turer, 1812. In 1813, he and Dr. D'Oyley were commis- 
sioned by the Christian Knowledge Society to prepare the 
'Family Bible with Notes,' which was first published in 1817. 
In 1820, he was made Bishop of Killaloe and Kilfenora, and 
was, on 22nd March. 1823, translated to the See of Down 
and Connor. He died, 2 Nov., 1848. A memoir of his life 
was published by Archdeacon Berens, in 1849. 

STEVENS, B. B., was Curate about 1813 ; he was afterwards 
Chaplain to His Majesty's Forces. 

MATHEW, Edward William, was instituted to the vicarage about 
the year 1815, on the resignation of Dr. Mant ; he was after- 
wards Reader at St. James's, Bury St. Edmunds, and is said to 
have been of a most amiable disposition, and celebrated for 
his extraordinarily beautiful reading. Died, 1834. He was a 
grandson of James Mathew, of Bury St. Edmunds, and a son 
of Colonel William Mathew (Norfolk Light Dragoons), by his 
marriage with Elizabeth Maria, daughter of Edward Coldham, 
Esq., of Bury St. Edmunds ; whose wife was a daughter of 
Joshua Brise, of Cavendish, of the family of Ruggles-Brise, 
of Spains Hall, Finchingfield. The Rev. Edw. Wm. Mathew 
was born about 1790, married in 1815, Charlotte Olivia, eldest 
daughter of Oliver Johnson, Esq., of Hay House, Earls 
Colne, a descendant of Benjamin Johnson, Governor of Ports- 



66 Ecclesiastical. 



mouth, temp. Charles II. By this marriage, there was issue 
several children, of whom was Edward Fisher Ruggles Ma 
thew, architect of the Cathedral of St. George, Basseterre, in 
the West Indies, who died, in 1858, at St. Kitts, leaving a son, 
Edward Jermyn Mathew, who is now of St. Edmund Hall, 
Oxford. Emily Brise Mathew, another child of the Vicar, 
married in 1856, her first cousin, Oliver Johnson, Esq., eldest 
son of Richard Oliver Johnson, Esq., doubtless the same 
person as Richard Oliver Johnson, who, on I4th Aug., 1828, 
married at Coggeshall, Mary Ann, daughter of Henry Sking- 
ley, Esq., and Ann, his wife, n&e Decks. The arms of the 
family are : Az., 3 lions ramp arg., on a chief of the second, 
as many cross crosslets sa., crest a lion's jambe erect, holding 
a cross crosslet sa. The Mathew family became possessed of 
estates at Pentloe, Clare and Cavendish, through the marriage 
of the Rev. E. W. Mathew with Miss Coldham. 

FREELAND, William Coyte, was Curate 1830-4, during which 
time he appears to have had sole charge of the parish. 

SMITH, Percy, was presented to the living in 1834. He was a 
son of Mary (the daughter of Peter Du Cane, Esq.), by 
her marriage with Edward, son of William Smith, Esq., of 
Horsham, Sussex. In 1835, he became Rector of Pattiswick. 
A tombstone in Pattiswick churchyard has this inscription : 
"Percy Smith, 41 years priest of this parish, fell asleep, 21 
Feb., 1876. 

WALLACE, Arthur Capel Job, M.A., was presented, on the re- 
signation of Mr. Smith, in 1835, and remained here till 1838, 
when he removed to Monks Eleigh, in Suffolk. He was a 
son of the Rev.' Job Wallace, of Braxted, and was of Corpus 
Christi Coll. Camb. 

ARMSTRONG, William, was Curate in 1838. 

ELEY, Henry, was originally engaged in commercial pursuits, but 
afterwards went to Cambridge, graduated and was ordained 
to the curacy of West Ham ; removed to High Beech, near 
Epping ; vicar of Coggeshall, 1838-40, removed to Broomfield, 
in 1841. On leaving Broomfield he took no more clerical 
work. Was the author of " Geology in the Garden," and 
one or two other minor works. He died at Brighton. 

BENTLEY, Robert Henry was Curate, 1839-41. 

DAMPIER, William James, was born at Hackney, on the gth 



The Clergy. 67 

May, 1803, and was the youngest son of Edward Dampier, 
Esq., of Chase Gate House, Enfield, by his marriage with 
Elizabeth Norris [Peter Du Cane, formerly patron of the 
living, married a daughter of Henry Norris, Esq., of Hackney]. 
At the age of 1 7 he went to the West Indies (Dominica and 
Trinidad) to study for the Bar, during which time he served 
in the militia of the country, this being compulsory on all 
above a certain age. After an absence of seven years he 
returned to England and entered himself at the Inner Temple, 
and kept all his terms but one. About this time he was im- 
pressed with an irresistible desire to devote himself to the 
ministry, he accordingly relinquished the profession of the 
law for that of the church. He at once set himself to learn 
Greek, of which he was at that time quite ignorant, and 
made such progress with the language that shortly afterwards 
he entered at Christ's College, Cambridge, graduated and 
received ordination at the hands of the Bishop of Winches- 
ter, in the year 1831. His first curacy was at Catherington, 
afterwards he went to Ware as curate, and here he was mainly 
instrumental in erecting the District Church of Saint Mary. 
In 1839, he accepted the sole charge of Great Yeldham 
during the incapacity of the rector. 

In 1841, he was presented to the Vicarage of Coggeshall, 
into which he was inducted, as he recorded in his own hand- 
writing in the parish register, " on the 6th of August, by the 
Rev. Charles Dalton, Vicar of Kelvedon, and Rural Dean, 
in the presence of Charles Skingley and William Swinborne, 
Churchwardens." 

He married, in 1837, Elizabeth Isabella, only child of 
John Martin-Leake, Esq., R.N., of High Cross, younger son 
of the Rector of Wivenhoe, by whom he had two sons and 
five daughters. 

Mr. Dampier's early legal training was applied by him in 
after life to many useful purposes. He had not been long 
inducted here before he set himself the fulfilment of several 
important works, an entry of which he made in one of the 
parish books, and before he left Coggeshall he had the satis- 
faction of writing opposite each resolution, " Done." Few 
of us can properly realize the immense good that Mr. 
Dampier did in this parish ; he was often misunderstood, 

F 2 



68 Ecclesiastical. 



but, persevering in what he believed to be right, he was in 
the later years of his ministry deeply loved and respected by 
his parishioners. 

Mr. Dampier was the author of a ' Memoir of John 
Carter,' and ' The Sympathy of Christ.' He resigned the 
living of Coggeshall, in March, 1876, after holding the bene- 
fice for five-and-thirty years. For more than a year previously 
he had, through failing health, become incapacitated. 

He died, at Ramsgate, on the zoth November, 1878, but 
was buried at Coggeshall ; his place of sepulture being marked 
by a yew-tree, planted many years ago beside the grave of 
his wife. The stones, beneath the shade cast by the per- 
petual verdure of this emblem of the Resurrection, bear the 
following inscriptions : 

" In loving memory of William James Dampier, thirty-three 
(it should be thirty-five) years vicar of this parish, died 20 
Nov., 1878, aged 75." 

" Elizabeth Isabella, the wife of William James Dampier, 
M.A., Vicar of this parish, 2ist December, 1858, in peace, 
aged 49 years." 

" Elizabeth Maria, widow of John Martin-Leake, R.N., 
died at Honfleur, in France, nth January, 1862, aged 75 
years." 

The following were Curates here during Mr. Dampier's in- 
cumbency : 

WIGSON, William, 1841-44. 

GRIFFIN HOOFE, Thomas John, 1844, B.A., Oxford; married Hen- 
rietta Sophia, daughter of Henry Skingley, Esq., on 2nd 
July, 1846. 

IREMONGER, Frederick Assheton, 1845. 

SUTTON, John, 1846. 

BROWN, James William, 1847-8; married Ellen, daughter of 
Henry Skingley, Esq., on 25th January, 1849. 

HILL, Thomas Smyth, 1847-9, B.C.L., M.A., Oxford; now Rector 
of Thorington, Halesworth. 

JACKSON, William, 1849. 

CUTTS, Edward Lewes, 1850-7, B.A., Cam., Hon. D.D. of the 
Univ. of South, U.S.A. Many years hon. sec. of the Essex 
Arch. Society, and was for some time, hon. sec. of the com- 



The Clergy. 



69 



mittee for the restoration of Coggeshall Church, a work in 
which he took a deep interest and rendered much valuable 
service and advice, which he was so well able to do, by reason 
of his extended knowledge of ecclesiastical architecture and 
church furniture and decoration. He is the author of very 
many works, including ' Turning Points of English Church 
History,' 'Turning Points of General Church History,' 'A 
Dictionary of the Church of England,' ' Constantine the 
Great,' ' Charlemagne,' ' St. Jerome,' ' St. Augustine,' ' Monks 
of the Middle Ages,' ' A History of Colchester,' &c., &c. He 
is now Vicar of Holy Trinity, Haverstock Hill. 

FRASER, William Francis, 1857-9, M.A. Cam. ; late of Hillgrove, 
Stonehouse, Gloucester; now of Westbere Rectory, Canter- 
bury. 

BROWN, James William, 1859. 

WALLER, Robert Plume, 1863, M.A. Cam. ; now Vicar of 
Nazing, Essex. 

HORROCKS, George, 1864. 

PERTWEE, Arthur, 1864, M.A. Oxon. ; now Vicar of Brightlingsea. 

ALLEN, John, 1864, B.A. Oxford; died 26 May, 1867, buried at 
Coggeshall. 

RAYMOND, Charles Andrewes, 1867 ; now Rector of St. Mary- 
le-More, Wallingford. 

Cox, Cecil Walker, 1868, B.A. Oxford; now Rector of Ather- 
stone-on-Stour, Stratford-on-Avon. 

CLARKE, D. L., 1871. 

EAREE, Robert Brisco, 1871 ; now Chaplain at Sigismunder- 
strasse, Berlin. 

WHITTINGTON, Richard Thomas, 1872, M.A. Oxford; now Hon.- 
Canon of St. Alban's and Rector of Orsett. 

EYRE, Henry Taylor Williamson, 1873-7, M.A. Oxford; now 
Vicar of Great Totham. 

GREENE, Charles Philip, instituted, 14 May, 1876. Born 2nd 
Oct., 1840, at Cotton House, Cotton, County Louth, Ireland; 
son of William Pomeroy Greene, Esq., of the Royal Navy, 
by his marriage with Anne Griffith, sister of Sir Richard 
Griffith, Bart., well known as the author of ' Griffith's Valua- 
tion.' In 1842, Mr. Greene with his wife and family went to 
Port Philip (now Victoria), the family then consisting of six 
sons and one daughter, Mary Frances, who afterwards became 



7 Ecclesiastical. 



the wife of the late Sir William Foster Stawell, K.C.M.G., 
Lieutenant-Governor of Victoria, and formerly Chief-Justice 
of that colony. Of the six sons, Charles Philip was the 
youngest. He graduated at Melbourne University in 1862, 
came to England in 1 864 ; was at Cuddesdon College for a 
year, returned to Australia in 1867 ; Curate at the Cathedral, 
Hobart, Tasmania, in 1868; Incumbent of Avoca in 1872; 
Incumbent of St. John's, Hobart, 1873-5 > Vicar of Cogges- 
hall, 1876 to 1885 ; now Rector of Clapham. 

Curates during Mr. Greene's Incumbency : 

EYRE, H. T. W., 1873-7. 

BOWERS, John Philips Allcot, 1877-8, M.A. Cam. ; now Canon 
designate of Gloucester, Missioner for the Diocese of Glou- 
cester and Bristol, and Domestic and Examining Chaplain to 
the Bishop of that Diocese. He married, i8th Feb., 1879, 
Mary Louisa, daughter of Joseph Beaumont, Esq., of The 
Lawn, Coggeshall. 

MORTON, Henry James (1878-9), M.A., L.L.B., Cam.; now 
Vicar of Cricklade, Wilts. 

LEY, Gerald Henry Lewis, 1880-5, M.A., Oxon.; now Rector 
of Chagford, Devon. 

EVANS, Arthur Fitzgerald, 1880-5, M.A., Oxon; now vicar of 
Great Maplestead. 

PATCH, Hubert Mornington, inducted 27th Nov. 1885. Edu- 
cated at Clare Coll. Cam., where he took the degree of B.A. 
in 1862 and M.A. in 1865 ; ordained deacon, 1864, priest, 
1865. His first curacy was at Lower Brixham, in the Diocese 
of Exeter. In 1866-7, he was Curate of St. Luke's, Torquay ; 
from 1867-9, Curate of Hungerford; from 1869 to 1885, he 
was Curate-in-charge of the poor district of St. Michael, 
Torquay, where he won much love and respect from all those 
with whom he came in contact. 

During Mr. Patch's Incumbency : 
SCOTT, Frederick George, M.A., was Curate, 1885-6 ; he is now 

Rector of Drummondsville, in the Diocese of Quebec. On 

his resignation, Dec. 1887, 
WHITE, Charles Lechmere, B.A., Oxon., from S. Peter's, London 

Docks, was appointed Curate. 







COGGESHALL CHURCH. 
1889. 




Rectory and Vicarage. 



7 1 



(Rectory 



THE Rectory of Coggeshall, in early times, belonged to the 
Abbot and Convent of Coggeshall, and although the evi- 
dence is not conclusive, it supports the opinion that originally 
there were two Churches at Coggeshall ; one in the larger parish, 
and another in the smaller. Be this as it may, the Rectory or 
Rectories became vested in the Abbey about the same time as 
the Manors were conveyed to it, and so remained until the disso- 
lution of the Abbey in 1538. 

The abbots, as the possessors of the emoluments of the 
church, discharged certain of the duties and obligations incum- 
bent upon them, such as the entertainment of strangers and the 
doling out of charity to the poor, but the cure of the souls of 
the parishioners, they remitted to a vicar, (vicarius a substitute) 
and for his services he was allowed some small portion of the 
rectorial profits. All went well for a time, but in the first quarter 
of the thirteenth century a controversy arose about the Church, 
between Eustace de Fauconbergh, Bishop of London, and his 
Chapter on the one part, and the Abbot and Convent of Cogges- 
hall on the other part. This dispute was, by unanimous consent, 
referred to John de Fontibus, Bishop of Ely, the Abbot and Con- 
vent first resigning all their right in the Church into the hands of 
the Bishop of London. The Bishop of Ely, in 1223, made a 
final determination of the controversy, and ordained that the 
Monks of Coggeshall should possess for the sustenance of the 
poor and strangers, in perpetual right, all the tithes of corn of the 
whole parish of the Church of Coggeshall (which in this document 
is called the Church of Sunnedon), with all the land belonging to 
it, except the chief mansion and nineteen acres in North Field 
adjoining the same, and one acre in West field on the east side, 
as far as the meadow, and all the meadow beyond the water-course 
on the north side, and except the tenements which were held of the 
same Church by Walter de Rustylford, John Gallicus, William de 
Fonte, William Bore, John Delbroch, Widow Edith, with their 
farmers, which, with all their tithes, obventions, and all other things 
to the same Church belonging, the Vicar, who for the time being 
should minister in the same Church, should receive by the name of 
the Vicarage, and that he should sustain all burdens, debts, and 



72 Ecclesiastical. 



customs, and that the appointment and collation should belong to 
the Bishop of London and their successors in perpetuity. 

From this time (1223), the Rectory of Coggeshall was appro- 
priated to the Abbot and Convent, and the Bishop of London 
became patron of the Vicarage, and so continued till Dr. Nicholas 
Ridley, Bishop of that See, on the i2th April, 4 Edw. VI., granted 
the perpetual Advowson of this Vicarage to the King and to his 
heirs and successors ; notwithstanding which, on the next vacancy, 
Bishop Bonner, after he had been restored to the Bishopric, taking 
no notice of his predecessor's grant, collated Robert Stockton to 
this Vicarage in 1558. The advowson or right of presentation 
was subsequently confirmed to Lord Riche, who died, possessed of 
it in 1566, but without male issue, whereupon it devolved upon 
his co-heiresses. Afterwards the advowson was possessed by Sir 
Henry St. John, Bart., who was raised to the peerage as Viscount 
St. John. He and his eldest son, Henry, Earl of Bolingbroke, 
conveyed the right of presentation to Nehemiah Lyde, Esq., 
whose only daughter married Richd. DuCane, Esq., and in the 
DuCane family it remains to the present day. 

The Rectories of Great and Little Coggeshall, and the Vicar- 
age of Little Coggeshall, with all tithes and appurtenances in 
those parishes, were, in the 33rd year of Queen Elizabeth, granted 
to John Wells, of London, Scrivener and Hercules Wytham, of 
London, Gentlemen, who, on 8th Jany., 34 Elizth., sold them to 
Richard Bettenson, of Coggeshall, Gentleman. He sold them in 
the 2nd year of James I., to Richard Benyon, who died, i7th 
Nov., in the 7th year of the same reign, leaving Richard his son 
and heir, aged 4 years and 6 months. In the inquiry taken about 
this time, the property is described as the Rectories of Great Cog- 
geshall and Little Coggeshall, with the Vicarage of Little Cogges- 
hall, held of the King, as of his Manor of East Greenwich, by 
fealty as in free and common socage, and not in Coptic, nor by 
Knight Service, and valued at S per annum clear. 

Richard Benyan settled this estate, in 1629, on himself and 
Margaret his wife for their lives. He, by will, dated i3th May, 
1659, gave to Henry, his eldest son, all tithes of land in the Ham- 
let of Little Coggeshall, part great and part small, and the tithes 
of those grounds belonging to the Abbey, lying in Great Cogges- 
hall, and the barn and ground in the Abbey Lane. 

Henry Benyan. by his will, dated i8th Sept., 1673, gave his 



Rectory and Vicarage. 73 

brother Charles, in lieu of a legacy left him by his father, his tithes 
in Little Coggeshall, except from a field called Horsepasture. The 
residue of the tithes he gave to Thomas Stafford, Gentleman, with a 
direction to sell them and his other estates for the payment of his 
debts ; the balance he gave to Thomas Stafford for the mainten- 
ance of the Chancel. A law suit arose about this gift, and on the 
sale of the property by the sisters of Henry Benyan or Benion, 
Thomas Cudmore became the purchaser of one moiety or half 
part, and Henry Abbot of the other moiety. 

Jones Raymond bought Cudmore's moiety, which afterwards 
passed to Mr. Caswell and Mr. Thoyts, and it is now, and for 
many years past has been, in the Western family. 

Henry Abbot devised his moiety to his son Joseph, whose de- 
visees sold it to Samuel Carter ; it was afterwards in the possession 
of Ezekiel Wood and W T illiam Potter, then of Thomas Andrews, 
by whom it was sold to Henry Skingley, Esq., and in this family it 
continues to the present day. 

Augustin Mayhew, of Great Coggeshall, Gent, in 1661, 
purchased of Henry Benyan, the tithes issuing out of Hovels, 
formerly the estate of Thomas Aylet, Gent. ; the tithes of a Farm, 
formerly the estate of John Gurdon, Esq. (query Potash Farm) ; the 
tithes of Thomas Guyon's, Stock Street Farm ; and of a farm at 
Stock Street, formerly Robert Aylet's, afterwards his son's, Thomas 
Aylet; of another farm at Stock Street, belonging to Robert 
Crane ; of a field containing 5 acres in Blackwater Field, near the 
bridge ; of a house called the Vyne, in the same locality ; of 
Crowlands Farm, belonging to Nicholas Foster; and of Monk 
Wood, and several other properties. 

Augustin Mayhew, in 1675, when he is described as of Bore- 
ham, settled these tithes on the marriage of his son and heir, 
William Mayhew with Elizabeth Harrison, the only daughter of 
Bridget Onge, of Colchester, Widow. In 1695, William and 
Elizabeth Mayhew sold these tithes, or some of them, to George 
Nicholls. 

Z$t otmnufafton of t$t Zitfyte. 

IN 1836, the Tithe Commutation Act was passed, but the tithes 
of Great Coggeshall and Little Coggeshall were not commuted 
until 1851. Prior to this year the tithe was liable to be rendered 



74 Ecclesiastical. 



in kind, and the following records bearing upon the subject are 
taken from the cover of Vol. II. of the Registers : 

"May 14, 1680 Memorandum that I, James Boys, Vicar of 
Coxall, did, on the day and year above sayd, tith out 400 of 
faggots in Monk Wood, in that part that belong to Hovels, it 
being sold by Mr. Plum standing. Peter Harvey, of Coxall, John 
Ellis, Richard Putner, of Sticestead, Henry Boltwood, of Passak 
( Pattiswick), assuring that they can sware that Mr. Sedgwick and 
Mr. Owen had tith there formerly." 

"April 18, 1681 Memorandum that I, James Boys, Vicar of 
Coggeshall, did on the day and year above written tith out 350 
tilts and 124 hop poles in Monk Wood, in that part that belong to 
Hovells, it being sold by Mr. Plum standing, Mr. Wilkins, of 
Patteswick, being with me and Mr. Ellis. April the 2oth, 1681, 
then did Housin Dale .... fetch home the 350 tilts and 
50 of the poles." 

The commissioner, who made the commutation award, found 
that certain lands were by prescription totally exempt from the 
payment of tithes, that the tithes of other lands were merged, 
that no tithes were payable in respect of certain lands when in the 
manurance or occupation of the owners, as such lands were part 
of the possessions of the dissolved Abbey of Coggeshall, and 
were so held discharged at the time of the dissolution of the 
monastery ; that other lands were exempt from the payment of all 
tithes, except tithes of corn, grain and hay, when in the manu- 
rance or occupation of the owners. 

The following are the principal properties in Great Coggeshall 
which enjoy the Cistercian privilege, either of partial or total ex- 
emption from the 'payment of tithes when occupied by their 
owners : Raincrofts, Horse Pasture, Cowlees, Vincents Close, 
the Monk Woods, the Gate House Farm, Grange Wood, Bowers 
Grange, Bullocks Cross Farm and Monkdowns Farm. In Little 
Coggeshall there are only two small properties which enjoy total 
exemption from tithe when in the owner's occupation; these are 
Tye Mill Pightle, and the houses and gardens on the south side of 
the river by Long Bridge. 

The total amount of .the tithes of Great Coggeshall as com- 
muted, is ,1,136 i8s. 6d., of which the Vicar receives ^350 only, 
the rest being payable to the Lay Impropriators ; in Little Cogges- 
hall, the tithes are commuted at ^355 175. zd., the vicar's proper- 



The Vicarage Augmentation of the Living. 75 

tion being ^28. The amount payable to the vicar from both 
parishes when the tithe is at par thus amounts to ^"378. This 
sum fluctuates with the price of corn, and, in the year 1889, yields 
only about ^300 gross ; and, as several of the lands which enjoy 
the Cistercian privilege are in the manurance of the owners, this 
sum is reduced to about 200, which is further reduced by rates, 
taxes and costs of collection to about ^160 per annum. 

In Newcourt's time, there was a terrier dated 1610, which set 
the property of the vicarage down as follows : " A vicarage house, 
a barn, an orchard, and a garden, and about 19 acres-and-a-half 
and three roods of glebe land." In addition to this there is near 
the river, and about a mile from the town towards West Mill, a 
field, No. 320 on the Ordnance Survey and containing 3a. 2r. i5p. 
which belongs to the vicarage. 



HP HE first stone, south-east corner, of the present residence was 
-* laid on the loth June, 1869, by Isabella, second daughter 
of the Rev. William James Dampier, Vicar ; and a record of the 
fact on parchment, with a piece of the current coin of the realm, 
was deposited beneath the stone. The house was completed and 
ready for occupation on the 9th April following. On the mantle- 
piece in one of the rooms are the arms of the Dampier family : 
or., a lion ramp sa., crowned gu., a label of five points of the 
same. The residence including the outbuildings cost about 
;i,ooo. This sum was advanced by the governors of Queen 
Anne's Bounty, and is secured by a mortgage of the glebe, tithes, 
and other profits of the living, and was originally repayable by 30 
yearly instalments with interest at 4 per cent. The period of 
repayment has recently been extended ; the instalment with in- 
terest for the year 1889 amounts to 

(ftugntenfafton of 

T3Y his will, proved on the igth July, 1888, Major George 
^~* Decks Skingley, directed his executors after the death of 
his wife to invest ^3,333 6s. 8d. in consols or securities of a like 
nature in the names of the vicar and churchwardens for the time 
being of the parish of Great Coggeshall ; the income arising from 
this fund, when invested, will be payable to the vicar for the time 
being of the parish for his own use and benefit in perpetuity. 



76 Ecclesiastical. 



The gift is to be free of legacy duty and expenses. It is hoped 
that Major Skingley's munificent gift will remind others that the 
Vicarage of Coggeshall is not yet endowed as fully as it ought to 
be considering the size of the parish and the work which a faithful 
minister finds absolutely necessary to be done. . 

anb )8ite, 

CHANTRIES were certain portions of the. church in which 
wealthy people set up and endowed additional altars for 
masses in propitiation for the sins of the departed. A separate 
aisle or transept was often added to the church for the purpose, 
and this would be dedicated to the favourite saint of the founder. 

An Obit was a service kept on the anniversary of the death of 
some individual, and on the occasion of it, the endowment for its 
maintenance was distributed among the priest, the sexton, and 
such poor persons as were in attendance at the service, to pray for 
the soul of the deceased. The money was generally secured by 
a charge in favor of the churchwardens, upon a house or land 
belonging to the founder. 

It is probable that the north chancel aisle of our church was 
erected by the Paycock family, as their wills * have frequent refer- 
ence to Saint Katherine's Aisle ; thus, John Pecok of Coggeshall, 
who made his will, on 2oth January, 1505-6 (proved yth April, 
1506), directs that his body shall be buried in the parish church 
of Saint Peter, in the north aisle, before the image of Saint Kath- 
erine. He then orders a month's mind to be kept with lights and 
other observances, " as belongeth to a dead corpse to be done ;" 
a priest to say mass, when disposed for the space of five years, 
for the deceased, his father and mother and all Christian souls, 
having for his salary, 10 marks. He makes a bequest for the 
maintenance of St. Katherine's light, for his name to be put upon 
the Bede-roll of the church, and for his obit for five years. 

THOMAS PAYCOCKE, of Coggeshall, (third son of John Pecok) 
made his will, 3rd Sept., 1518 (proved i6th Feby., 1518-19). He 
thereby directs that his body shall be buried in the Church of 
Coxhall, before the altar of Saint Katherine ; he bequeaths to the 
High Altar of Coggeshall Church, in recompense of tithes and of 
all other things forgotten, ^4 ; he bequeaths to a tabernacle of the 

* See ante page 33. 



Chantries and Obits. 77 

Trinity at the high altar, and another of Saint Margaret in Saint 
Katherine's Aisle, " there as the greate lady stonds," for the carving 
and gilding of them, 100 marks [13/4 each]; for the reparations 
of the Church and bells, and for his lying in the Church, 100 
nobles [6/8 each]. He gives 500 marks to a chantry, for the priest 
to pray for him and his wife, his father and mother, John and 
Eme, and for his father-in-law, Thomas Arrold, of Clare, and for 
his friends' souls that he was bound to pray for, the purchasing 
and mortessing * [query mortifying] to the King and also to the 
same chantry, 6 poor men to keep the same mass 3 days in the 
week, viz : Monday, Wednesday and Friday, to pray for the souls 
before rehearsed, and therefor to have 18 pence among them every 
week to fulfil this, and also every year, 100 wood apiece, and his 
priest to sing in Coxhall Church, afore Saint Katherine's altar. 
He willed that his executors should bestow upon his burying, 7th 
day and month day, after this manner : At his burial to have " a 
tryntal of prests and to be at dirige lawdes commendations, as 
many of them as may be purveyed that day at service, the tryntall, 
and if any lack to make it up the 7th day, and at the month day 
another tryntall to be purveyed hoole of mine executors and to 
keep dirige lawdes and commendations as is afore rehearsed, with 
3 high masses be note, one of the Holy Ghost, another of Our 
Lady, and another of Requiem, both burial and 7th day and month 
day, and priests being at this observance and singing of their 
tryntals, to have -/i2d. every time, and other priests being there 
and not singing the tryntalls, to have -,/4d., and every other man 
being at this observance -/4cL every time, and children at every 
time -/2d. ; with torches at the burial -/i2d., and -/6d. at the 7th 
day, and -/i2d. at the month day, with 24 or 12 small children in 
rochets (surplices with short sleeves) with tapers in their hands, 
as many as there be of them let them be my godchildren, and 
they to have 6s./8d. apiece, and every other child -/4d. apiece, 
and every man that holdeth torches at every, he to have -/ 2C U 
apiece, and every man, woman, and child that holdeth up hand 
at every of these 3 days, to have -/id. apiece, and also every 
godchild beside 6s./8d. apiece, and to the ringers for all 3 days, 

* A License from the Crown was requisite before property could be con- 
veyed to charitable uses; for, by such conveyance, the estate became vested in 
a corporation, with perpetual succession, and so the feudal rights of the lord of 
the fee were seriously prejudiced. 



7$ Ecclesiastical. 



ios./; and for meat, drink, and 2 sermons of a Doctor [i.e. of 
Divinity], and also to have a dirige at home, or I be borne to the 
church, 50." He then wills that his lord abbot and convent 
should have a broad cloth, 4 in money for to have a dirige and 
mass and then bells ringing at his burial when it was done ; at 
church likewise, the 7th day and month day with 3 trentalls upon 
the same days, if they could serve them, or else when they could 
at more leisure, 10. There are several other bequests for tren- 
talls and other objects, including ,40 to the foulways in West 
Street, from Haresbridge to a field of unmentionable name near 
the ist milestone on the Braintree road, and a like sum for the 
foulways between Coxhall and Blackwater. 

SIR THOMAS MONTGOMERY, Knt, by his will dated 28th July, 
1489, gave to the vicary of Coggeshall and to the vicars of other 
places in this neighbourhood 8s./4d. each, " so that they or their 
deputies remembre to pray for my soule and my wife's, ev'ry Son- 
day two yere after my deceasse, at the bedys bydding, and to pray 
for me and my wifes oon day in the weke aftre the custome is." 

The bedys bydding or bidding of the beads was the reading 
of the Roll of names of persons living and dead, whose souls 
were to be particularly borne in mind by the congregation, during 
the prayers which followed. A bead means something bid or 
prayer for, in its original sense. 

JOHN FABYAN, who was a citizen and draper of London, made 
his will on the 7th May, 1477, and directed that if certain of his 
children died before they were of age or married, part of the 
monies which he bequeathed to them should be employed by his 
executors to sustain and find an honest priest to sing and pray for 
his soul, and for the souls of his father and mother, and all his 
children, and good doers, and all Christian souls in the parish 
Church of Coggeshall, wherein his father laid buried, in the county 
of Essex, by the space of 20 years next ensuing after the death 
of that child of his said children that last died. He also be- 
queathed one hundred marks therewith to ordain, sustain, and find 
an honest priest to sing and pray for his soul and for the souls 
aforesaid in the parish Church of Coggeshall for 10 years next 
ensuing his own decease. He gave to William Heysand, his ser- 
vant, for to pray for his soul ^20, or he was to have a tenement 
with the appurtenances in the town of Coggeshall, in which the 
widow Sterling then dwelt. It was doubtless from this family of 



Chantries and Obits. 79 

Sterling that the name of the pastures on the north side of East 
Street had its origin. 

In the 37th year of Henry VIII. the collegiate and chantry 
endowments of the kingdom were, by Act of Parliament, declared 
to belong to the King. They were, however, only partially appro- 
priated in this reign, but, in the first year of King Edwd. VI., 
another statute was passed which granted to the crown the reve- 
nues of all chantries, fraternities, hospitals and colleges still re- 
maining. 

The following certificate shows to some extent what properties 
were possessed by the church or the abbey for religious purposes : 
"CERTIFICATE of Chantry Lands, 2 Ed. VI., for Essex. 

" Coggeshall, in Lexden Hundred. 

" Lands and tenements there put in feoffment by divers and 
sundry persons to the maintenance of a priest for ever, the said 
priest to sing mass in Coggeshall aforesaid, and also to help serve 
the cure. And one, Sir Thomas Francys, Clerke, of the age of 
56 years, having no' other promotion, and teacheth a school there, 
of good usage and conversation, is now Incumbent thereof. And 
the said Incumbent celebrateth in the said Church of Coggeshall. 
The yearly value of the same doth amount to the sum of ^7. 
Rent resolute null. Goods and chattels none. Memorandum : it 
is to be considered that the same town of Coggeshall is a populous 
towne, and having in it to the number of 1,000 of howseling 
people, and have no more but the Vicar and the said Chantry 
Priest to minister there, who is not able to serve the same without 
help. 

" One tenement given by one HAMPSER for one yearly obite 
for ever, in the tenure of Robert Miles, worth by the yere 25. gd. 
whereof to the poor, 8d. Remainder clear. i2d. 

" Vere, widow, holdeth 5 crofts of land with one meadow for 
2 obites, one of PEACOCK and the other of COLDWIRES, worth by 
the year i6s., whereof to the poor, 45. Rem. clear, 125. 

" 7 crofts of land and one meadow for the obite of ROB. PEA- 
COCK, in the tenure of John Hilles, worth by the year i6s., where- 
of to the poor, 6s. 8d. Rem. clear, 95. 4d. 

" One garden called Godanfs Garden, given by one NESFIELD, 
for one obite for ever, in the tenure of John Gooddaie, 23. 6d., 
whereof to the poor, nd. Rem. clear, ipd. 



Ecclesiastical. 



" CLARKE, Taylor, gave one tenement for one obite for ever 
in the tenure of John Amye by Indenture, worth by the year, 
35. zd. 

" THOS. RANDOLPH gave a tenement with certain lands, called 
Roodes land, for the obite of the same Thomas, in the tenure of 
Thomas Clerke, and payeth by the year for the same us. 4d., 
whereof to the poor people, 33. 4d. Rem. clear, 8s. 

" One tenement given to the finding of one obite for ever, in 
the tenure of Wm. Lawrence, worth by the year, 33., whereof to 
the poor, i2d. Rem. clear, 25. 

" One tenement given by one, WIMBORNE, for one yearly obite 
for ever, worth by the year, 33., whereof to the poor, i2d. Rein, 
clear, 23. 

" One tenement given by one GRANGER, for one yearly obite 
for ever, in the tenure of John Heyward, worth by the year, 2od., 
whereof to the poor, 8d. Rem. clear, izd. 

" One messuage and a garden given by one OLD TRUE, to the 
maintenance of the lamp light for ever, in the tenure of Henry 
Warde, by Indenture for term of 80 years yet to come, worth by 
the year, 35. 

" Given out of a tenement with a cottage and a croft of land, 
called Vincents, in the tenure of John Peacock for one yearly 
obite for ever, by Indenture for term of 100 years yet to come, 
by the year, 6s. 

" Item, one old Chaple in the street there, with a little garden, 
which is worth by the year, 45. 

" Item, one house there called the Geildhall, and is worth by 
the year, 55. 

" Item, one tenement decayed, called the Priest's Chamber, 
with one orchard, worth yearly 55." 

From a Particular of divers lands granted by Letters Patent 
to several persons in fee farm, in the reigns of Queen Elizabeth 
and King James I., further information may be gained with regard 
to properties held for religious purposes at the time of the reform- 
ation. 

The following estates were granted to Jeffery Morley, on i8th 
March, in the i8th year of Queen Elizabeth (A.D. 1576), at the 
fee farm rents set opposite thereto respectively : 

" An acre of land in Nether Church Field [being the greater 



Chantries and Obits. 81 

part of the garden known as ' The Lawn,' occupied by Mr. Joseph 
Beaumont]. Rent, 35. gd. 

" A farm called Stockman's, and a tenement called Tripps [now 
part of the Hanbury Estate]. Rent, 2 135. 4d. 

"A house called Sorell [east of Windmill or Highfield's Lane 
in West Street]. Rent, is. 4d. 

"A house called Drapers [in East Street, now belonging to 
Mrs. John Sach and in the occupation of Mr. Richard Browning 
Smith, Butcher]. Rent, 35. 4d. 

"A house called Plummers [in Church Street, owned and 
occupied by Mr. E. T. Scott]. Rent, is. 4d. 

" Cowlees or Horselees, containing 7a. ar. or. [No. 331, Ord- 
nance Survey ; belongs to Messrs. Pfander Swinborne, situate in 
West Street, bounded on the south by the Back Ditch]. Rent, 

5s. 

" Pope's Lees, or Horsepasture, containing 2 acres [situate in 
East Street, belongs to Mrs. Mayhew, No. 334, Ordnance Survey], 
Rent, 43. 8d." 

The undermentioned properties were granted to Ralph Wolley, 
citizen and Merchant Tailor of London, and Thomas Dodd, 
citizen and Grocer of London, on aoth Oct., in the 2nd year of 
King James I. (A.D. 1604) : 

" The Dairy House at the Holme Grange in Little Coggeshall, 
then in the occupation of John Cowell, with the Shepenhouse nigh 
the Gatehouse on the north side of the King's Highway. Rent,. 
24 6s. 8d. [This property comprises the lands between Curd 
Hall Lane and the river, and was purchased by Nehemiah Lyde, 
of Hackney, Merchant, in 1701, from Edward Bullock, Esq., of 
Faulkborne Hall, who at the same time sold to Mr. Lyde the fee 
farm rent of ^24 6s. 8d. charged upon it] 

" The Watermill and Chambers to the same, and the garden 
called Love's Garden, and one other garden called Sand ford garden, 
and the waste ground within the Monastery. Rent, 5. [Love 
and Sampford were Abbots shortly before the dissolution, and 
these properties were probably part of their possessions. This 
rent is not now payable, having probably become merged by 
unity of ownership.] 

" The Mansion House within the Monastery, formerly demised 
to Mathew Bacon. Rent, 2 2s. 2d. [This is doubtless the 
Abbey Farm]. 



82 Ecclesiastical. 



" The land and marsh called Coggeshall Hay, formerly demised 
to Richard Poulter. Rent, ^3 135. 4d. [These lands form part 
of the Hanbury Estate and lie near Pattiswick.] 

"A croft called Buskett, with the rest of the premises formerly 
demised to William Enewe. Rent, \ us. 8d. [This property 
contains, according to the Morden College Survey of 1740, about 
37 acres of land, lying between Tilkey Road and Tilkey Brook, 
and now belongs to various owners.] 

" The woods, called Monkwood and Little Monkwood, late de- 
mised to Thomas Dockwray. Rent, 2. 

" One tenement, one garden and shop, late demised to Richard 
Todd. Rent, 75. o|d. [Now belong to Mrs. John Sach, situate 
in Church Street, abutting west upon the Bull Inn, and north 
upon Back Lane.] 

" Two pieces of land demised to William Trewe. Rent, -/8d. 
[In Church Street, and now belongs to Mr. Thomas Simpson ; 
one of the houses thereon being used as a surgery.] 

"The tenement called Through-Inn, late demised to George 
and John Ansell. Rent, 123. and a pound of pepper. [The Ib. 
of pepper is compounded for at is. 6d. Now called the Bird-in- 
Hand, and situate between Church Street and East Street.] 

"A tenement demised to Richard Constantine. Rent, us. 
[At the corner formed by the juncture of Church Street with East 
Street.] 

"A farm called Griggs farm. Rent, $ 155. [Still so called 
and situate on the south side of Braintree Road.] 

" Two tenements in Stoneham Street. Rent, is. 8d. [Known 
as The Limes, belongs to Mr. Doubleday, occupied by Mrs. Gor- 
belL] 

"The house called the Brewhouse, with the pasturage for 2 
cows in the Old Park. Rent, 8s. [Houses and gardens adjoining 
the river towards the north, and the road leading to Kelvedon 
towards the west. This property belongs to Messrs. Green and 
Hart.] 

" One tenement on the north side of Longbridge, together with 
the meadow containing 3 roods. Rent, 45. 

" A piece of land called Pound Pasture in Little Coggeshall, 
on the north side of the Grange Barn. Rent, 25. [Evidently so 
named from the Pound which formerly stood on the west side of 
Grange Hill.] 



Chantries and Obits. 83 

" A tenement in East Street, late in the occupation of William 
Gray. Rent, 35. 4d. 

" Three tenements with the close called Vincents Close, with a 
dovehouse late in the occupation of John Gray. Rent, 6s. 8d. 
[Now the property of Messrs. Pfander Swinborne and situate on 
south side of West Street.] 

"Two tenements in Church Street, late in the occupation of 
William Rodley. Rent, 8s. [On the south side of Church Street.] 

"One tenement in West Street, late in the tenure of Elizabeth 
Richold. Rent, 45. [Belongs to White's Trustees.] 

"Three acres called Butfs Pasture near the Church Yard, 
late in the tenure of Joane Rivers, widow. Rent, 35. 4d. [No. 
364, Ordnance Survey.] , 

"One tenement with a messuage in West Street, and two 
gardens, and one croft, called King's Croft, at the west end of 
West Street. Rent, i8s. 6d. [Now belongs to Messrs. Pfander- 
Swinborne.] 

" Lands and pasture in Windwill Field, late in the tenure of 
Jeremy Arnold. Rent, i. [Part of Highfield's Farm.] 

"Land, called Pope's Lees and Pope's Meadow, otherwise Horse 
pasture, late in the tenure of Thomas Guyon, containing 4 acres. 
Rent, 45. 8d. [No. 333, Ord. Survey.] 

" A messuage with a garden, called Gotiers, and one croft ad- 
joining to a tenement called Brookemans, at Bissing Gutter, in the 
West Street ; one parcel of land in Earleswell, in Windmil Gate 
Lane, containing half-an-acre ; and one parcel of land, called 
Church Pond,* with a little cottage thereupon built, late in the 
tenure of Robert Litherland. Rent, IDS. 4d. [This comprises the 
gelatine factory of Messrs. Swinborne and other property to the 
east of it.] 

" Two parcels of land called Litleyards, late in the tenure of 
trie-said Robert Litherland. Rent, 55. 4d. [This is the Rood 
House, abutting west upon Long Bridge and south upon the 
river. ] 

"A tenement in Church Street, called Algors, with an orchard 
and two other tenements, and two gardens to the same lying 
against Coggeshall Church, late in the occupation of John Gray. 

* The names ' Earles Well ' and ' Church-pond,' are interesting in con- 
nection with the Roman Cemetery, referred to on p. 7. 

G 2 



8 4 Ecclesiastical. 



Rent, 55. i id. [Part of Mr. Beaumont's orchard opposite the 
Church.] 

"A tenement in Church Lane, late in the tenure of Doctor 
Giggens or Joane Rivers, widow. Rent, 25. 6d. [This property is 
situate east of Wayne Lane and north of the cloth factory, which 
stands on the north side of Church Street. Here was the resi- 
dence, if not the birth-place of Dr. John Jegon, afterwards Bishop 
of Norwich, a short biography of whom will be given in a subse- 
quent page.] 

"One messuage with 2 crofts in Little Coggeshall, in Pointell 
Street, late in the tenure of John Leazwell. Rent 45. [At the 
Hamlet.] 

"Two tenements at Starling Lees Stile, late in the occupation 
of William Fuller. Rent, 25. [The south east corner of Starling 
Lees]. 

" One tenement, called Kemmers, in East Street, late in the 
occupation of William Lawrence. Rent, 45. [On the east of the 
Swan Yard, and now belongs to Mr. Marten.] 

" Two tenements in Church Street, late in the occupation of 
Daniel Larke. Rent 8s. [Nearly opposite the Mechanic's Institute.] 

" Two other tenements in Church Street, in the tenure of 
Henry Stedman. Rent, is. [Now a cloth factory, north of Church 
Street and east of Wayne Lane ; has projecting upper floors, and 
is ornamented with carved woodwork, the frieze in Wayne Lane 
having on it ' Richard White, 1736.'] 

" Two acres in Pointell Street, in Little Coggeshall, late in the 
tenure of Nicholas Merrill. Rent 6s. [Hamlet House is built 
upon part of this property, now occupied by Mrs. Sheldrake.] 

" One tenement, called a Mill-house, in Church Lane, contain- 
ing one acre with a dove-house and pond, late in the tenure of 
Thomas . . . and William Sanders. Rent, 8d. [Belongs to 
Mrs. E. V. Gardner, and is situate in Church Street and Back 
Lane]. 

" One parcel of land called Clappers, lying on the west side of 
Stoneham Street, adjoining upon the west side of the Cock;, late 
in the tenure of Robert Fuller. Rent, 6s. 6d. [Now belongs to 
Messrs. Durant.] 

" One tenement called Frances, with the appurtenances, late in 
the tenure of John Mann. Rent, 35. 4d. [In East Street] 

"One little tenement containing one acre called Scriveners 



Chantries and Obits. 85 

barne, in East Street, late in the occupation of Thomas Bridges. 
Rent, 4<i. [Abbey View House, abutting east upon Starling Lees.] 

"One parcel of land, called Le Pond Garden, in Church Street, 
late in the occupation of Joan Rivers, widow. Rent, id. [Abuts 
east on Wayne Lane, north on Back Lane, and west upon a pass 
age leading to St. Peter's Well] 

" All that land or pasture, parcel of the Grange or farm called 
Hovells. Rent, 1. [No. 53, Ordnance Survey.] 

" A parcel of land called Crowchers, behind Stoneham Street, 
late in the tenure of William Fuller. Rent, 6d." [Nos. 294 & 295, 
Ordnance Survey.] 

The following property was granted to Edward Newport and 
John Crompton on 25th March, 5 James I. (A.D. 1608) : 

" The Grange called Coggeshall Grange, and the buildings be- 
longing thereto, lying on the south part of the Holme or Holme 
Grange, and all those fields called Culies Beninshether Westfield 
and Further Westfield, and all those 16 acres of meadow near 
Bradwell. Rent, 24. 35. 4d." [This property now belongs to the 
DuCane family, and comprises Home Grange and Curd Hall. 
The Rent was purchased by Nehemiah Lyde (subject to the life 
interest therein of the Dowager Queen Katherine) of Sir John 
Banks, Bart, in 1694.] 

The following properties were granted to Sir Edward Phillips 
and John Seward, on the 26th January, 5 King James I. (A.D. 
1608) : 

" One parcel of land within the field called Monkdowne, lying 
near Colchester Highway on the south part, containing by estima- 
tion, 30 acres. Rent, i 135. od. 

"Another parcel within the said field, containing by estimation, 
27 acres. Rent, i 75. 

"One other parcel of land in the said field, containing 20 
acres. Rent, 1 IDS. 

" One parcel of land in Great Coggeshall, containing 7 acres 
[a word or two illegible] . . of land belonging to the 
Manor of Coggeshall aforesaid. Rent, i 53. lod. 

" One parcel of land, called Jackletts Hawkes, containing 20 
acres. Rent, i. 

[The above are now known as Great Monk Downs.] 

" One other parcel of land, called Little Monkdowne, contain- 
ing 51 acres. Rent, 2 75. i|d. 



86 Ecclesiastical. 



"One croft of land, called Raine Croft, containing 32 acres. 
Rent, ;i i2s." [Nos. 401, 402 & 403, Ordnance Survey.] 

On the 29th April, 7 James I. (A.D. 1610), a tenement called 
the Cocke, in Coggeshall, was granted to Peregrine Gastrell and 
Ralph Lownds, with other property. Rent, i 133. 4d. This is 
probably part of the property belonging to Mrs. J. K. King, sit- 
uate on the Gravel, and the land in the rear upon part of which 
Messrs. Durant's factory stands. It is still called Cock Orchard. 
The Courts for the Manor of Great Coggeshall appear to have 
been formerly held here. Opposite the Cock was the butcher's 
shambles. 

On the loth July, 21 James I. (A.D. 1624), the Manor of 
Great Coggeshall and Little Coggeshall, with the appurtenances, 
was granted to Sir James Fullerton, Knt., and James Maxwell, 
Esqr. Rent, 42 6s. 8d. This property belongs to the Du 
Cane family. The rent of ^42 6s. 8|d. charged thereon, was 
purchased by their ancestor, Nehemiah Lyde, in 1694, subject to 
the life interest therein of the Dowager Queen Katherine. 

Most of the foregoing rents, with others, were, on i3th Sept., 
1672, conveyed by the Right Hon. Francis, Lord Hawley, Sir 
Charles Harbord, Knt, Surveyor to His Majesty King Charles II.; 
Sir William Hayward, Knt. ; Sir John Talbot, Knt. ; and Sir 
William Harbord, the Trustees thereof for the Crown, to Sir John 
Banks, Bart., and others. These rents afterwards belonged to Sir 
John Morden, of Ricklemarsh, Kent, Bart., who, by his will, dated 
1 5th Oct., 1702, gave them to his trustees, for the sustenance of 
poor, honest, sober and distressed merchants of not less than 50 
years of age, and such as had lost their estates by accidents, 
damages and perils of the seas, and otherwise; each of them was 
to have ^20 a year, with right of residence in the College he had 
already built at Charlton, near Blackheath, in Kent. 







THE ABBEY. 




| HE monks that settled in Coggeshall, sometime between 
the years 1137 and 1142, were of the Cistercian Order, 
and not of the Cluniac, as stated by Weever, whose 
error is quoted but not rectified by Newcouit. The 
Clunies were black monks, whereas the Cistercians wore a white 
gown and hood over a white cassock, and it is pointed out in 
Dugdale's Monasticon that there is such evidence as cannot be 
shaken that the Monks of Coggeshall were of the Cistercian 
order. 

This order was esteemed so highly, and received such support 
from the people of this country, and especially from Queen 
Matilda, that within three years after their first settlement no less 
than eighteen houses were established, founded, endowed and 
peopled, and of these it is said the Abbey of Coggeshall was fifth 
in order of time. Among their other houses were the magnificent 
piles of Tintern, Netley, Kirkstall, and Furness, the extensive 
remains of which throw some light upon the situation of the 
various departments of our abbey here. 

The exact date of the foundation is uncertain. Parco Lude 
speaks of 1137 ; Weever, from the Book of St. Austin, in Canter- 
bury, says 1140; Leland, 1141 ; while Tanner mentions 1142 as 
the date, and in this he is followed by Dugdale, who quotes from 



88 The Abbey. 

a chronicle of Coggeshall in the Cottonian Library (sub effigie 
Neronis, D 2) to the following effect : " In year 1142, the Abbey 
of Coggeshall was founded by King Stephen and Matilda his 
Queen, who also founded the abbeys of Furness, Lungvillars and 
Favresham, where their bodies were interred. In the same year 
the convent came together at Coggeshall in Nones of August." 

The greatest benefactor of the abbey was Queen Matilda, who 
endowed it with the Manor of Coggeshall, one of the estates she 
inherited as heiress of the house of Boulogne. This Manor, at 
the time of the Domesday Survey belonged to Earl Eustace, and 
was held by him in demesne having been held in the time of 
King Edward the Confessor by Colo, a freeman, for one manor, 
and for three and a half hides and thirty-three acres. The survey 
continues, " Always iii teams in the demesne, and when he got 
possession i team ; then (i.e. temp. Edw. the Confessor) xvi teams 
of the homagers afterwards and now (circa 1086, A.D.) xiv; then 
xi villeins, afterwards and now ix ; then xxii bordars now xxxi ; 
now iv serfs ; then wood for dc swine now for d ; xxxviii acres of 
meadow. As much pasture as is worth x pence. Always i mill, 
i horse, xv swine, iv goats, iv hives of bees. To this manor 
belong xi socmen, and i priest, and i swineheard, and i hired 
servant. To this manor have been added xxxviii acres which i 
freeman holds of the king. Then this manor was worth x pounds, 
now xiv ; but yet it yields xx pounds and the above-mentioned 
xxxviii acres are worth x shillings." 

Such is probably the estate which passed to the abbey, as in 
the charter or deed of gift the manor is granted to the abbot and 
convent of Coggeshall, as freely and peaceably as "Count Eustace, 
my father, and we afterwards more freely and peaceably held it 
free from scots, aids, shires, hundreds, Dane gelt, and all things 
of the army and horsemen, from work of the park, from work and 
custody of the castle, from all other works and all kinds of service, 
from murder and all other things, and all fines, with sacha and 
socha, and toll and team, and power to punish crime, and all 
customs and liberties." 

The grant was confirmed at Coggeshall by King Stephen in 
the presence of his Queen, their son, Eustace, Count of Boulogne, 
and others, and was subsequently further confirmed by William, 
Earl of Boulogne and Warren, another son of Stephen and 
Matilda. 



Grants and Endowments. 89 

Matilda also granted to the monks at Coggeshall an exemption 
from toll and other customs throughout all the lands belonging to 
her and her son, Eustace, both in England and at Boulogne. 

King Henry II. confirmed to GOD and to the Holy Mother of 
GOD, Mary, and to the Cistercian monks " all the Manor of Coke- 
shale, where the abbey is situated, and to the same church what 
they have at Toleshunt of- the fee of Geofry de Tregoz, of the fee 
of Geofry de Magnaville, at Neweshales ; of the fee of Baldwin 
de Rouet, and what they possess in the lands of Moldeburne, and 
in the marshes of Hely." This grant was confirmed by Henry II., 
in the eighteenth year of his reign. 

William Filiol, with the consent of Emme his wife, and Bald- 
win his son, gave to the Abbey of Coggeshall, and the monks 
there serving GOD, in pure and perpetual eleemosinary for the souls 
of his son Ralph, and of his own heirs, one acre, one rood, and 
four perches of pasture on this side of the rivulet, from the spring 
of Stokewelle on the east of the abbey, for which, before the 
death of his son Ralph, they were accustomed to pay 12 pence 
per annum. The name of Filiol, or Foliole, occurs on the Roll 
of Battle Abbey, 1066, among the names of the warriors who 
fought under the banner of the Conqueror. 

On the seal of the grant by William Filiol to Coggeshall 
Abbey, 'is a representation of a font, with a king on one side, and 
a bishop on the other, holding a child as in the ceremony of bap- 
tism, from which it is supposed that the family had a tradition of 
this surname (fileul, a godson) having been given at the time of 
baptism to one of their ancestors, by one of the kings of England. 
Baldwin Filiol had an estate at Kelvedon, in or about the reign of 
King Stephen, and it continued in the family of that name for 
several generations, and from Filiols Hall it is supposed that the 
present name of the property, P'elix Hall, is corrupted, but it is 
possible that Felix Hall is associated with much earlier, namely, 
Roman times. 

King Richard I., by charter, commanded that the brethren of 
this abbey, and all their men and things, be quit at fairs and sea- 
port, from toll and passage, portage and pedage, and every other 
custom and secular exaction, for all things which they should buy 
or sell, or cause to be carried away, throughout every place under 
the king's authority, by land or by water, to their proper use ; and 
no one was to vex or disturb them, for the king acknowledged 



9 The Abbey. 

that he held them and theirs in his protection and custody, and 
any who should vex or injure them or theirs could not look for 
his Majesty's protection. 

Ralph the Vintner, between the years 1154-89, gave to the 
Abbey of Coggeshall, and to the monks there serving GOD, an 
annual rent of half a mark, which they were to receive from the 
rent of the cellar next to the chapel of Saint Thomas the Martyr, 
in London, namely: forty pence at the Feast of the Passover, and 
forty pence at the Feast of St. Michael. This rent he gave, and 
by his charter confirmed to them, to buy wine for saying masses 
for the souls of all his ancestors, and for the welfare of himself, 
his wife, his children, and all his benefactors. Shortly afterwards, 
William, the son of Ralph the Vintner, by charter confirmed the 
gift of his father. Later on, we read that Ralph, Abbot of Cog- 
geshall and the convent of Coggeshall, sold to the Abbot and 
convent of St. Peter, Gloucester, all the rent which they formerly 
held of the gift of Ralph the Vintner, arising from a certain cellar 
near the Church of Saint Martin of Bermanchurch, in London, 
and for this sale the Abbot and convent of Gloucester gave to 
the Abbey of Coggeshall, five marks sterling. (See the Car- 
tulary of the Monastery of St. Peter, Gloucester ; M.R. Series, 
Vol. i, p. 390.) 

King John, on xoth January, 1243, gave the monks of Cog- 
geshall leave to enclose their wood in the Manor of Coggeshall 
(doubtless the same as is now called Monk Wood), with a ditch 
and hedge of pales, and with gates, and to convert it into a park, 
with liberty to fell therein whatever they wished, and of having 
their dogs, and the dogs of their men unbound for which they 
paid the king an acknowledgment of forty marks. 

Robert Hovel, and Margaret, his wife, in 1249, g ave to tne 
Abbot and monks of Coggeshall the advowson of Childerditch, 
and they presented to it, as a rectory, till 1370. 

King Henry III., in 1251, granted a license for the monks to 
enclose their woods and heaths at Tolleshunt Mayer (Major), 
Tolleshunt Tregoz, Inneworth, Chiltenditch, and Warlegh Setmoll, 
with a small ditch and low hedge, according to the rule of the 
forest, so that the deer with their young, might have free ingress 
and egress, and that the foresters, both horsemen and footmen, 
might also have ingress and egress to survey and keep the deer 
there abiding; but the commoners were not to be deprived of their 



Grants and Endowments. 91 

rights of common, by reason of the grant. This King also con- 
firmed, in 1247, to the Abbot and convent of Coggeshall, that 
they might have free warren in all their demesne lands at Cogges- 
hall, so that none might enter their lands to hunt in them, or to 
take anything which belonged to free warren, without the license 
of the abbot and convent, upon forfeiture of 10. Three years 
afterwards (1250), King Henry granted to the Abbot and convent 
that they might have one fair for their Manor of Coggeshall every 
year, to continue for eight days, on the eve and on the day of 
St. Peter ad Vincula and six days following unless that fair was 
prejudicial to neighbouring fairs. 

It will be noticed that the fair commenced on the feast day of 
St. Peter ad Vincula (ist August), the patron saint of the parish 
church. The annual fair, in 1728, was held on Friday in Whit- 
week ; it is now held on Whit-Tuesday. Then again, Henry III., 
in 1256, granted to the Abbot and convent of Coggeshall the 
right to hold a market at Coggeshall every week, on Saturday, 
with all liberties and free customs belonging to such market, unless 
that market were damaging to neighbouring markets. 

The market, such as it is, is now held on Thursday, the day 
having been probably changed on account of the presentment, in 
the loth year of Edward II., that the abbot held a market on 
Saturdays, at the village of Coggeshall, to the detriment of that at 
Colchester. 

In 1270, Herbert de Markeshall received a license from the 
crown to give 60 acres of arable land in his Manor of Markeshall 
to the monastery here. He died at Markeshall about 1274. 

In 1276, Ralph de Coggeshall also gave the monks here, 60 
acres of arable land. 

Ralph, the son of Laurence, of Coggeshall, gave to the Church 
of St. Mary, of Coggeshall, and to the monks there serving GOD, 
a tenement which the same Ralph had in the town of Markeshall, 
of the gift of Herbert de Markeshall, and this gift was confirmed 
by King Edward I., in 1279. 

In the i Qth year of his reign, the charters of the Abbey were 
confirmed by King Edward II. 

King Edward III., in 1344, in consideration of a promise by 
the Abbot and convent of Coggeshall to find a monk as Chaplain 
to celebrate divine service each day in their conventual church, in 
honour of GOD and of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and for the safety 



92 The Abbey. 

of the king and queen, and of their children while they lived, and 
for their souls when they died, granted to the same Abbot and 
convent, one pipe of red wine to be received each year at London, 
at Easter, by the hands of the Gentlemen of the Wine Cellar. 

In the loth year of Edward III., John de Kelvedon and others 
gave to the Abbot of Coggeshall, 3 messuages and 2 tofts, in Cog- 
geshall. Eighteen years later, Galfridus de Stocktone gave to the 
Abbey one messuage and certain lands in Coggeshall, Stisted, 
Peering and Pattiswick. In the 34th year of the same reign, 
Matilda, the wife of John Cachpol, gave to the Abbot and con- 
vent of Coggeshall, one messuage and half an acre of land, with 
the appurtenances, in the town of Coggeshall. 

William de Hamberstane, with other persons, in the 5151 year 
of Edward III., gave to the monastery here, the Manor of Tilling- 
ham Hall, in Childerditch, Dodingherst and Southwelde, to sup- 
port a light before the principal altar of the church of the convent, 
when high mass was celebrated. 

From a license, granted by King Hen. IV., on the 27th January, 
1407, it appears that a chantry was founded here by Joan de 
Bohun, Countess of Hereford, Margaret, the wife of Sir Hugh de 
Badew, William Bourchier, William Marney, Nicholas Hunt, 
Robert Rikedon, Edmund Peverell, Henry Frank, clerk, Geoffry 
Colvill, and John Norman, chaplain, for one monk to pray daily 
for the souls of Hugh Badew, and Margaret, his wife, and Thomas 
Coggeshall; the endowment, consisting of a rent-charge of ;io 
per annum, issuing out of two messuages, a fulling mill, 240 acres 
of arable, 1 1 acres of meadow, 46 of pasture, and 2 acres of wood, 
in Springfield and Sandon, called Springfield Barnes and Sand- 
ford Barnes. 

The value of the estates of the Abbey, in 1291, appears from 
a taxation of Pope Nicholas, to have been^n6 los. per annum 
a very large sum in those days derived from the following 
sources : In Berkewye de redd, 8 : In Alflameston de red, 8s. 
6d. : In Northon, 45. : In Springesfend, 2. : In Lega Magna, 
is. lod. : In Chelmersford, is. : In Parva Waltham, 55. : In Bor- 
ham, is. : In Muslesham, IDS. : In Estorp, i i8s. : In Birithe 
Magna, is. : In Messing, 155. 6d. : In Inneworth, 6 135. 4d. : 
In Coggishale, ^67 us. lod. : In Markishale, i is. nd. : In 
Feringge, ^3 55. 4d. : In Goldhangre, 5 95. : In Tholishunte 
Mangers, 14 33. 2d. : In Tholishunte Trogoz, ^3 35. 4d. : In 



The Seal. 



93 



Bracstead Magna, 45.: In Colcestria, 1 38 2d. Total, 
i os. nd. 

Unfortunately, the Ecclesiastical Survey, which was made in 
the a6th year of King Henry VIII. is lost, so far as it concerned 
the county of Essex, but the Liber Valorum gives the clear value 
at ^251 2S. ; although Speed, who doubtless was referring to the 
gross value, gives the income at ^298 8s. 

The abbey was surrended on the 5th February, 29 Henry 
VI II., and in the History of the Reformation it is thus mentioned 
" Coxhall, Cisterc the Abbot, Essex, 5th February, Regni, 29 ; 
but Newcourt gives the i8th March as the date. 

The seal of the abbey, attached to the surrender in the Aug- 
mentation Office, is round, and bears the Virgin seated in a 




THE SEAL OF THE ABBEY. 

canopied niche with crown, the Child with nimbus, on her right 
knee. In a smaller canopied niche, on each side, a group of six 
kneeling monks. In base, under an arch on the left, a shield of 
arms : quarterly, i . 4, France modern ; 2, 3, England. The 
corresponding shield on the right, is broken away ; in an impres- 
sion referred to by Dugdale, Mon. Angl. Vol. V.,p. 452, it bears : 
three cocks Coggeshall Abbey, SIGILLVM COMVNE ECCL'IE MON- 
ASTER DE COGGESHALE. [Catalogue of seals in British Museum, 




94 The Abbey. 

No. 2972, [15 century] Sulph cast from imperfect impression, 2^ 
in. [Ixiii., 5]. 

V^ j> Among the MS. notes at the end of 

Salmon's History of Essex, presented to 
the Colchester Museum by the Revd. 
Jenkins, is a copy of the seal of Cog- 
geshall Abbey, temp. Henry IV. : the 
Virgin bearing the Child, at her feet are 
two cocks, but the armorial shields are 
not added. 

The Cistercian order is generally considered to owe its reputa- 
tion, in some degree, to Stephen Harding, an Englishman, but 
more especially to St. Bernard, who joined it in 1113. The 
name of the order is derived from Citeaux, (Latin, Cistercium), 
about 14 miles north-east of Beaune, in France, the place where 
the foundation was first established in 1098. The founder is 
said to have been St. Robert, Abbot of Molesme, sometimes 
known as Robert de Thierry. The manner of life of this re- 
formed order was of the simplest possible character, their fare 
consisting generally of only one substantial meal a day, while 
their labor was manual rather than mental, their chief occupation 
being the cultivation of the soil and the manufacture of woollen 
articles. When not so engaged, the brethren would be employed 
in prayer and contemplation. 

The picture which lay before the monks as they entered their 
new abode, whether by the ancient way from Verulamium to Cam- 
ulodunum or by a detour from the London Road, must have 
been a pleasant one. At their feet were the fertile pastures bor- 
dering the ancient little river Blackwater, soon to be diverted into 
another channel for their milling operations,* while on the north, 
extending far afield, were the arbor clad slopes which to this 
day are known as Monk Woods and Monk Downs. 

Their monastic buildings, as was the rule of this order, they 
erected on the low ground adjoining the river. The general plan 
of most of the Cistercian monasteries was of the same design, 
varied only by the peculiar circumstances of the situation, and, 

* In the days of Edward the Confessor and William the Conqueror, there 
was a mill at Coggeshall, and it is probable that it occupied the site of the 
Tye Mill, the heading of water for which was derived from the Marks Hall 
watershed. 



Monastic Buildings. 95 

such being the case, we may to some extent learn the ichnography 
of the conventual buildings here. 

The Abbey is reached by the road leading from the town of 
Coggeshall to Kelvedon and the lane which at the top of Grange 
Hill strikes out at right angles to the east. At the end of this 
lane the gatehouse doubtless stood, with the almonry and chamber 
above for the lower class of guests on the south side, while on the 
north was, and still is, the little chapel dedicated to St. Nicholas, 
and described in detail later on. 

Forming the north side of the plan was the church, dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the western fagade of which presented 
itself to the traveller as he passed along the abbey lane. This 
magnificient building was opened for divine service in 1167, for 
the Chronicle of Ralph, Abbot of Coggeshall, tells us that in this 
year, at Coggeshall, the great altar was dedicated in honor of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, by Gilbert Foliol, Bishop of London, who, 
on the same day on that altar, solemnly celebrated mass ; Simon 
de Toni being abbot of that place. 

Although no fragment remains of this great building, its 
foundation lines may be easily traced in a dry summer, and were 
plainly visible in 1888. It was stepped by the Rev. W. J. 
Dampier, on 2Qth June, 1865, and he estimated the nave to be 
141 feet by 24 feet ; the chancel, 34 feet by 24 feet ; and the north 
and south transepts, 31 feet by 24 feet each ; and the lady chapel 
beyond the chancel, 31 feet by 24 feet. Mr. Dampier conjectured 
that there was a lean-to on the north and south sides, measuring 
about 10 feet internally. The foundation walls were about 5 feet 
wide. I have in my possession a large brick found on the Abbey 
Farm, and having a circular face ; if this brick formed part of a 
pillar of the church, it gives the columns a diameter of about 4 
feet. The tower was probably a central one, low, and without 
turrets and pinnacles. There was a crucifix, but no other carv- 
ings or representations of saints were allowed, the windows were 
of plain glass, and the candlesticks of iron ; precious metal and 
ornamentation being avoided by this order as far as possible. 

After the dissolution of the monastery, St. Mary's Church was 
pulled down, and tradition, in Holman's time (nearly two centuries 
ago) said that the bells were carried to Kelvedon. The materials 
of this grand building, even to the foundations, were doubtless 
utilized for road mending and similar purposes. 



9 6 The Abbey. 

On the north side of the church the graveyard was generally 
located ; a fact which demonstrates that the superstition as to burial 
on the north side, which prevailed among the ignorant classes, did 
not extend to the inmates of the convent. 

On the south side of the church was the cloister, around 
which were clustered the buildings connected with the daily 
routine of the monastic life. One of the most important of these 
buildings was the chapter house, which invariably was entered 
from the east walk of the cloister, in a line with the south transept, 
and was a square building, generally divided by pillars and arches. 
South of the chapter house was usually the calefactory or apart- 
ment, warmed with flues, and forming the undercroft of the dor- 
mitory or sleeping chamber of the brethren. The dormitory was 
generally a long apartment running over the calefactory and 
chapter house, and had an approach at the north end by a flight 
of steps, into the church. At the south end of the calefactory 
were the lavatories and the other necessary houses of the establish- 
ment, built with scrupulous regard to health and cleanliness. The 
supply of fresh water was doubtless obtained from the hill sides 
on the east of the river, as these abound with an inexhaustible 
store of the purest quality, and it would seem that it was conveyed 
to the conventual buildings through socket and spigot pipes of 
red brick earth, 4 inches square tapering to 3^ inches at the spigot 
end, and having a circular bore i| inches in diameter. Some 
pipes (two in the writer's possession) of this description were 
found in Claypit Field (No. 341, Ord. Survey), during the drain- 
age operations which were effected in 1887, and it may be that 
here was the "spring of Stoke well on the east of the abbey," 
referred to in the grant by William Filiol, mentioned in a previous 
page. On the south side of the cloisters, running north to south, 
was the refectory or dining hall, while along the entire length of 
the west side of the cloister quadrangle ran the cellars and store- 
houses, with the long dormitory above for the lay brethren. The 
abbot's house was usually detached from the other monastic 
buildings, as also were the mill, farm buildings, workshops and 
outhouses. 

Such then were the general arrangements of the buildings of 
the Cistercian houses, and an admirable arrangement it was ; the 
neighbouring land and buildings served for the purposes of the 
monks as cultivators of the soil, grinders of corn, manufacturers 



Monastic Buildings. 



97 



of clothes, shoes and other articles of a domestic nature. Nearer 
home were the buildings devoted to hospitality and storage, while 
beneath the shadow of the church, were clustered the apartments 
connected with the spiritual life and discipline of the order, and 
those used for refection and repose. 

The monastic buildings at Coggeshall must have covered a 
large area, the extent of which can in some degree be gathered 
from the foundation lines of the church, and the few buildings 




THE AMBULATORY. 

which still remain, and among these may be noticed the principal 
walls of the present Abbey House, about 30 inches thick. In the 
kitchen, a pointed or transition Norman arch, forming part of an 
arcade, attracts the attention, and over it may be seen the sill of 
one of the clerestory windows thus leading one to suppose that 
we have here a portion of the Chapter House, similar in fact, to 
the Chapter House which figures in the plan of the Cistercian 
monastery of Fountains Abbey, except, perhaps, the arch is a little 

H 



98 The Abbey. 

too much to the south of the church. The wall, of which this 
arch is a continuation, runs from west to east. The respond has 
angular corners and is built of brick, but the column, which is also 
of brick, is round, and is surmounted by a Norman limestone 
capital. 

Forming the southern portion of the eastern side of the 
cloister-quadrangle is a long vaulted apartment with chamfered 
brick arch and groin ribs with spandrils composed of rounded 
blocks of chalk. This was probably the calefactory or ambulatory, 
where the monks warmed themselves, and above is what was 
doubtless a dormitory. In the west wall of this building, as also 
in the north wall of the building next described, may be seen the 
capitals from which sprung the groin ribs of another apartment or 
series of chambers, the western facade of which, continued north- 
ward, would concur with the western wall of the south transept of 
the church, and thus the eastern side of the quadrangle would be 
complete. 

To the south of the last mentioned buildings is a parallelogram 
of two stories, with an entry to the upper story from the dormitory 
over the calefactory, and to the ground floor from the ambulatory. 
It is difficult to conceive what this building was used for, but it is 
certainly one of interest, and the coloring, plain though it was, 
which decorated the Avails, shows that it was of some importance. 
The doorway at the east end of the north wall in the upper floor, 
has a round arch of moulded brick, and above this, but not imme- 
diately over the centre of the arch, was a circular window, the 
lower part of which only now remains. In this upper chamber, at 
the east end, are two lancet shaped windows, and between them is 
a large recess, which appears to have been used for a seat. There 
is another recess or seat, the occupant of which commanded a 
view along the dormitory over the calefactory. 

To the west of this building, according to the Cistercian 
arrangement, the refectory would stand, and, with other buildings, 
would form the southern side of the cloisters. 

Near to the south-east corner of the building just described, 
and close to the bridge over the river, is what is known as the 
Monk House, but why so called is not known. It has an open 
timber roof, and around the sides below are a number of recesses, 
five in the east wall, a Irke number in the west wall, and two 
beside the doorway in the north wall. It would seem that these 



Monastic Buildings. 



99 



were intended for sedilia. On each side of the building are four 
lancet windows splaying inward. 

Such of the abbey buildings as remain are composed princi- 
pally of flint rubble with brick dressings. Thin tiles are used 
unsparingly for bonding purposes. 

Beside the large Norman capital in the Abbey House, there 
are two smaller capitals of coeval date with that in the house. 
One of them is in the garden and forms part of a bordering of a 
flower bed, and the other is built into the east wall of the building 
locally known as the Monk House; the sketch shows to some 
extent how it is embedded in the rubble work. Purbeck marble 
was used for the smaller shafts and capitals. 




NORMAN CAPITAL. 



On the north of the site of the monastery church, the contour 
of the ground indicates that there was a large square enclosure, 
but there are no signs of the foundation of a wall or other build- 
ing. The Ordnance surveyors have erroneously marked this spot 
as the site of St. Mary's Church. 



H 2 



100 



The Abbey. 




woodcut represents the condition of the little Abbey 
JL Chapel of St. Nicholas, in the early part of the year 1889. 
It has since been partially restored by repairing the roof and other 
parts of the building. 

Saint Nicholas, who is the patron saint of mariners and of 
schoolboys, was made bishop of Myra, in Lycia, a province of 
Asia, by Constantine the Great. He died, A.D. 343. 

Holman, writing more than a century and a half ago, and 
quoting from the Villare Essexia, says, that " Little Coggeshall 
was formerly reputed a parish, and had two churches, the one built 
by the abbot for himself and monks, and stood in the field called 
the Parke, on the left side of the abbey, and dedicated to Saint 
Mary the Blessed Virgin, is entirely demolished. The other was 
built for the inhabitants of this Hamlet and stands on the left 
hand of the lane leading from the king's highway to the abbey 
and not far from it, 'tis called the chapel of Little Coggeshall, and 
is now converted into a barn or hay-house and most of it is exist- 
ing at this day." 

Whether the church secondly referred to and illustrated above, 



St. Nicholas' Chapel. 



101 



was the parish church of Little Coggeshall, as some have con- 
tended, or was built for the inhabitants of that parish by the 
monks, as stated in the Villare Essexce, seems open to question. 
It is more probable that it corresponds with the chapel s"hown on 
the plan of the Monastic Establishment of Citeaux as close to the 
Gate House ; and, if such was the case, we may picture the wel- 
come traveller of past ages being led thither by the Lord Ralph, 
6th abbot of Coggeshall, or by one of the succeeding abbots, for 
the short prayer which was accustomably said before the guest 
was the recipient of the hospitality generously accorded by the 
brethren ; but having regard to the dedication, it may be suggested 
that the chapel was built for the scholastic department of the 
abbey. 

The plan of the building is of a simple quadrilateral design 
without aisles or transept, and measures internally from east to 
west, 43 feet ; and from north to south, 20 feet. It is constructed 
of rubble, consisting principally of flints and fragments of early 
English brick and tiles, while the quoins and dressings are of 
bricks, varying from i| to 2 inches in thickness, and being about 
12 inches by 6 inches in length and breadth. It is considered a 
remarkable example of early English brickwork, and especial atten- 
tion is directed to the mouldings of the bricked mullions of the 
east and west windows. // is one of the earliest instances, if not the 
earliest, of moulded brickwork i?i the kingdom. 

The walls rest upon a concrete bed and are about 3 feet thick, 
and it would seem were originally coated with plaster or stucco, 
both inside and out. The building is entered by a door on the 




102 The Abbey. 

south side near the west end. On each side of the door is a lancet 
window, with exterior dimensions 6 feet 4 inches high and 2 feet 
broad, splaying inward to a height of 8 feet and a breadth of 4 
feet 7 inches. There are two other windows on the south side, 
but their sills are elevated to give height to the sedilia and piscina. 
In the north wall there are four lancet windows, similar to those 
east and west of the doorway. The windows in the east and west 
walls are triple lancets within a containing arch ; these windows 
are of remarkably graceful proportions, and the curve of the con- 
taining arch with the hood moulding over the western window 
is particularly worthy of notice. 

Round the interior of the chapel, just beneath the windows, 
there is a string course of semi-circular faced bricks projecting 
about i^r inches, each of which is about 12 inches long by 2 inches 
in thickness. At the east end of the south wall the string rises 
and runs along the top of the sedilia, three in number, the arches 
of which are composed of brick and spring from limestone sup- 
ports. To the east of and adjoining the sedilia is an arched recess, 
and there were formerly the remains of two square drains pierced 
through the bricks which formed its sill ; the sill is gone, but the 
drains are still extant. This recess was doubtless a double piscina. 
Between it and the east wall is a niche, 23 inches wide, 2 feet 6 
inches high and recessed about 13 inches, formed of limestone 
and having a trefoil-shaped arch-heading. It is still in good pre- 
servation and most probably served as a credence. The aumbry 
with its new oak sill and top, restored as far as was practicable to 
its original state, is to be seen in the north wall near the east end. 
A small part of the original moulded oak wall-plate, with its some- 
what singular stop,- remains at the east end of the north wall. 
The roof is high pitched, the eastern half being raised slightly 
above the other portion. 

The plastering of the interior, above the string course, was 
relieved by coloring of a simple character, consisting of double 
chocolate one-eighth inch lines three-eights of an inch apart. 
These ran round the building at horizontal intervals of five inches, 
divided vertically so as to represent stone work. The pattern may 
still be seen, and there may yet be traced the emerald green which 
gave colour to the string course, and there is enough of the flow- 
ing foliage pattern which filled the spaces between the lancets and 
containing arch of the east window to show its early English 



S. Nicholas 1 Chapel. 103 

character. In the upper part of the central seat of the sedilia 
there remains part of the original cruciform nimbus of reddish 
colour. 

Many years ago this sacred building was converted into a barn, 
part of the south wall being removed and a wing attached. The 
unsightly addition was demolished shortly after the conveyance 
of the building and the surrounding three roods and thirty-five 
perches was made to the vicar of Coggeshall, the late Rev. William 
James Dampier, and his successors in the vicarage. Through the 
energy of this good man a partial restoration was effected. The 
property was purchased from Mr. Jonathan Bullock, on 3rd Janu- 
ary, 1860, for ^100 the proceeds of the sale of one rood and 
five perches, part of the glebe land of the vicarage, sold as a site 
for Sir Robert Hitcham's School. This statement will remove the 
erroneous impression, which has prevailed with some, to the effect 
that the piece of ground was given to the vicar of Coggeshall for 
the maintenance of the fabric of the building. The land belongs 
to the vicar of Coggeshall as part of his glebe. 

On the igth March, 1860, the ground was fenced in; and, on 
the 2ist April, 1863, the first stone of the restored doorway was 
laid by Miss Ellen Bithia Appleford, daughter of the late Mr. 
William Appleford, of the Abbey Mills, and possibly a descendant 
of Richard Abberforde, who farmed the woods of Coggeshall 
Manor in the 22nd year of Queen Elizabeth ; and it is parentheti- 
cally suggested that this family derived its name from the fact that 
they resided hard by the Abbey-ford. The doorway was finished 
on the nth May following, and in November of the same year 
the building was new thatched, and some of the quoins and 
dressings were about the same time restored with bricks of the 
original type specially moulded for the purpose. 

During this partial restoration, fragments of coloured glass, 
pieces of the Purbeck marble shafts of the sedilia and part of the 
font or of the stoup were found, also the base of the font nearly 
opposite t the door and close to the north wall, and with these 
remains were associated pieces of the pavement, which was of tile } 
coloured black, yellow, or buff and green. The bricks which form 
the step of the doorway appear to have been part of the jambs of 
the original doorway. 



The Abbey. 

of 

THE following brief notes concerning the Abbots are chiefly 
extracted from the Chronicle of Ralph de Coggeshall 
(Stevenson's Edit., Master of Rolls Series, 1875), these excepts, 
translated into English, appear in inverted commas ; the further 
details are principally from Dugdatis Monasticon. 

(i.) WILLIAM was the first abbot. He occurs as a witness to 
a deed, about 1 144, in the Chartulary of Colne Priory. 

(2.) SIMON DE TONI was the next abbot. "1168, Lord 
Simon, the second abbot, retired from Coggeshall, and returned 
to his monastery at Melrose." 

(3.) "1169; to whom succeeded LORD ODO, third abbot of 
the same place." " 1172 ; the ordination of Lord Simon, Bishop 
of Moray (Maraviensis), loth Kalends of February, sometime 
Abbot of Coggeshall." "1176; died, Lord Odo, of pious me- 
mory, third Abbot of Coggeshall : 

(4.) To whom succeeded LORD PETER, Monk of Valle Uei, 
brother to Master Stephen, Chancellor of the Church of Lincoln." 
" 1194 : died Lord Peter, fourth Abbot of Coggeshall : 

(5.) To whom succeeded LORD THOMAS, a monk of the same 
place." " 1207 : died Lord Thomas, fifth Abbot of Coggeshall : 

(6.) To whom succeeded, LORD RALPH, a monk of the same 
place, who wrote this Chronicle, from the taking of the Holy Cross 
to the nth year of King Henry III., the son of King John ; and 
took care faithfully to note down certain visions which he heard 
from men worthy of respect, for the edification of many." 

Of Ralph de Coggeshall much has been written; Dr. Cutts 
translating Bale (Script Brit, centuria, j, cap. 88), says, he was " a 
Monk of the Cistercian Order, a man of polished erudition, as 
well as of temperance, and arrived at such a degree of excellence 
in literature as to be esteemed by far the first of the brethren of 
his convent. He was trained in liberal studies even from boyhood, 
and by means of his great industry he obtained the honor of 
intimacy with the most eminent men ; whence, at length being 
found worthy to govern others, he was preferred to the abbacy of 
Coggeshall, in Essex ; being the 6th abbot from its foundation. 
In this office he scarcely suffered one day to pass entirely free 
from some useful study, but would always be learning something, 



The Abbots of Coggeshall, 105 

either from humane letters or from history, or from the Sacred 
Scriptures. He made an Appendix to Ralph Niger's Chronicle 
concerning the distinguished deeds of the Emperors and Kings 
of France and England, from the Capture of the Cross as is 
therein stated, or from the year of grace, 1113, to the eleventh 
year of Henry the third, the son of King John ; which work he 
calls, ' Additions to Ralph Niger, in one book, beginning in the 
year of grace, 1 1 14, King Henry.' He also wrote, ' A Chronicle 
of the Holy Land, in one book, beginning Quantis pressuris et 
calamitatibus,' ' Concerning certain Visions, in one book,' ' Certain 
Sermons, and many other things.'" 

For further information concerning the Coggeshall chronicler, 
the reader is referred to Dunkirfs Edition of his works, pub- 
lished in 1857, one part of which, viz.: "A Chronicle of the 
Holy Land" by Ralph, Abbot of Coggeshall, was translated by 
the Rev. E. L. Cutts. 

Now with regard to this " Chronicle of the Holy Land," which 
so many writers have attributed to the same authorship as that of 
the "Chronicle of Ralph, Abbot of Coggeshall," Mr. Stevenson 
has pointed out * that there is no direct evidence for this assump- 
tion, either external or internal ; there is a marked difference 
between the two in respect to style and the general treatment of 
the narrative, and in some instances the facts recorded in the one 
are inconsistent with the corresponding statement in the other. 
The assertion that they are to be ascribed to the same pen has 
probably arisen from the circumstance that they both occur in the 
same volume, but to whatever source it be referred it would 
appear to be untenable. 

The Chronicon Anglicanum contains very few notes of local 
interest; it however tells us that "In the year 1216, on the day 
of the Circumcision of the Lord, at Coggeshall, while the third 
hour was said, they (i.e. the knights and attendants of King John) 
violently entered the church and led away 22 horses which were 
the property of the Bishop of London and his brother the Trea- 
surer, and others." 

"1218. In the same year, Lord Ralph, sixth Abbot of Cog- 
geshall, having now for eleven years and two months administered, 
about the feast of Saint John the Baptist, against the will of his 

* No. 66 M.R. Series of Chron. of Great Britain, xviii. 



io6 



The Abbey. 



convent ; of his own accord renounced the pastoral cure, suffering 
from frequent indisposition. To him at once succeeded, by the 
choice of the same abbot and convent, Lord Benedict de Straford? 
a venerable man and vigorous in acting; who formerly, for 19 
years, actively presided over the same Abbey of Straford, and in- 
creased it in many ways with large rents and possessions, as well 
in benefices as in lands and marshes." 

"In the year of the Incarnation of the Lord, 1223, died Lord 
Benedict, Abbot of Coggeshall ; to whom succeeded Lord Geoff- 
rey, prior of the same place." 

The lists of Abbots is unfortunately very incomplete. 
William Joldayn was abbot in 1341. 
John Taseler from 1437 to 1449, when he was succeeded by 

Simon Pabenham. 

John Samford resigned in 1527, when 
William Love was elected to succeed him. 
Henry More was abbot at the time of the surrender. 




A CISTERCIAN MONK. 



The Abbey Farm. 107 



THE king did not long retain possession of the Abbey, for, in 
the same year as the dissolution (A.D. 1538), he granted the 
"principal or chief site of the monastery" to Sir Thomas Sey- 
mour, brother of Sir Edward Seymour (afterwards Duke of 
Somerset and Lord Protector of the Kingdom), who, on i2th 
May, 1541, exchanged it for other property belonging to the 
Crown. In the same grant reference is made to the Rectory and 
Advowson of the Churches and Vicarages of Childerditch and 
Coggeshall, the Manors of Coggeshall, Childerditch, Tillingham 
and Kewton Hall, Lions, Tolleshunt Major, Chedingsell, Tutwyke, 
Bonsey alias Bouseys, Holfield Grange and Bushey Gate House. 

The present farmhouse has on the porch a freestone inlaid 
with these initials: R B A and under them the date, 1581. The B 
is probably the initial letter of the surname of the owner or occu- 
pier, who may have been a Bacon, a Benion, or a Bettenson. 
Matthew Bacon had a lease in 1598, of the Mansion house pre- 
viously held by Sir John Sharpe, lying within the monastery, and 
later on, the Benyans and Bettonsons were owners or tenants of 
some importance in respect of lands in this locality. The R and 
the A would doubtless be the initials of the Christian names of 
the husband and wife, and possibly are those of Richard Beniyam 
generosus, whose wife (H)anna was buried in the parish church- 
yard, 1 6th Jany., 1603. 

The Abbey Farm was afterwards possessed by Sir Mark Guyon, 
who died in 1690, leaving no male issue, but two daughters as his 
co-heiresses, one of whom, Elizabeth, married Edward Bullock, 
Esq., son of Edward Bullock, Esq., of Faulkborne Hall ; she had 
one child only, who, with its mother, died within a month of its 
birth. Rachel, the other daughter of Sir Mark, was first married 
to Thomas Guyon, Esq., and afterwards to her brother-in-law, 
John Bullock, Esq., of Dynes Hall, Great Maplestead. They had 
issue John, who died, unmarried, at the age of 23 years, and was 
buried in the chancel of Faulkborne Church, and Rachel, who 
survived her father, but died in 1765, a spinster and intestate. 
Josiah Bullock was for a time entitled to the Essex Estates of 
the family, and on his decease, on 29th February, 1751, his widow 
Hannah, the youngest daughter of Sir Thomas Cooke, Kt, was in 
possession. By her he had issue two sons, Edward and John, 



io8 The Abbey. 

and a daughter Elizabeth, who married Jonathan Watson, Esq., 
of Ringshall, Suffolk. Hannah Bullock died, 8th April, 1783, 
whereupon the Faulkborne, Radwinter and Coggeshall Estates 
passed to Jonathan Josiah Christopher Bullock, Esq., eldest son 
of Jonathan Watson, Esq. In the year 1810, he took the name 
of Bullock, by permission of King George III., and in compliance 
with the will of his maternal uncle, John Bullock. J. J. C. 
Bullock died, 22nd January, 1832, aged 82 years, having married 
Juliana Elizabeth, daughter of Anicetus Thomas, Esq., of Chelsea, 
niece and heiress of Elizabeth Bullock, wife of John Bullock. 
They had thirteen children, several of whom predeceased them. 
Jonathan Bullock died, 3oth Sept., 1860, possessed of the Abbey 
and other estates at Coggeshall. He was succeeded by his son, 
the Rev. Walter Trevelyan Bullock, by whose trustees the abbey 
was sold in 1879. Arms of Bullock: gu., a chevron, erm., 
between 3 bulls' heads cabosed, arg., horned or., crest, on a torse, 
ar., gu., five bills or staves sa., bound with an escarf knot, tasselled 
gu. The family first appear in Coggeshall in 1566, in which year, 
on 1 5th October, Robert Bullock married Elizabeth Trewe. 

The purchaser of the Abbey was Sidney Pattisson, Esq., who 
resided there for a short time. He is the eldest son of Jacob 
Pattisson, by marriage with Emily Elizabeth Hawkes, of Bishop 
Stortford. Jacob was the son of Fisher Unwin Pattisson, who 
married Eliza Houston. Fisher Unwin Pattisson was a son of 
Jacob Pattisson and Elizabeth (Unwin), who were married at Cog- 
geshall on 24th August, 1785. Jacob was a son of Joseph and 
Elizabeth (nee Wallman). Joseph was a son of Robert and 
Rachel (nee Todd). Robert was a son of Jacob and Elizabeth 
(nee Bidwell). Jacob was a son of Jacob, who died in 1709. 
The father of the last-named was William, who lived at Ulting ; 
and William was a son of John Pattisson, who lived at Heybridge 
near Maldon, in the reign of Elizabeth. For some further ac- 
count of this family see Benton's Rochford Hundred, and the 
memorials of the family in Witham parish church. Their arm's 
are : An elm tree eradicated between 3 pelicans in their nests, 
with their young vulning themselves. Crest : a pelican, in her 
nest with her young, vulning herself, collared ringed and chained ; 
the chain reflexed over her back. 

The Abbey Farm now belongs to the Law Union Life Insur- 
ance Company. 



MANORIAL. 




HE Manors of Great Coggeshall and Little Coggeshall 
which originally were but one Manor, known as the 
Manor of Coggeshall, belonged in Saxon times to Colo, 
a freeman. At the time of the Domesday Survey (vide 
page 88), it was possessed by Eustace, Earl of Boulogne, from 
whom it descended to his only daughter and heiress, Maud, who 
brought it in marriage to Stephen, Earl of Blois, afterwards King 
of England. Stephen and his queen granted the Manor to the 
abbot and convent of Coggeshall about 1139, and it remained 
one of the monastic properties until the surrender of the house in 
1538. Soon after the dissolution, Henry VIII. granted it to Sir 
Thomas Seymour, who, in 1541, released it to the Crown in ex- 
change for other properties. In the first year of Queen Mary's 
reign, the Manors of Great Coggeshall and Little Coggeshall, a 
grange or farm called Home Grange, a water mill and the fishery 
of the river, were, with other estates in the parish, granted by the 
Queen to Dorothy, wife of Thomas Leventhorpe, for life, if it 
pleased her Majesty she should so long enjoy it. The Manors 
were afterwards possessed by Sir Henry Bromley, by virtue of a 
grant made on 2nd September, 1604, and at his nomination they 
were conveyed on the^ 24th January following, to Cyprian Warner 
and others. In the i2th year of King James I., they were 
granted to Sir James Fullerton and James Maxwell, at a rent of 
^42 6s. 8|d. " 

Augustine Mayhew, Esq. was subsequently possessed of these 
Lordships. He married Alice, daughter of John Wells, but when 



Manorial. 



he sold the manor to Nehemiah Lyde, Esq., of Hackney, on gth 
May, 1693, his wife's name was Elizabeth. He then resided at 
Witham, and his son and heir was William Mayhew, of Pattiswick. 
Bufton says, "In 1693, Mr. Mayhew sold Coxall lordships to Mr. 
Nehemiah Lyde. May nth He first came for his rent, and June 
5th being Whitsun Monday, kept Court, and Counsellor Cox was 
his steward, ist Sept. Old Mr. Augustine Mayhew was carried 
through Coxall to be buried at Passwick." 

Nehemiah Lyde, by Priscilla his wife, had an only daughter 
Ann, his heiress, who married in 1710, Richard DuCane, Esq., of 
London, the only child and heir of Peter DuCane. Nehemiah 
Lyde died in July, 1737, but the first General Court of his son-in- 
law, Richard DuCane, was held on the i4th June, 1735. 

Richard DuCane, by his will, dated 1743, gave his Manors and 
other estates at Coggeshall to his son " Peter DuQuesne alias Du 
Cane " and his heirs. Richard died in 1 743, leaving Peter Du- 
Cane his only surviving son (his other son, Richard, having died 
on 4th Feby., 1743). Peter DuCane died in March, 1803, having 
devised the Manors to his son Peter, for life, with the remainder 
to his grandson Peter. Peter DuCane the younger, of Braxted 
Park, Essex, married in 1769, Phoebe Phillips Tredcroft, eldest 
daughter of Edward Tredcroft, Esq., of Horsham. Captain 
Charles DuCane succeeded to the Manors in 1841, and on his 
death in 1850, his son, the late Sir Charles DuCane, K.C.M.G. 
became entitled to the Lordships, and on his death on 25th Feby., 
1889, his eldest son, Charles Henry Copley DuCane, Esq., suc- 
ceeded and is the present Lord of these Manors. 

The Court Rolls of the Manors, in the custody of the present 
steward, do not date earlier than 1693. If the ancient rolls could 
be discovered they would throw considerable light on the past 
history of the town. Fortunately there is preserved in the Public 
Record Office (Duchy of Lane. Court Roll, Bundle 58, No. 727), 
an extract of a Court held upwads of 300 years ago, and from this 
we are enabled to form some idea of the ways in which our Eliza- 
bethan ancestors conducted their sanitary and other affairs ; we 
shall see for instance, that a fine was imposed on such of the in- 
habitants as were wont to dig sand and gravel out of the highways, 
or to throw their refuse into the street, or to allow their ditches to 
become choked. Roger Jegons is ordered not to allow his hogs 
to pollute the church-pond ; we have mention of the brook which 



Great Coggeshall. 



ran from the Church-pond to Haresbridge, a state of things which 
continued till comparatively recent times many of the older 
inhabitants well remember the stream flowing in its open course 
down Church Street ; the sewers in the principal streets were also 
uncovered ; and Church Lane, at the upper end, was nothing more 
nor less than a wide ditch with a footpath on one side of it. 
Those who persisted in keeping open their shops on Sunday, after 
the bells had rung two peals, were to be fined is. There were 
regulations also as to fishing and the keeping of dogs, ferrets, &c. 
The whole extract is of so interesting a nature, and is written in 
such quaint style, that it is here reproduced in extenso, save that 
one or two items are for decency's sake omitted. 

" The extracte of the Corte there holden the Mondaye, beinge 
the sixte day of October, in the nyneth yeare of the reigne of or 
Sovreigne Lady Elizabeth, by the grace of GOD, of England, 
Ffraunce and Ireland, Quene, defender of the faythe, &c., as 
followeth That is to saye 

Imprimis of Willam Coates for his admysson to one~) 
garden called Starres, witche he had by and after the death > xijd 
of Willam Coates his father, deceased. j 

Item of Elizabeth Wade, for hir admysson to one ) 
close wyth an ortyard, whitche she dyd recover by her V ijs. vjd. 
wryte of Righte ayens Christopher Wade. J 

Sum of this Corte - - iijs. vjd. 
vnde allocat : in expense Se li. 

yt ys comaundyd the Baylif to warne all the inhabytans of this 
Lordeship that they hereafter digge no lome, claye, sand or gravell 
in the Quene's highe waye, upon payne to forfette for eury lode 
so taken iijs. iiijd. 

Also yt ys comaundyd that no maner of pson or psons shall 
from hence forthe caste their duste or fylthe owte of their houses 
into the streate, upon payne to forfet eury tyme xijd. 

Also yt ys ordered and decreyd by thole homage that no Inhi- 
tant of this towne shall let from henceforthe his tenement to anye 
comon fetchers of woodde or breakers of hedges, or cutters and 
destroyers of springes, but that sutche an owner shall wythin one 
qter of a yere put owt the same Tenant so offendynge, upon good 
proofe made in that behalfe, upon payne eury owner so offendinge 
shall forfette xv., and that eury Subtenant so convicted shall for- 
fett eury tyme xxd. 



H2 Manorial. 



Also yt ys comaundyd that no Inhitant from hence forthe 
shall let their logges or wood lye abrode in the Quene's highe 
waye, and the same not to be layde wythout his Evesdrop upon 
payne to forfet eury tyme iijs. iiijd. 

Also yt ys comaundyd the Baylif to warne the landeholders 
betwene Heres brydge and th ' ende of John Webbe's garden to 
make their brookes as brode and as depe as they have bene in 
olde tymes, whitche be by or estymacon sixe or seaven foote, and 
the same to be done before michelmas next comynge, upon payne 
to forfet for eury Rodde not so done xijd. 

Also yt ys comaundyd to warne John Webbe to cutte and take 
awaye his bancke next adjoyninge vnto th ' old Ryver, in bredth 
one yarde and in lengthe two Rodde, and to make the same as 
depe as it hath bene in owlde tyme and to make all the rest to the 
wynge of the brycke that cometh from the arche thre qters of an 
yearde in like maner of depthe, before the feaste of Pentecoste 
next ensuynge, upon payne to forfet for eury Rodde not so done 
iijs. iiijd. 

Also yt ys comaundyd to warne all the landeholders betwene 
the vpper ende of John Webbe's garden and the drawe brydge, to 
scower the backe Ryver and to make the same as depe and as 
brode as yt hath bene of olde tyme or at the lest twelfe foot wyde, 
before Michelmas next comynge, upon payne to forfet for eury 
Rodde not so donne ijs. 

Also yt ys comaunded to warne all the landeholders from 
Shorte brydge vnto the drawe brydge to drawe up all the hassocks 
and Rere roosshes before the feaste aforesayd, upon payne to for- 
fet for eurie rodde not so donne iiijd. 

Also yt ys comaundyd to warne the landholders of the Crowne 
to take vp the gate in the water lane and to wyde the sayd lane 
before the sayd feaste, upon payne to forfette iijs. iiijd. 

Also yt ys comaundyd that no Inhitant from henceforth permyt 
or suffer his or their cattayle to goe in the highe waye wythowt a 
folower, vpon payne to forfet for every offence so comytted iijs. 
iiijd. And further that eury person from henceforthe kepe their 
hogges in their owne grownde and not to go comonly in the highe 
waye wythowt a kepar, upon payne to forfet for eury hogge xijd. 

Also yt ys comaundyd to warne Roger Jegons to take awaye his 
hogg coate and to sarve his hogges no more at the churche ponde 
in the Churche lane, vpon payne to forfet evry tyme iijs. iiijd. 



Great Coggeshall. "3 

Also yt ys comaundyd to warne all the landeholders between 
Alets Crosse and Tylkell to scower their dytches on both the sydes 
of the way before the feast of Pentecoste next comynge, vpon 
payne to forfet for eury Rodde not done iiijd: 

Also yt ys comaundyd to warne Thomas Clerke th ' elder to 
caste downe his bancke and to fyll vp the ditche that he hathe 
made in the highe waye, agenst his pale, betwene the house of 
Willam Sutton and Sterlinge leaz Style, before Christmas next, 
vpon payne to forfet vs. 

Also yt ys comaundyd to warne Thomas Tyll to open the 
comon dytche at his gate in Churche Streate, and to receve the fall 
of the water of the streate vpwarde, and Hilliary Johnson to re- 
ceve the same of Thomas Tyll, and Willam Tyll to receve the 
same of Hillary Johnson, and Rychard True to receve the same 
of Willam Tyll, and Willam Saunder to receve the same of 
Rychard True, and Thomas Clerke th ' elder to receve the same 
of Willam Saunder, and so the sayd comon dytche to goe 
throwghe owte the said Thomas Clerke's grownde tyll yt come to 
Sterlinge leaz dytche, as yt hathe done tyme owte of mynde, and 
this to be done before the feaste aforesayd, vpon payne eury one 
offendinge herein shall forfet xxs. 

Also yt ys comaundyd to warne Thomas Clerke th ' elder to 
reforme his encrochment that he hath made in Starlinge leaz 
comon. dytche ; that is to saye at the elme fyve foote, at the pere 
tre fyve foote, and at the comynge owte of the comon dytche 
nere a gardeyn sometyme in the occupacon of John Clerke, sixe 
foote and a halfe, and to sett his newe pale on the bancke where 
his oulde pale stode before, and to open and make the sayd 
comon dytche the lenghte of his newe pale, and so to go into 
Starlinge leaz comon dytche as yt was wont to doe next to the 
highe waye, before the feaste aforesayd, vpon payne to forfet for 
eury Rodde not so donne xs. 

Also yt ys comaundyd the Baylif to warne the sayd Thomas 
Clerke that he doe reforme his encrochement made wyth his newe 
pale in Sterlinge leaz dytche, from the ende of the garden of the 
sayd John Clerke vnto the garden nowe in the tenure of Rychard 
True, nyne foote, and to sett his fence where it was wont to be of 
oulde tyme, and further to receave all the fall of the water from 
George Cokerel into the same dytche, and further to make and 
scower the sayd dytche that the water mighte avoyde through the 

I 



tT 4 Manorial. 

same as of olde tyme yt was wonte to doe, before the feaste 
aforesayd, vpon payne to forfet for eurye rodde not so donne 
xs. 

Also yt ys comaundyd to warne that no maner of persons shal 
have or kepe open their shope wyndowes on the Saboth daye in 
selling, uttering, or putting awaye any kinde of their victayles or 
wares after that hit hath ronge two peles, ether to morning service 
or evenyng, vpon payne to forfet eury tyme xijd. 

Also yt ys comaundyd that no maner of person shall take 
fysshe in the Ryver wyth nets, baskets, angels, or with any other 
kynde of engyne, vpon payne to forfet eury tyme ijs. 

Also yt ys comaundyd to warne that no maner of person kepe 
any greyhounds, hownds, spanells, except he maye dispend xls. 
by yeare on freholde, vpon payne to forfet iijs. iiijd. 

Also yt ys comaundyd that no maner of person shall kepe any 
hayes, ferrets, or presenets, onlesse they have game and grownde 
of their owne, upon payne to forfet eury tyme so offendinge vs. 

Also yt ys comaundyd to warne all the landeholders betwene 
Batfeld and nighe vnto Clement Button's gate to skouer their 
dytches in Churche lane, and then Willam Saunder to receve the 
water from the sayd dytche and to skoure his dytche, ayenst the 
next corte, upon payne to forfet for eury rodde not so donne 
iiijd. 

Also yt ys comaundyd to warne all the landholders betwene 
Rychard Coxcheif's howse and the churche ponde to scower the 
comon dytch wyth in their yeards and not to permit any pry vie 
over the sayd dytche, vpon payne eury one so offending shall 
forfeit ijs. 

Also yt ys comandyd to warne all the landholders betwene the 
churche ponde and Heres bridge to skower brookes and to 
amende them where nede ys, and not to cast on them any kinde 
of filth, vpon payne eury one so offendying shal forfette iijs. iiijd. 

The following is a specimen of a Court held nearly two cen- 
turies ago : 

Great Coggeshall, 1693. View of Frank pledge with the 
first Court Baron of Nehemiah Lyde, Esquire, held for the Manor 
aforesaid on Tuesday in Whitsun week, being the 5th day of 
June, in the 5th year of the reign of William and Mary, by the 
grace of GOD King and Queen of England, Scotland, France 
and Ireland, and in the year of our Lord, 1693 ; and from thence 



Great Coggeshall. 



adjourned to the 6th day of the said month of June, and held 
before John Cox, Esquire, Steward, there : 

John Wilbore 
John Taylor 
Joseph Whitacre 
Benjamin Pemberton 
John Abbutt 
John Cockerell 
John Tunbridge 



The ^ Thomas Buxton x 


Capital 


John Cooke 


Pledges 


Isaac Dawes 


with the 


John Cable 


Homage 


Robert Nicholls / 




John Thome 




Anthony Jepps 


v John Ilger 



Sworn. 



Sworn. 



who say upon their oaths that they give to the Lord for a Com- 
mon Fine always on this day due by ancient custom, twelve pence. 

On this day any inhabitant within this leet making default in 
his attendance is amerced [i.e. fined or put in mercy]. 

At this Court it is presented that all the inhabitants within this 
leet shall remove their trees lying in the king's way within 28 days 
after notice to them given by the Bailiff of the said Manor, and 
that in future no more trees placed in the said king's way shall 
remain beyond 28 days after notice thereof given by the bailiff of 
the said manor, under penalty of forfeiting for every load not 
removed for every week id. 

Also it is presented that the inhabitants within this leet shall 
remove their manure \sterquiliand\ lying in the king's way within 
6 days after notice to them given by the bailiff of the said manor, 
and that in future no more manure placed in the same king's way 
there, shall remain beyond 6 days after notice thereof given by 
the bailiff of the said manor, under pain of forfeiting to the lord 
for every offence in the premises 55. 

Also the Jury present that the water running from the ditch of 
William Enew now flows in the street called Stoneham Street, 
within this leet, to the annoyance of the people of the Lord and 
Lady the King and Queen, which said water ought to flow in 

\strobe\ at Robins Bridge. Therefore it is presented that the 
said William Enew shall divert the water, running as aforesaid, to 
Robins Bridge aforesaid, under pain of forfeiting to the lord xos. 

Also they present that William Cox, Senior, James Warley, 
Elias Reynolds, Thomas Smith, James Gardiner, Thomas Bel- 
champ, John Harvey and Anthony Jepps have not scoured their 
ditch leading from Buttfield to Stoneham Street. Therefore it is 

I 2 



"6 Manorial. 



presented that they, well and sufficiently, scour their said ditch 
within 14 days after notice thereof, under pain of forfeiting for 
every rod not scoured i2d. 

Also they present that Anthony Jepps, Thomas Beckwith, 
John Wilbore, Isaac Benthall and Martha Keble, widow, have not 
scoured their ditch near the yard of the said Martha Keable. 
Therefore* it is presented that they well and sufficiently scour the 
said ditch within 14 days after notice thereof, under pain of for- 
feiting to the lord for every rod not scoured i2d. 

Also it is presented that Henry Creeke shall remove and carry 
away earth and manure lying in his ditch near Starling Leeze 
within 12 days, under pain of forfeiting to the lord for every rod 
of ditch aforesaid i2d. 

Also it is presented that Charles Guyon, Gent., Mark Guyon, 
Nash, widow, Hull, widow, William York, John Good- 
ay, - Turner, widow, Richard Shortland, Gent., Elizabeth 
Guyon, widow, John Bowyer and William London, well and 
sufficiently, scour the Back ditch near adjoining their several yards 
within 10 days after notice thereof given, under pain of forfeiting 
for every perch not scoured, per week us. 

Also the Jury humbly pray that the lord of the manor will 
deign to erect a pound for the leet aforesaid. 

At this leet, Robert Cooke, John Hatton and Thomas Phil- 
bricke are elected to the office of Constable of this leet, and it is 
presented that they be sworn in that office before a Justice of the 
Peace for the county of Essex within 10 days next following the 
date of this Court. 

And also John Cockerell, John Gooday and Isaac Dawes are 
elected to the office of Taster of Beer (Gustator Cerviciae) and 
they are sworn well and faithfully to execute that office. 

And also Thomas Picknett and Thomas Hance are elected to 
the office of Water Bailiffs. 

And lastly, Thomas Overall and Jeremiah Huke are elected to 
the office of Leather Sealers. 

Now of the Court Baron. At this Court it is presented by the 
Homage that according to the custom of the manor aforesaid, 
fines for whatsoever admissions to customary lands and tenements 
held of the manor aforesaid, either after death or upon alienation, 
are double the annual value of the rent payable to the lord of the 
manor aforesaid for the lands and tenements aforesaid, and no 



Great Coggeshall. 117 

more for any particular admission. [This however is not the case 
with certain pieces of land, formerly waste of this manor ; these 
being subject to fines arbitrary]. 

Then follow the admissions which have become due by the 
deaths of copyhold tenants, or by reason of the sales of properties 
held of the manor. 

Among various other matters presented at the courts, the fol- 
lowing may be mentioned as some of the most interesting, or as 
tending to elucidate the past history of the town : 

1694 May 28. Thomas Cox ordered to repair his ditch in 
Stock Street. 

Anthony Jepps ordered to open up the footpath in Crouches 
field, which he had obstructed. 

1695 May 13. John Radley was ordered not to wash fish in 
the brook adjoining his mansion house in Church Street, and not 
to throw fish water in the brook. . Penalty, 25. per week. 

John Bales was ordered not to throw scouring suds \aquas 
fullonicas\ in the king's way. Penalty, is. for every offence. 

Nicholas Foster was ordered to amend his gutter opposite his 
house in Stoneham Street. 

Anthony Jepps required to place a " wholve " or bridge next 
Hart Field. 

George Larke to remove his hogs-sty \fiara\ being near the 
highway and a common nuisance. 

1696 July ist. Anthony Jepps to repair his ditch adjoining 
Crouches. 

Henry Abbutt to scour his ditch in Dead Lane. 

John Knew to scour his ditch adjoining Church Field. 

Thomas Guyon and others, inhabitants of New Row, to repair 
their ditch. 

John Hance presented for pouring scouring suds in the stream 
in Church Street. 

^98 June 1 3th. Peter Everett ordered not to throw scour- 
ing suds in his yard so that they run in the pond called Church 
Pond. [This was a very common offence]. 

Hares Bridge being decayed, and Thomas Attwood being 
found liable to repair it, was presented that he was in mercy, 53. 

1699 May agth. Several persons presented for allowing 
filth to flow into the Church Pond and in the stream running 
thereupon. 



"8 Manorial. 



1700 May 2oth. The constables ordered to repair the bridge 
adjoining Mans Green. 

Presented that the gutters adjoining the Bird-in-Hand were 
not scoured. 

John Barnard having erected a post and rail across "The 
Causy," was ordered to remove it. 

1701 June Qth. John Cockerell, Matthew Fenn, Isaac Ellis- 
ton, Mark Guyon and very many others required to scour the 
stream leading from Church Pond to Hares Bridge. 

1706 May i3th. Certain of the inhabitants within the leet, 
presented for selling unwholesome meat. 

1709 June 1 3th. Presented that the Back ditch, leading 
from the Wash or Wain of John Ludgater be scoured. 

Presented that the Back ditch, from the Great River up to the 
Stone Bridge, and within the jurisdiction of the leet, was not 
scoured. 

Presented that the Brick Bridge (Pons Lateritius), which sepa- 
rates Great Coggeshall from Little Coggeshall, is in great decay 
and defective repair; and ordered that the bridge aforesaid, within 
the jurisdiction of the leet, be well and sufficiently repaired before 
25th July after the court. 

Presented that the ditch running from Hares Bridge to the 
Brick Bridge adjoining and being within this leet was unsecured. 

1711 May 2 1 st. Presented that the Stream under the new 
market of the lord of the manor, up to "le Grate," within the 
leet, is not scoured. 

1715 June 6th. Presented that John Fryitt, being a com- 
mon baker of man's bread (comunis pistor humani panis] within 
this leet, at divers times in the month of May last, broke the 
assize of bread by making light bread and selling and uttering the 
same bread to divers persons within this leet, contrary to the form 
of the Statute. Fined 6s. 

At this Court, a Taster of Bread and Ale was appointed ; 
the previous appointments having extended to beer only. 

1716 May 2ist. It was ordered that William Cox, William 
Clarke and Mark Belsham Grimes, who at this court were ap- 
pointed constables of this leet for this year following, well and 
sufficiently repair the stocks and cage (Cippos et carsarem calatha- 
riu) being within this leet within 40 days after notice thereof 
under pain of forfeiting to the lord in default thereof ^5. 



Great Coggeshall. 119 

Robert Sutton, sen. presented for selling meel by false weight. 
Fine, 25. 6d. 

Several persons presented for breaking the assize of bread. 
Fines, 153. in each case. 

1720 June 6th. Presented that the hedge lately surrounding 
a place called Le Wayne Yard, of Mary Cox, widow, in Back 
Lane adjoining Peter's Well within this leet is in great decay, &c. 

1730 May 18. Presented that the stream or Tye Mill brook, 
leading from Hares Bridge to the Old Ditch in the river of Great 
Coggeshall is unscowered, &c. 

1731 June 7th. Presented that the Bridge, called the Turn- 
pike Bridge or the Short Bridge, within this leet, is in great decay 
and that the surveyors [Supervisores Regie vie] ought to repair 
the same bridge. Order accordingly. 

Presented that the water-course running from the workhouse 
in Stoneham Street is out of repair. 

1733 May 14.* John Mount and Henry Turner are pre 
sented for not cutting the boughs hanging over the Church Pond 
within this leet to the annoyance of the water there, &c. 

Several persons presented for not cleaning the brook leading 
from Church Pond to Hares Bridge, as well as for setting their 
necessary houses over the same brook. 

Presented that the constables of this leet have constantly 
cleansed and scoured Church Pond and Peters' Well within the 
leet and the same being foul they were ordered to cleanse the 
same. 

The last View of Frank Pledge and General Court Baron of 
Nehemiah Lyde, Esq., was held 26 May, 1735. 

The first View of Frank Pledge and first General Court Baron 
of Richard DuCane, Esq., was held on the i4th June, 1736, and 
of Peter Du Cane, of 3rd June, 1745. 

Henry Turner (Baptist teacher), presented for emptying 
stagnate water out of the Baptist Meeting House into Church 
Pond. 

1747 June 8. The surveyors presented for not repairing the 
bridge, the wharfage and passage for the water out of the road at 
Mans Green, and also for not opening and repairing the Brook 
watercourse by the Fishmarket. 

* This is the first Court the proceedings of which are entered in English. 



i2o Manorial. 

1759 June 4th. Constables presented for not setting up a 
post of correction. 

1765 May 27th. Constables presented for suffering shaving, 
fishing, and selling goods on the Lord's Day. 

The cage and post of correction found to be out of repair. 

1775 June 5th. The Lord of the Manor presented for 
permitting the drain belonging to the Old Hall, otherwise the 
Shambles, to run into Shambles Lane. 

The last View of Frank Pledge was held for this Manor on 
24th May, 1779. There were fifteen Capital Pledges, who on 
their oaths say " that they give and have always given to the Lord 
of the Manor at the leet day, always in certain, as well for every 
head of the tenants of this Manor as of the Capital Pledges and 
Deciners within the precincts of this leet, one penny each, amount- 
ing this year to 15 pence." They then chose three constables, 
three persons as Ale Tasters and Bread Weighers, and two Water 
Bailiffs who were ordered to take care that the brooks and water 
passages were always cleansed, and that the water should not be 
turned out of the ancient courses, or impeded, under a penalty of 
2os. for every neglect. They also chose two Leather Sealers. 
They presented several persons for permitting filth to run into the 
Church Pond, and others for not cleaning their ditches. 

Little Coggeshall. The first view of Frank Pledge with the 
first Court Baron of Nehemiah Lyde, Esq., for the Manor of 
Little Coggeshall, was held on the 5th June, 1693. Twelve per- 
sons were sworn as the ' Capital Pledges with the Homage.' 

The principal presentments are with reference to the cleansing 
of ditches. Two constables were appointed. 

1730 May 1 8th. The Brick Bridge which divides the 
parishes of Great and Little Coggeshall is presented to be in de- 
cay, and the Surveyors of the King's highway ordered to repair 
the same. 

1734 June 3rd. Presented that the Stocks * and Cage within 
this leet were out of repair, and the Constables were ordered to 
repair the same. 

1738 May 22nd. Presented that the Pound was out of 
repair. Also that the Stock House was out of repair. 

* These were on the top of Grange Hill, on the east side. The field, No. 
71, O. S., is called Stock Field. 



Great and Little Coggeshall. 



1741 May 1 8th. Presented that Isaac Ludgater had obstruc- 
ted an ancient watercourse leading from the well called Cockerells 
Well, adjoining to the Grange Hill, and he was commanded to 
remove the obstruction and open a free passage to the water run- 
ning from the said well, so that the same might be conveyed with- 
in and through its usual channel, as anciently it had been, without 
any obstruction, into the Great River. 

The last View of Frank Pledge was held on 24th May, 1779, 
when fifteen persons were sworn as the " Capital Pledges with the 
Homage ; " two Constables were chosen ; Edmund Wood was 
presented for carrying on the trade of a wheelwright in the king's 
highway, and for suffering his timber, &c. to lie on the highway ; 
and it was also presented that the water running out of the ditch 
on the south-east corner of a field called Hare Field, into the 
ditch on the opposite side of the road, overflowed the road, and 
was a nuisance, and the Surveyors and Constables were ordered 
to make a drain for the water. 

The following items are reproduced from Mr. Dale's Annals. 
The original document was formerly in the late Mr. Charles 
Smith's possession ; the writer made every effort to learn from Mr. 
Smith what had become of the document, but could not obtain 
any information. 

"Abstract taken out of the Court Rolles of the Manners of 
Great Coggeshall and Little Coggeshall, of all such surrenders 
and deaths of customary tenants, wherein are expressed as well 
the yearely rent, paiable for their customary lands and tenements, 
as the fynes, which they respectively paid to the lord for their ad- 
mittances to the same. 17 Rd. II. to 38 Hen. VIII. and 9 to 14 
Eliz. 

17 Richard II. William Fuller surrended into the lord's 
hands, two parts of a tenement once called Herings' tenement, to 
the use of Richard Parker, to whom siesin is granted to hold to 
him and his heires, at the will of the lord, by the antient suites 
and customes. And he gave to the lord for a fyne, 2od. [In 
Church Street, occupied by Mr. U. Mount, between Swan Yard 
and Plummers.] 

20 Richd. II. At this court came Richard Dodding, and did 
take of the lord one parcel of land in litle Cherchfeild, over 
against his tenement, and also a footway from his garden to the 
lord's pond, called Cherch pond, to drawe water there. To holde 



122 Manorial. 

to him and his heires, paying yearely to the lord, 6d. Fine, per 
donation. 

1 Hen. IV. (1399.) The lord granted to Walter Hares a 
peece of land lying at the Short bregge nere the floudgates of Tye 
Mill, to hold from Michas. last for 100 years, paying to the lord 
yearly, Rent, i2d. Fine, 4d. 

13 Hen. IV. The lord granted to Robert Cardinall one 
messuage, with a little croft of land adjoyning, called the Gate 
House, To hold from Michas. last for 8 years, paying yearly to 
the Ranger of the Home Grange, 8s. 

7 Hen. V. (1420.) The lord granted to John Brooke and 
Mary his wife, a messuage, to hold from Michas. last for 10 years, 
paying to the Priest of the Abbey, yerely, Rent, 8s. Fine, 4d. 

4 Hen. VI. (1426.) The lord granted to John Cressing and 
Christian his wife, a messuage in Church Street, to hold from 
Easter next for 1 2 years, paying to the Hog-heard of the Abbey, 
yerely, Rent, us. Fine, 3d. 

The lord granted to John Sawbyn, a messuage in Church 
Street, to hold from Midsummer next for 12 years, paying yearly 
to the Singer of the Abbey, Rent, 73. Fine, 4d. 

The lord granted to John Lawford a decaied cottage, with a 
pcell of a garden adjoining in Stonhey Strete, called the Crouch 
House, to hold from Easter next for 40 years, paying to the lord, 
yearly, Rent, i2d, Fine, 4d. 

The lord granted to Walter Hares a messuage and a peece of 
meadow, lying next Sir William Coggeshall's meadow, called 
Polerds Mead, and one shoppe in the market, to hold from 
Michas. last for 20 years, paying yearely to the lord, Rent, 295. 
Fine, per donation. 

2 Edwd. IV. (1462.) Richard Bullocke died, seised in fee 
of one customary tent called Moises, holden by the rodde at the 
lord's will ; and that Richd. is his sonne and heire, and 7 yeares 
old, who, by Robert Fabian and John Fabian, is admitted tenant, 
and paies to the lord for a fine, 2od. ; and they pray to occupy 
the land untill his full age, and for that license they gave to the 
lord for a fine, 6d. 

10 Edwd. IV. The lord granted to Thomas Clerke and 
Christian his wife, 2 tents, lying together over against Cogshall 
markett, and a cottage within the market-place, called the Castell 
of Gynes, and a garden thereto annexed, Rent, 325. Fine, 2od. 



Great and Little Coggeshall. 123 



12 Edwd. IV. The lord granted to Richard Chapman, Sen., 
a messuage and curtilage adjoining, as it is enclosed, called 
Lavender, lying over against the markett of Cogshall, betweene 
the lord's tent called the Cocke, on the east, and the messuage of 
Wm. Doreward, Esq., west, paying to the lord, yearly rent, 133. 4d. 
Fine, i3d. 

21 Edwd. IV. The lord demised to John Trewe, a field 
called Starlings Lese. 

21 Edwd. IV. John Windlove died, seized in fee of a tene- 
ment called Vernolds, alias Heyivards, in Cogshall magna, after 
whose death noe herriott falls to the lord, because hee had noe 
living creature ; but hee surrended it to the use of Christian his 
daughter. 

7 Hen. VII. (1492.) The lord, upon John Turner's surrender, 
admitted John Paicock to a garden and pcell of land, pcell of 
Nether Church Field, paying yearly, i dove gilly floure, 2 capons. 

13 Hen. VII. The lord granted to Thomas Cavill one piece 
of pasture, pcell of a field called Ingring-downe, betwene the 
lord's bankes, called Robin's brooke and Ingring-downe, paying 
to the lord, yearely, 95. and 61. pepper. 

4 Hen. VIII. (1513.) The lord granted out of his lands one 
peece of land or garden called pcell of Old church.k\\&, lying in 
Church Street, one head abutting upon Over-church-feild lane, 
and the other upon the garden and messuage of Agnes Clerke, 
wid., by the antient rent of 6d. Fine, one capon. 

5 Hen. VIII. The lord granted, out of his hands, to John 
Bland, a cottage and customary yard adjoining, once John Sweet- 
ing's, in Gallow Strete. 

38 Hen. VIII. Robert Whepsted surrended one messuage 
with a garden, adjoining Cogshall market." 



124 



Manorial. 




(NUncr of 



'TpHE Manor of Coggeshall Hall seems to have comprehended 
J_ what in Domesday Book is mentioned thus : " In Cogges- 
hala tenuit Sancta Trinitas * iii virgates terre, tempore regis 
Edwardi et modo similiter. Semper ii carucate. Tune i bord- 
arius, modo viii. Tune iii servi, modo i. viii acres prati. i mo- 
lendinum. Et valuit Ix solidos in dominio, iv runcini, iii animalia. 
xx oves, vii porci;" which is translated: "The Holy Trinity 
held in Coggeshall 3 yard lands, in the time of King Edward 
and now likewise. Always two teams. Then one bordar, now 8. 
Then 3 serfs, now one. Eight acres of pasture. One mill. And 
it is worth 6os. In the demesne. Four horses, three beasts, 
20 sheep, seven swine." 

This estate was held by the Cathedral Church of Canterbury 
for the sustenance of the monks. 

* The grant to the Cathedral Church of Canterbury was in these words : 
"Ego Godwinus et Wolgith, concedente et consentiente Domino meo Rege 
Edwardo, donanus Ecclesise Christi in Dorobernia partem terre juris nostri 
nomine Stigestede et Coggashael in East Sexia, liberas ab omni seculari servi- 
tute, sicut Ego a prefato Domino meo Rege Edwardo et a Patre ejus hactenus 
tenui. Si quis erit a jure ejusdem Ecclesiae abstuleiit, auferat ei Deus gloriam 
suam." Ex. M.S. in Bibl Col., Corp., Cant. It is extant, though in a 
somewhat different manner, in W. 77iortte, Decent. Script, Col., 2224; and in 
the Antiq. of Canterb., p. 39, Append., where Wolgith is stiled " relicta 
Elfwine," i.e. widow of Elfwine, most probably some great Saxon lord, in 
whose right or in her own, Wolfgith had an interest in these lands. (Morant.) 



Coggeshall Hall. 125 



Domesday Book also mentions that " Tedricus tenet i hidam 
et dimid' pro escangio de Cogeshala quod tenuit Tiselinus. 
Tune ii carucate, modo nulla. Tune tres bordarii, modo nullus. 
Silva iii porcis, xii acre prati. Tune valuit xx solidos, modo x ; " 
or in English : Tedric holds one hide and a half by exchange, 
for [or of] Coggeshall, which was held by Tiselinus. Then two 
teams, now none. Then 3 bordars, now none. Wood for 3 swine. 
12 acres of meadow. Then it was worth 20 shillings, now ten. 

It may be that the Manor of Coggeshall Hall comprised the 
estate of Tedricus [Tedricus Pointell], and it is worthy of note 
that the way leading from the Grange Hill to the Hamlet is known 
as " Pointell's Street," and Mr. Barnard's Mill is called " Pointells 
Mill." 

The Manor of Coggeshall Hall was held in the i3th century 
by a family surnamed De Coggeshall, and possibly much earlier, 
for there was a Sir Thomas de Coggeshall living in the reign of 
King Stephen, and this Sir Thomas held large estates in the 
county of Essex. 

Sir Ralph de Coggeshall died in the 33rd year of King Edw. 
I., possessed of Coggeshall Hall, which he held partly of John 
Filoll and partly of the Abbots of Coggeshall and Westminster 
and of William atte Napleton. 

John de Coggeshall, the son and heir of Sir Ralph, died in 
the 1 3th year of King Edw. II., seized of a capital messuage, a 
water mill, 8 and a half acres of wood, 203 acres of arable land, 
6 acres of meadow, 3 acres of pasture, and 6s. 8d. rent ; which 
property he held of John Filloll, by the service of half a knight's 
fee and the yearly rent of 645. 4d. He also held of the Abbot of 
Westminster, by the service of i6s. per annum, 33 acres of arable, 
i acre of meadow, 4 acres of pasture, a grinding house with a 
barrel or wheel, a pond, and 25. yd. rent. And of the Abbot 
of Coggeshall, by knight's service, 44 acres of arable with 35. rent. 
And of the same abbot in socage, 2 granges, 2 chambers, a garden 
and 5 acres of arable, by the service of i ys. 2d. per annum. 

Sir John de Coggeshall,' son of the before-mentioned John, 
held this property at the time of his decease in 1361, and he was 
succeeded by his son and heir, 

Sir Henry de Coggeshall, who died in 1375 ; from him the 
estate devolved upon 

Sir William de Coggeshall, who, dying at Codham Hall, 



126 Manorial. 



Wethersfield, in the early part of the reign of King Henry VI., 
left four daughters his co-heiresses, viz. : Blanch, who married 
John Doreward ; Eleanor or Alice, who married Sir John Tyrrell ; 
Margaret, who married William Bateman, Esq., and afterwards 
John Roppeley, Esq. ; and Maud, who married Robert Dacre, 
Esq., and afterwards John St. George. 

John Doreward, Esq., by his marriage with Blanch Cogges- 
hall, became possessed of Coggeshall Hall, and on his death, 
about 1426, his eldest son, 

John Doreward became the owner, and so remained till his 
death in 1476, when it descended to his son, 

John Doreward, then aged 21 years. He held the Manor of 
Coggeshall Hall, with two water mitts called Pointell Mell and 
Estford * Mell, also 200 acres of arable, 100 acres of meadow, 
and 10 acres of wood in Coggeshall, Markeshall, Colne, Feering, 
Kelvedon, Blackwater, Inworth, Stisted and Fordham-forth ; and 
32 messuages, with the appurtenances, in Coggeshall. John 
Doreward died in 1495, having been married to Margaret Lyhert, 
by whom however he had no issue, and on her death the estate 
passed to his neices, daughters of his sister Elizabeth, viz. : 
Margaret, the wife of Nicholas Bewpre, aged 19. Elizabeth, the 
wife of Henry Thursbie, Esq., aged 18; and Christian, wife of 
John de Vere, aged 14. 

Ralph Chamberlayn and Edward Chamberlayn, the trustees of 
the property, on the 2;th Ayril, 1513, sold the reversion, after the 
death of Margaret Doreward, (afterwards the wife of Sir James 
Hobert, Knt.,) for ^172, to 

Sir Robert Southwell, of Filiols Hall or Felix Hall in Kelve- 
don, who died 3oth March, 1515, leaving as his heir his nephew, 

Richard Southwell, (son of his brother Francis), then aged 10 
years ; but as Sir Robert died without male issue, this estate and 
Filiols Hall escheated to the Crown. 

Henry VIII., on the 2oth April, 1539, granted the same 
properties to Richard Long, Esq., but as his son, Henry Long, 
died without issue, they passed to his four sisters, of whom the 
eldest, Elizabeth, brought them in marriage to her husband, 

Sir William Russell, by whom, on i8th May, 1584, they were 
sold to 

* Easterford, the old name of Kelvedon. 






Coggeshall Hall, 127 



Henry, Earl of Kent; George, Earl of Cumberland; and 
Robert, Earl of Sussex, as trustees for Sir Thomas Cecill, fifth 
and youngest son of Thomas, Earl of Exeter. Sir Thomas 
married Ann, daughter of Sir Robert Lee, Alderman of London, 
by whom he had Benjamin, Charles, Dorothy and Anne. 
Dorothy, the eldest and last surviving daughter, brought the estate 
in marriage to Thomas Cudmore, Esq. (son of John Cudmore, 
Esq., of Kelvedon, Barrister -at-law). Their son, Thomas, married 
Anne, daughter of John Anger, Esq., of Boxted, and had by her, 

John Cudmore, Esq., who died, 8th December, 1630, holding 
this Manor of the king, in capite by knight's service, at which 
time it was worth 6 135. 4d. John, his eldest son and heir, 
dying without issue, was succeeded by his next brother, 

Thomas Cudmore, Esq., who died, 25th July, 1637. Thomas, 
a posthumous son, born 3rd January following, inherited next. 
By his will he devised this Manor to one Latham, subject to some 
power vested in his two daughters, who jointly with Latham, sold 
this estate to 

- Blackmore, Esq., of Lincolns Inn, and he in turn sold it to 

Hugh Raymond, Esq., a Director of the South Sea Coy., from 
whom it passed to 

Jones Raymond, Esq., who owned it about 1768. 

The Hall and demesne lands have for many years been part of 
the estate of the Western family, whose seat is at Felix Hall, Kel- 
vedon. Their arms are : Sable, a chevron between 2 crescents 
in chief and a trefoil slipped in base. Crest a demi lion, or., in 
its dexter paw a trefoil slipped vert. Motto Nee temere nee 
timide. The present representative of the family is Sir Thomas 
Charles Callis Western, 3rd Baronet ; he succeeded on the death 
of his father, Sir Thomas Sutton Western, in 1877. The present 
baronet married, in 1883, Elizabeth Ellen, eldest daughter of the 
late T. Newton, Esq. 

The lordship of the Manor of Coggeshall, otherwise Cogges- 
hall Hall, consisting of the seignory, was severed from the 
demesne lands during the latter part of last century or the begin- 
ning of the present. About 1775, the Manor belonged to Daniel 
Mathew, Esq., and on his death a few years later, it was sold by 
order of the Court of Chancery, by, among others, Edward 
Mathew, Esq., and the Right Honourable Lady Jane Mathew, his 
wife, Mary Mathew, widow, Daniel Byam Mathew, Esq., George 



128 Manorial. 



Mathew, Esq., Mary Mathew, spinster, Louisa Mathew, spinster, 
Samuel Gambier, Esq. and Jane his wife, late Jane Mathew, 
spinster, and Brownlow Mathew, Esq. ; the purchaser being 
Samuel Tyssen, Esq., who, in 1786, sold it to Abram Newman, 
Esq. 

Newman made his will in 1796, and gave the Manor to his 
daughter Jane, the wife of William Thoyts, whose trustees sold it 
in 1842, to James Cuddon, Esq. His sons, Francis Thomas 
Cuddon and James Cuddon, Esqrs., succeeded to it on the death 
of their father. It was sold by them to the Rev. Walter Trevelyan 
Bullock, in whose family it remained until 1879, when it was sold 
to C. J. Daintree, Esq., of Petworth, Sussex, the present lord. 

The following is an epitome of an extract of the Records of 
the Courts held for the Manor in the time of King Henry VIII. 
The extract [a copy in the writer's possession], is on parchment, 
and is bound with some records relating to the Manor of Felix 
Hall, and is now in the Public Record Office, Bundle 58, No. 
726 Duchy of Lancaster Court Rolls. 

Court held on Wednesday in Whitsun week, 17 Henry VIII. 
The jury were John Copscheff, Richard Peverell, in right of his 
wife, Robert Goldwire, John Clerk, Robert Dawes, John Ayle- 
ward, Christopher Pyper, John Borle, William Bery [John Porter 
struck through and marked dead], John Waleis, Andrew Turvy, 
Thomas Clerk, Robert Rande. 

The bailiff is ordered to distrain John Fabian, of Bekenham, 
so that he may be at the court to show in what right he holds 
one tenement in Poyntell Street, held of the Lord by the rent of 
, and in what manner he holds two crofts there, held by the 
rent of 45. per annum, after the death of John Fabian, of London, 
his father, so that he may satisfy the relief fealty, and other 
services. 

The bailiff is also ordered to distrain the lands, tenements, 
and tenters in Poyntell Street, called Guiles, late of Sir John 
Sharp Knight, deceased, and before that of Christopher Sharp, 
his father held of the Lord by the rent of ^i 8s. lod. per 
annum. 

The death was presented of John Porter, who held a field 
divided by a fence, and called Longlond, containing by estimation 
22 acres and 3 roods adjoining land called Shadwell, and it was 
stated that John Porter was his son and heir, and he being a 



Coggeshall Hall. 129 



minor, of the age of 13 years or thereabouts, was admitted by his 
mother, Margaret Purcas, the wife of John Purcas. 

Robert Goldewer died before this court, possessed of a tene- 
ment near Hare's Bridge [Breg], held of the Lord by the rent of 
43. per annum, also a piece of pasture in Braxted Mede by the 
rent of 2s. per annum. 

Thomas Waleys, who had also died before this court, held 
one tenement called Geno . . . s, held by the rent of 25. and 
also certain land called Bancroft, by the rent of 6d. 

The bailiff was commanded to distrain John Paycock upon a 
garden in Galoiostrete (Gallows or East Street), late belonging 
to John Chapman Senior, held of the lord by the rent of 8d. per 
annum ; and also upon a tenement and garden late in the tenure 
of John Paycock, cousin of his father, lying next the orchard of 
William Garrard, held by the rent of i2d. so that the services due 
to the lord of the manor might be duly performed. 

Court held 14 Henry VIII. 

The bailiff was ordered to warn the Abbot of Coggeshall to 
show in what manner he held all his lands and tenements in Great 
and Little Coggeshall, and to be at the next court to produce his 
documents of title. 

Court held 17 Henry VIII. 

There is a reference to a mansion in Stoneham Street, which 
appears to have belonged to William Glover, of Thaxted, and 
Isabel his wife, late the wife of Richard Leman. They surren- 
dered the property to Robert Lamberd. 

Thomas Paycock, aged 12, was the son and heir of Robert 
Paycock, deceased, who died possessed of Maykynes, then late 
belonging to John Paycock, his cousin, adjoining the inn called 
The Dragon, on the one part and a tenement, then of Richard 
Fellex, formerly of Wm. Sponer, called Mabsons, on the other part. 

The rental of the copyhold and freehold tenants of the Manor, 
dated in 1789, contains much valuable information and is consider- 
ed well worthy of reproduction in these pages, and from it it will 
be seen that the Manor was of considerable extent, and comprised 
the seignory of lands in Great Coggeshall, Little Coggeshall, Brad- 
well, Markshall, Feering, Kelvedon and Inworth. The copyhold 
tenure of nearly all the properties in the Manor has been extin- 
guished by enfranchisement, and the value of the Manor has con- 
sequently been reduced to a minimum. 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE COPYHOLD PREMI! 


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messuage or tenement with a barn, stable, and 
Blest End, in Bradwell, next Coggeshall, adjoi 


wo closes of arable land containing four acres 
and adjoining to No. 3. 


ullmore meadow containing three acres, adjoini 
called Cross path field, belonging to Coxall 
towards the east in Little Coggeshall. 
hree crofts of arable land formerly called Gulls 
Springfields, and Six Acre Piece, in Little 
adjoining to Gullmore meadow towards the 


Pointoll river towards the east, containing toj 


acres. 
. cottage, barn, and twenty-two acres of arable 
at Cuthedge, in Little Coggeshall, called Cutle 
. croft of arable land called Rands, containing 
in Little Coggeshall, adjoining to the road 
Kelvedon towards the east, and to the road 
Cuthedge towards the north, and to lands b 
Scrips farm towards the west and south. 
. cottage made into two tenements, in Pointwell 
and a parcel of arable land adjoining theret 
called Samsonsfield now Tainter Plott and 
arable land adjoining thereto, next the river, 


together nine acres. 




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garden plot, lying before the messuage call 
No. 43, containing about ten rods of grou 
messuage situate in Great Coggeshall, in 
the Gravell, adjoining to No. 36, on the p; 
welve acres of arable land, formerly par 
farm, in Kelvedon, adjoining to No. 29. 
tenement called Simons, in Stoneham Stn 


geshall, adjoining to No. 27. 
messuage, barn, and four closes of arable 
Coggeshall, formerly called Sherleys nov 
House, containing fifteen acres. 


pantry, yard, and entry, laid to and 
messuage of the sd. Robert Evans, in Marl 
Coggeshall, formerly part of the premises ] 
ive acres of land called Brookmans oth< 
situate at Stock Street, in Great Coggeshal] 
farm called Marigolds, at Marks Hall, cont 

croft of land called Shermans, containin 
Peering, part of the farm called Herrings. 
messuage and premises called the White . 
Coggeshall. 
messuage adjoining to the White Hart calle 


messuage adjoining to the Trueblue form 
Green Dragon. 


messuage and divers outhouses and buildi 
Cellar, adjoining to the Green Dragon, noi 
and storehouses. 


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DESCRIPTION OF THE COPYHOLD PREMISES. 


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Peering, and containing twenty-eight acres, 
barn and four closes of arable and woodland, called 
Greensteds, adjoining to Mockbeggars, lying in Peering, 


and containing twenty-eight acres, 
small piece of ground used for a garden, belonging to a 
freehold messuage, situate in Gt. Coggeshall, opposite the 
White Hart. 


cottage called Goldevers, situate at Hares Bridge, in Gt. 
Coggeshall. 
messuage now divided into several tenements, called 


Durdens, in East Street, Gt. Coggeshall. 
wo tenements in Stoneham Street, in Great Coggeshall, 


adjoining to No. 14. 
ands in Inworth, called Longlands, Messingfield, and Oynes 
Mead, containing twenty-six acres, with a potash office 
thereon. 


ands called Dobernelh and Bancrofts, with a barn thereon, 
belonging to the farm called the Watering farm, in 
Kelvedon, containing acres, and adjoining to No. 13. 
toft and garden at Hares Bridge, in Gt. Coggeshall, 
adjoining to No. 27. 
messuage called Wilcocks or the Cornerhouse (part thereof 
the Redlion Alehouse), at Market End, Gt. Coggeshall. 
messuage called the Dyehouse, in East Street, in Gt. 
Coggeshall (part thereof was formerly pulled down to 
make a gateway to his dwellinghouse), and adjoining to 
No. 28. 


ands called the Mount lands, in Gt. Coggeshall, whereon a 
dovehouse lately stood, containing eight acres, more or 


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DESCRIPTION OF THE FREEHOLD PREMISI 


messuage now divided into several tenemen 
Shogels, in East Street, in Gt. Coggeshall. 
mill called Pointell Mill, in Little Coggesha 
parcel of meadow ground, 
wo tenements adjoining to Pointell Mill, in Littl 
hall. 


wo tenements called G*^, in Pointell Street 
adjoining to No. 43. 
he Swan Inn and Premises, in Kelvedon. 
tenement and yard laid to the Swan Inn. 
messuage called Newhouse, in Pointell Street, wi 
stable, orchard, and three crofts of arable ani 
land, containing twelve acres, 
messuage divided into two tenements, with a g; 
orchard, called Mills, lying opposite Pointells 
adjoining to No 9. 
messuage called Grangers, in East Street, in Gi 
hall, adjoining to No. 66. 
messuage and premises, called the Green Man, \ 
Street, in Gt. Coggeshall, formerly Wybers. 

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Coggeshall, adjoining to No. 57. 
messuage called Mabsons, in Market End, Grea 
hall, adjoining to No. 20, sold to Unwin. 
messuage and six closes of land, at Stock Stre 
Coggeshall, called Widowsons. 
tenement formerly called the Unicorn, in Kelvedi 
down to widen the road. 


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DESCRIPTIO 


messuage called 
hall, adjoining to 


wo tenements, adj 
ne tenement, adj 
Clarke. 


ne other teneme 
Robert Clarke. 


messuage and m; 
messuage and t 
near Cuthedge, i 


acres, 
messuage called 
hall, adjoining to 
messuage and pr< 
moiety of a messi 
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moiety of same p 


tenement in PC 


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tenement called 
messuage and 1 
farm, in Kelvedo 


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NONCONFORMIST CHAPELS. 




THE CONGREGATIONAL CHAPEL. 




|HE Independents are a religious denomination whose 
distinctive ecclesiastical principle is that the individual 
congregation is a society strictly voluntary and self- 
governing. Among the nonconforming bodies in this 
town the Independents; or Congregationalists, have for upwards of 
two centuries held the leading position. 

The Acts of King Charles II. by their severity did much to 
increase the spirit of nonconformity, the seeds of which may be 
said to have been sown in the reign of Queen Elizabeth by the 
puritans a religious body of persons who, severing themselves 
from the Catholic church, Roman and Anglican, desired to be 
conformed in doctrine and polity to those churches of the Conti- 
nent that were by them considered to be pre-eminently reformed. 
The first Independent of any prominence was one Robert 
Brown, son of Anthony Brown, of Tolthorp, in Rutlandshire. 
He was born in 1550, educated at Cambridge, and afterwards 



The Independents. 137 

followed the profession of a schoolmaster in Southwark. His de- 
nunciation of the Established Church was of a most virulent 
character, and for his conduct in this respect he was excommuni- 
cated by the Bishop of Peterborough. The solemnity of the 
censure effected his reformation, and about 1590 he was rector of 
a parish in Northamptonshire. Here, however, his passionate 
disposition lead him into trouble with the parish constable over a 
question of rates, resulting ultimately in blows, for which offence, 
combined with his insolence to the magistrates before whom he 
was charged, he was committed to gaol, where he died, in 1630, 
at the advanced age of 80 years ; a great part of his life having 
been spent in confinement in no fewer than 32 prisons. 

Robert Brown has been thus shortly alluded to as the parish 
registers show that he had some followers here ; for instance, we 
find under baptisms, " 1615, Aug. 13, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Christopher Pennock, a Brownist excommunicate contemptuous "; 
"1615, Nov. 5, Mary, daughter of Moses Ram, an obstinate 
Brownist"; " 1615, Dec. 24, Martha, daughter of Daniel Pennock, 
a Brownist." 

The first houses at Coggeshall to which licenses were granted 
under the Declaration of Indulgence, issued by King Charles II. 
in 1672, were those of John Croe, Thomas Lowry, Matthew 
Ellistone and William Grove ; the licensed teachers being John 
Sammes, Thomas Lowry, Matthew Ellistone, William Grove and 
Thomas Millaway ; the last of whom was licensed to be a general 
congregational teacher. 

The first meeting house of a public character appears to have 
been a converted barn in East Street, mentioned in the records of 
the Independents. In this document mention is made of Mr. 
Sammes having been ejected from his position in the parish 
church, and, as his followers " could not meet where they formerly 
did, they hired a barn in East Street, which they converted into a 
Meeting House." 

In the early years of last century the Independents, who inclu- 
ded among their number some of the wealthiest inhabitants of the 
place, having outgrown their humble edifice in East Street, raised 
a fund and purchased from Henry Ennew and Elizabeth his wife, 
for ^"77 i os. two messuages built under one roof with the 
gardens, &c., called " Old Ales," situate in Stoneham Street. The 
property was conveyed to Isaac Buxton, of Great Coggeshall, 



Nonconformist Chapels. 



clothier, and Thomas Nicholls, yeoman, and William Brown, 
gentleman, of Little Coggeshall, on the 2oth April, 1710. The 
conveyance contains seve r al genealogical items relating to the 
Ennew family. By another deed of the same date the fee farm 
rent of ji us. 8d., payable to Morden College, which was 
charged on this and other property, was to be thenceforth payable 
out of a close of land containing about two acres, also parcel or 
reputed parcel of the property known as " Old Ales." The cottages 
were pulled down, and on the site there was erected the present 
chapel. The building proceeded with such expedition that on 
the 3ist August, 1710, the chapel was registered in the Bishop of 
London's Registry " as a meeting house for religious worship of 
Protestant Dissenters from the Church of England, commonly 
called Independents." 

The Deed of Settlement, declaring the trusts of the property, 
is dated the Qth of March, 1715, and is made between Isaac Bux- 
ton, of Great Coggeshall, clothier; Thomas Nichols, of Great 
Coggeshall, yeoman, and William Brown, of Great Coggeshall, 
gentleman, of the one part ; and Nehemiah Lyde, of Hackney, 
Esq., Richard Ducane, of the City of London, Esq., Edward 
Bentley, of Great Coggeshall, clerk, John Taylor, Senior, of Great 
Coggeshall, glazier, John Barnard, Sen., of the same place, draper, 
John Cooper, of Kelvedon, gentleman, William Leppingwell, of 
the same place, gentleman, Thomas Potter, Sen., of Messing, 
gentleman, Moses Richardson, of Pattiswick, gentleman, Richard 
Brewer, of Great Coggeshall, yeoman, William Barrick, of Peering, 
yeoman, and Jeremiah Raven, of the same place, yeoman, of the 
other part. The Trust Deed declares that the trustees shall hold 
the property in trust, to permit the building or meeting-house to 
be used as a meeting-house or meeting-place for the worship of 
Almighty GOD by the people of that congregation or society for 
the time being, of which Edward Bentley was then pastor or 
minister, and whereof his successor and successors for the time 
being shall be pastor or pastors, and for such other persons as 
should attend the ministry there. There is power for the trustees, 
or the major part of them, to make orders and agreements for de- 
ciding controversies arising between members of the congregation 
concerning the pews. W r hen the number of trustees should be 
reduced to five the continuing trustees were to appoint new 
trustees. 



The Independents. 139 

In 1716, the congregation consisted of 700 hearers, of whom 
43 were voters for the county, and 19 came under the denomina- 
tion of gentlemen, as appears by a return made by Lord Barring- 
ton. 

The trustees, appointed in 1727, were John Brooks (Feering), 
Thomas Buxton, John Buxton, Joseph Thetford, George Abbot, 
John Savill (Feering), Edward Sach, Abraham Cook, Robert Sal- 
mon, George Brett, Thomas Porter (Inworth), Isaac Buxton, Jun., 
(Feering) and John Willsher (Marks Tey). 

On the i6th of October, 1765, the only surviving trustees, viz. 
Thomas Buxton, George Abbott, John Savill, George Brett, and 
Isaac Buxton, the younger, appointed as the new trustees, Robert 
Salmon, Sen., Thomas Unwin, Sen., William Unwin, Sen., Thomas 
Unwin, Jun., William Unwin, Jun., William Sandford, Edward 
Powell, John Abbott, Jonathan Peacock, Edward Sach, Thomas 
Babbs, Sen., William Newton, Sen., Thomas Lay, Edward Wai- 
ford, Ephraim Willsher, Daniel Halls, and George Jay, Jun. This 
deed contains special provision for setting apart pews to members 
of the congregation. 

On the 1 3th of May, 1777, John Godfrey, William Babbs, 
Habbakuk Layman, Fisher Unwin, Jordan Unwin, Stephen 
Unwin, Edward Sach, John Wright, Henry Shetelworth, Sen., 
John Raven, Thomas Babbs, Thomas Powell, Henry Shetelworth, 
Jun., George Willsher, Thomas Willsher, John Everett, Haddon 
Rudkin and Edward Evans were appointed new trustees of the 
meeting-house property. 

On the 24th of May, 1794, the trustees purchased for ^21 a 
piece of ground, whereon formerly stood a cottage, lying between 
the meeting-house and Church lane. 

The next appointment of new trustees is dated the 24th of 
September, 1802, and by this deed the trust property became 
vested in John Archer, Jacob Pattison, John Godfrey, Samuel 
Sach, Thomas Andrew, Sen., Thomas Andrew, Jun., Anthony 
Blackbone, John Davey, James Francis, John Gurton, Peter Good, 
Stephen Unwin, Thomas Unwin, Jun., Thomas Johnson, John 
Wright, Jordan Unwin, Thomas Willsher, Jun., Thomas Brown 
and William Potter. 

On 3oth August, 1845, Fisher Unwin Pattison, Jordan Unwin, 
Stephen Unwin, Sen., Samuel Sach, Anthony Blackbone, Stephen 
Unwin, Jun., Thomas Chalk Swinborne, Jacob Unwin, Harold 



14 Nonconformist Chapels. 

Giles, Fisher Unwin, William Beard, George Beard, Jun., Charles 
Moore, Sen., Henry Moore, Thomas Kettle, Alfred Denny, Joseph 
Denny, William Lemon Oliver, Joseph Sach, Matthias Gardner 
and John Appleford Clemance were appointed trustees. 

The last appointment of trustees is dated the iyth August, 
1884, when twenty-four of the leading members of the congre- 
gation were elected. 

In 1834, the Chapel was considerably enlarged at a cost of 
about ;i,ooo, and it was further improved in 1865, by throwing 
out an apse behind the pulpit for the organ and choir. In 1882, 
the interior of the building was entirely reconstructed, at a cost of 

;i5- 

The present manse in East Street was purchased and enlarged 

by the congregation, and conveyed in trust for their minister, in 

1870. 

The following is a list of the ministers : 

LOWREY, Thomas, has already been noticed on page 62. He 
was ejected from the Church of England. He purchased the 
property now known as the Woolpack Inn, in Church Street, 
in 1665 ; made his will, 12 March, 1680, and gave his resi- 
dence and ^900 to his son, Jeremy Lawrey (his name is 
variously spelt, but in his will he adopts this form) ; gave his 
daughter, Rebecca, the wife of Samuel Grossman, among 
other things a silver tankard, and one silver wine cup ; men- 
tions his grandchildren (then infants), Samuel Grossman and 
Thomas Grossman, children of his daughter, Rebecca; ap- 
pointed his son, Jeremy, to be the guardian of his son, Rich- 
ard, during the latter's minority ; gave $ for division among 
certain nonconformist ministers, viz. Robert Gouge, of Great 
Coggeshall, 205., William Lyle, of Witham, 205., Mr. Legg, 
of Ipswich, IDS., Richard Rand, of Marks Tey, ios., Mrs. 
Stulham, of Terling, ios., Mr. Chadley, near Yeldham, ios., 
Mr. Crow, near Hundon or Clare, ios., Mr. Clarke, of Raine, 
ios ; gave $ to the poor of the society or church with whom 
he was in fellowship ; and the residue of his estate he gave to 
his three children, Jeremy, Richard and Rebecca ; appointed 
his friend, Isaac Hubbard, of Great Coggeshall, grocer, super- 
visor of his will. The will was proved by his son, Jeremy, 
on 2nd August, 1681. Jeremy Lowrey, the son, sometime a 
citizen and apothecary of London, was dead in 1708, when 



The Independents. 14 J 



his son, Jeremiah, also a citizen and apothecary of London, 
sold the residence, which had then lately been converted into 
an inn called ' The Woolpack,' to George Long. Thomas 
Lowrey's funeral sermon was preached by Robert Gouge. A 
John Lowrey [query of this family] was M.P. in the time of 
the Long Parliament, and sat with Cromwell not long after 
the general election. He was appointed one of the King's 
judges, but did not act ; was living in 1659 [vide East Anglian 
Notes and Queries, N.S. vol L, p. 78.] 

SAMES, John (ante p. 62), was probably of the family of Sames 
or Sammes, of the Totham, Tolleshunt and Goldhanger dis- 
trict (see Morant, vol. I, pp. 386-392). .Is said to have resided 
for a time in New England ; vicar of Kelvedon, 1 647 ; vicar 
of Coggeshall, 1654, from which vicarage he was ejected at 
the time of the Restoration ; died at Coggeshall, and was 
buried in the churchyard on i6th December, 1672. His 
funeral sermon was preached by Mr. Lowrey, who spoke of 
his deceased friend as the jewel of the town," " the salt as it 
were of the town," and " the light of the town ;" and, from 
this discourse, he appears to have been a tender-hearted, pa- 
tient, conscientious and godly man. 

ELLISTONE, Matthew, GROVE, William, and MILLAWAY, 
Thomas, were also nonconformist ministers here about this 
time. Matthew Ellistone was buried at Marks Hall, on 3rd 
May, 1693. 

GOUGE, Robert, who was a congregational minister here from 
1674 till his death in 1705, appears to have been a man of 
some property, as he was the owner of a farm in Stock 
Street, occupied by one Robert Cornell ; he also had three 
houses in Stoneham Street, in one of which he resided. 
When he made his will on i4th April, 1703, he described 
himself as Robert Gouge the elder, of Great Coggeshall, 
Clerk ; his wife's name was Katherine ; he had a son, Robert, 
and a granddaughter, Sarah Gouge. He was buried at 
Coggeshall, on i6th October, 1705. He was a native 
of Chelmsford ; educated at Christ College, Cambridge ; 
sometime a schoolmaster at Maldon ; in 1658 was a congre- 
gational minister at Ipswich. Bufton has a few notes about 
some members of this family: "1680, April 27, Mr. 
Thomas Gouge was married to a rich gentlewoman of 



Nonconformist Chapels. 



Chelmsford; 1689, Oct. 31, Mr. Thomas Gouge brought 
home his second wife from London; 1689, May 19, Mr. 
Samuel Gouge, a lawyer, was buried." 

BENTLEY, Edward, succeeded Gouge in 1706, and continued 
pastor until his death on the gth June, 1740. He was 
buried at the foot of the pulpit stairs in the Chapel. His 
successor was 

FARMER, John, from whom the pastorate devolved upon 

HUMPHREY, Nicholas, who after two years duty resigned, and 
was followed, in 1751, by 

PEYTO, Henry, who died at the age of 74 years, on 7th 
November, 1776. 

ANDREWS, Mordecai, was the next minister. He resigned in 
1797, and was succeeded by 

FIELDING, Jeremiah, who, however, failed to work in harmony 
with a large portion of his congregation, which resulted 
in some of the principal members forming a separate meet- 
ing in East Street, where they continued to assemble until 
Fielding's retirement in 1818. On the i2th January, in 
which year 

WELLS, Algernon, was appointed pastor. By his kindly dis- 
position and strict devotion to duty he reunited the severed 
congregation, and ably ministered to his flock until his 
resignation in 1837. 

KAY, John, was the next minister, and served that office for 
fifteen years, namely, till his death on the i4th of October, 
1854. His successor was 

DALE, Bryan, of Western College, Plymouth, and London 
University. He was ordained on the i8th October, 1855, 
and continued here till 1863. He is well known as the 
author of the " Annals of Coggeshall" a work of considerable 
research and varied interest. The history of nonconformity 
occupies a large portion of the volume, and the detailed 
biography of most of the Independent ministers is there set 
forth. He is now Secretary of the Yorkshire Congregational 
Union. The present minister is 

PHILPS, Alfred Downing. He entered Hackney College in 
1860. During his college course he gained the first Holmes 
Jubilee Prize. He was ordained pastor at Coggeshall, aoth 
September, 1864, and among those present at his ordination 



The Society of Friends. 143 

were the Rev. Samuel McAll, President of Hackney College 
(afterwards his father-in-law), and the Rev. S. W. McAll, 
M.A., of Finchley. 



Society of 

ontmon% caffed QuaRere. 



f I A HE members of this society who. Fox says, were first called 
JL Quakers by Justice Bennet, of Derby, because " I (Fox) bid 
them tremble at the word of the Lord, and that was in the year 
1650." They had some followers here as early as 1655, who are 
thus mentioned by the founder of the society, (born 1624, died 
1690), in his journal: " After the meeting at Reading I passed 
up to London, where I stayed awhile and had large meetings, and 
then went into Essex and came to Cogshall, and there was a meet- 
ing of about 2,000 people, as it was judged, which lasted several 
hours ; and a glorious meeting it was, for the Word of Life was 
freely declared, and people were turned to the Lord JESUS 
CHRIST." And, writing again in 1661, he says, "having now 
stayed in London some time I felt drawings to meet friends in 
Essex, so I went down to Colchester where I had very large 
meetings, and from thence to Coggeshall, not far from which there 
was a priest convinced, and I had a meeting at his house." 

Among the early quakers was one James Parnell, who 
acquired notoriety in the year 1655. This enthusiast in the 
cause of religious liberty, during a service held in the parish 
church, on the 4th of July, and at which a collection was made for 
the poor and persecuted protestants of Piedmont, occasioned a 
disturbance, which resulted in his being taken before the local 
magistrates and ultimately committed to prison. He was subse- 
quently imprisoned in the castle at Colchester, where he died 
in the month of April, 1656. The following account of his 
sufferings is extracted from a lecture by William Beck : 

"This youth (barely twenty when he died) was actually 
brought up to trial with chains upon him like a felon ; and had 
to take his stand among murderers, and the city (Colchester) 
authorities left him when sentenced to live as he could in a hole 



144 Nonconformist Chapels. 

in the castle wall. To this he had to clamber by a piece of rope 
that hung above the ladders, so difficult of access that he injured 
his health, by refraining to come down for his meals ; and one day 
as he clutched at the rope, that hung dangling above the top 
round of the ladder, his victuals in one hand and the rope end in 
the other, his enfeebled grasp loosened and he fell down on the 
rough stones below and lay there as if dead. He revived, but 
not to receive any better treatment from his gaoler ; his friends 
were denied access, all comforts they brought never reached him, 
the hard-hearted gaoler seemed determined to have his life and 
in a few days more the end was reached. Unable now to ascend 
the ladder, they had him laid in a hole near the ground, so 
small it was called " the oven " ; and, on one occasion, when 
cramped and weary, he had crawled for a little fresh air to the 
yard, his cruel keeper locked him out all night, though it was 
cold, snowy weather. It was the last suffering his life could with- 
stand, and James Parnell was no more ; but the people, who saw 
him die, heard his song as of victory even in that hour of death ; 
and the men of Essex thought all the more of the quakers and 
the truth of their views through the calm, patient sufferings of 
that gallant-hearted, spiritually-minded youth." 

On the 2ist April, 1673, Nathaniel Sparrow, of Stisted, 
tanner ; Richard Pemberton, of Great Coggeshall, clothier ; 
Robert Adams, of Little Coggeshall, miller ; Robert Ludgater, 
Jun., of Great Coggeshall, fellmonger ; William Sewell, of Great 
Coggeshall, maltster ; Robert Harvey, of Little Coggeshall, 
gardener ; John Roddley, of Great Coggeshall, woolcomber ; 
John Clark, of the same place, yeoman ; and John Garrett, of 
the same place, tailor ; who were probably the leading members 
of the Society of Friends which met at Coggeshall, purchased 
from John Raven, of Peering, yeoman ; Daniel King, of Castle 
Hedingham, woolcomber ; a house in Stoneham Street, contain- 
ing 25ft. by the rule in length and 24ft. by the rule in breadth, 
with an entryway thereto. 

On ist March, 1706, Robert Ludgater, Robert Harvey and 
John Garratt, the only surviving trustees, conveyed the property 
to William Cooke, baker, Matthew Dollow, clothier, Robert 
Evans, maltster, John Perry, grocer, John Stacey, woolcomber, 
W 7 illiam Stacey, woolcomber, William Mast, tailor, John Evans, 
maltster, Robert Purcess, tailor, all of Great Coggeshall ; and 



The Society of Friends. 145 

Isaac Ludgater, of Little Coggeshall, fellmonger, but no trusts 
were declared. 

New trustees were again appointed by deed dated 1747, 
wherein are the names of Ludgater, Greenwood, Bott, Hart, 
Evans, Woodward, Corder, Bell, Docwra and Candler. 

On 5th March, 1792, Robert Evans, as the surviving trustee, 
conveyed the house and premises, with certain additions which 
had recently been made, to Osgood Hanbury, of Lombard Street, 
banker, and others, bearing the surnames of Bott, Brightwen, 
Docwra, Raven, Hills, King, Dell, Greenwood, and Kirkham, 
upon trust to permit the same to be used for a meeting house for 
the people called Quakers for their worship of GOD. 

Bufton tells us, that "in April, 1693, the Quakers made a new 
burying-place in Crouches," this they did by acquiring a lease, for 
480 years, from Joseph Drywood and others, of a piece of land, 
part of Ayworth's or Crouch's, abutting upon an orchard belong- 
ing to a messuage called ' Sewal's ' or the ' Chapel,' and upon a 
pond there. The ground was to be used as a burying-place for the 
people called Quakers who should die in or near Coggeshall. 

Osgood Hanbury (the great-great-grandfather of Mr. Osgood 
Beauchamp Hanbury) having heard that the burial-ground be- 
longing to the Friends was nearly filled up, in 1783, voluntarily 
offered the Society a portion of his land adjoining their property, 
at the same time declaring that he had no intention of being 
reinstated in membership. 

The first-named, who died at the age of 51 years, was buried 
in this piece of ground, on the 2oth January, 1784. His son 
Osgood, who died, i8th February, 1852, aged 86, was also buried 
there, and since his decease two more of the same name, grand- 
son and great-grandson, have passed away, but they were both 
buried in the churchyard at Pattiswick. 

Mr. Osgood Beauchamp Hanbury, aged 22 years, married on 
the 1 7th, died on the 25th, and was buried on the 3oth of the 
month of October, 1889. He married Flora Tower, of Takeley, 
and was buried at Pattiswick. 

In 1856, a new burial-ground was made at Tilkey and the old 
one has not since been used. 

The Society is also possessed of a row of cottages on the 
north side of Crouches Alley, purchased from the parish autho- 
rities when the old workhouse was abolished. Some cottages in 



146 Nonconformist Chapels. 



Little Coggeshall, adjoining the bridge over the old river or back 
ditch also belong to the Friends. 

The present Meeting House was erected in 1878, at a cost of 
about ;8oo. 

It is not generally known that the marriages of the paternal 
as well as the maternal grandparents of William Edward Forster 
took place at Coggeshall. This notable politician will ever be 
remembered by his pre-eminent connection with the Elementary 
Education Act, 1870, an association which led to his being 
nicknamed 'Education Forster.' So remarkable a man was Mr. 
Forster that, on the day following his death, which happened on 
the 5th April, 1886, The Times devoted no fewer than six columns 
of its space to his obituary. William Edward Forster was born 
at Bradpole, Dorset, nth July, 1818; his grandfather was \Villiam 
Forster, of Tottenham, who married at Coggeshall monthly meet- 
ing, in September, 1781, Elizabeth Hay ward, of Kelvedon. Of 
this marriage there were eleven children, of whom was William 
Forster, of Tottenham, land agent, born 1784 ; he married in 
1816, Anna Buxton, daughter of Thomas Fowell Buxton, Esq., 
of Earls Colne, whose wife was Anna, the daughter of Osgood 
Hanbury, Esq., and whose marriage took place at Coggeshall in 
1782. Here are some extracts from the Society's minutes relating 
to the marriage of the paternal grandparents of this statesman : 
" 1781, 8 Mo. 6 Monthly meeting at Halstead. Wm. Forster, of 
Tottenham, and Eliz. Hayward, of Kelvedon, declared their 
intentions of taking each other in marriage if the Lord per- 
mits. He produced a satisfactory certificate from Tottenham 
mo. meeting, also of his mother's consent. Her parents 
being present, we appointed Jos. Docwra to give notice of 
such intended marriage at Kelvedon meeting on a first day. 
1781, 9 Mo. 3 Monthly meeting held at Coggeshall, William 
Forster and Elizabeth Hayward now declared the continu- 
ance of their intention of taking each other in marriage if 
the Lord permits, this meeting leaves them to consummate 
their marriage according to ye good order of friends. 
1781, 10 Mo. i Mo. meeting held at Kelvedon. The friend 
appointed to attend the marriage of Wm. Forster and Eliz. 
Hayward, reports the same was conducted orderly. Ye 
certificate is in ye hands of Jos. Docwra, who is desired 
to deliver it to J. Bott to be recorded." 



The Society of Friends. M7 

And from the same source is extracted a reference to the 
marriage of his maternal grandparents : 

"1782, 3 month 4th Coggeshall monthly meeting. Friends of 
Coggeshall meeting report that Anna Hanbury, a member 
of Devonshire House mo. meeting, was lately married at 
Coggeshall, by a priest, to T. Buxton, a person not of our 
' society ; ' we appoint Jos. Docwra to enquire whether she 
now resides within the compass of this meeting, and if so 
to visit her thereupon, and in case she is removed to com- 
municate the circumstances to some suitable members of the 
mo. meeting wherein she resides, in order that she may be 
duly visited, requesting such friend would report to us the 
effect of such visit, in order that she may be dealt with 
agreeably to the rules of the society." 
The following refers to a member of the Buxton family : 
"The general deportment of Anna Buxton, a member of this 
meeting, having for several years past manifested a disregarded 
to divers testimonies, which we as a religious society believe it 
incumbent on us to support, particularly in the attending of 
places of diversion and other vain amusements, on which 
account much private labour hath been extended, which proving 
ineffectual, she has been divers times visited by appointments 
of men and women Friends in order to endeavour to convince 
her of the inconsistency of her conduct and thereby induce more 
circumspection in future, which labour hitherto does not appear 
to have answered the desired end having in the last opportunity 
acknowledged that her conduct was in some respect irreconcilable 
with the principles which we profess without a prospect of its 
being otherwise at present; and having entered into an engage- 
ment for marriage with a person not of our society, which she is 
not at all disposed to relinquish, this meeting apprehends an 
individual thus circumstanced as calling for the exercise of the 
rules of our society to the full extent, and accordingly hereby 
declares the said Anna Buxton is no longer considered a member 
thereof. Yet seeing that it is the nature of our discipline to 
embrace the offers of those, who having subjected themselves to 
its operation in separating them from the body, when from a right 
sense of the loss they have thereby sustained they are engaged 
to apply for re-instatement, should Anna Buxton hereafter evince 
a disposition of this sort accompanied with conduct correspon- 

L 2 



Nonconformist Chapels. 



dent therewith, her restoration to membership would be acceptable 
to us. 

Signed in and on behalf of Cogges-] 

hall monthly meeting, held aUWM. DOUBLEDAY, Clk." 

Halstead, 5th of 5th mo., 1806.) 



IT will have been noticed (p. 119) that there was a Baptist 
Meeting House in this town nearly 150 years ago, and 
further, that it was in close proximity to Church pond, and that 
Henry Turner was the minister, or baptist teacher, as he is called 
in the court rolls of the manor of Great Coggeshall. 

From Josiah Thompson's MSS. in Dr. Williams' Library, 
' Dissenting Interest in England and Wales, 1713 to 1773,' are 
extracted these notes under date 1772 : " 

"Crouch Green. There is a little congregation of general 
baptists, which together with Coggeshall is supposed to be as 
ancient as any of the dissenting congregations in the county." 

" Coggeshall. There is a meeting house with a baptistery in 
it. Their numbers are but small and ye people poor." 

Some additional information is gleaned from the books of the 
Eld Lane Chapel at Colchester : 

"In January, 1782, Samuel Britton and Richard Rand, late 
members of the Independent Church at Coggeshall, under the 
pastoral care of Mr. Richard Andrews, and Gooday Pudney, a 
hearer of Mr. Duddje, the church minister at the same town, and 
till now a communicant with him, gave a circumstantial and 
convincing relation of their experiences and very satisfactory 
reasons for embracing believer's baptism, and of their wish to 
join with us, making this provision, that they should choose to 
be dismissed from us if in any future period a Baptist Church 
should be established at Coggeshall. They were all three 
baptised a week before at Mr. Pudney's house, by Mr. Hitchcock. 
Testimony was borne to their character and they were received 
into the fellowship of Eld Lane Church." 

"June 26th, 1791. Notice was given that a new Meeting 
House was to be opened, and Mr. Hutchins ordained to Cogges- 
hall the first week in July." 



The Wesley an Methodists. 149 

In Nippon's Register, Vol. I, p. 519, is contained an account of 
the services held at Mr. John Hutchings ordination at Coggeshall, 
on 7th July, 1791. The service was opened by Mr. Richard 
Hutchings, the father of the future minister. 

On 2oth September, 1796, the Essex Baptist Association was 
formed, Mr. John Hutchings being in the chair ; it was resolved 
that until the general meeting in May, 1797, the place for trans- 
acting the business of the Association should be at Coggeshall. 

On the last Tuesday and Wednesday in May, 1797, the first 
annual meeting of the Essex Association was held at Coggeshall 
(put up at Swan Inn). The rules of the Association were attended 
to ; Mr. Stevens spoke on the design of the Association, and 
addressed Mr. Pilkington who had been appointed an itinerant 
preacher. The meeting on Wednesday was held in the Indepen- 
dent Meeting House. 

For many years the baptists met at a house adjoining Hares 
bridge. 

On the 28th April, 1825, a piece of land on the north side of 
Church Street was purchased by Thomas Rowland, John Collis, 
Thomas Wheeler, James Potter, and Jephthah Threadkell, from 
Charles Smith for ;i8o, and thereon was erected a suitable 
building, which has since been used as the Meeting House of the 
society. 



OGGESHALL was formerly in the Colchester circuit of this 
society or connection, but a few years ago was transferred 
to the Chelmsford circuit. The first mention of the Wesleyans 
at Coggeshall is in 1811. For some time they assembled for 
worship at a house in Stoneham Street, since converted into an 
Inn called the ' Foresters.' Afterwards they had a chapel in East 
Street. 

On the 25th January, 1883, the new Wesleyan Methodist 
Chapel on the west side of Stoneham Street was opened, the 
first sermon being preached by the Rev. Ebenezer E. Jenkins. 
For this building, which is of white brick, a sum of ^1,200 was 
collected. It is constructed to seat about 250 persons. 



THE CHARITIES. 





|HIS School was founded in 1636, by Sir Robert 
Hitcham, who was born in the I4th year of the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth (A.I). 1572), at Levington, in 
Suffolk, where his father and grandfather carried on 
the business of cutting heather and carrying it about for sale as 
material for the manufacture of brooms and brushes. 

The family of Hitcham derived its name from the village of 
Hecham or Hitcham, near Bildeston, in Suffolk ; and there is 
mention, in records dated 1355, of a Ralph, son of John de 
Hecham, who recovered certain lands in Hecham from a Robert 
de Hecham, but whether Sir Robert Hitcham of the i6th century 



Sir Robert Hitchairis School. 151 

was of this family or not is not known. An old manuscript 
" History of Suffolk families," written upwards of two centuries 
ago by Robert Ryce, of Preston, in the neighbourhood of Hitcham, 
says that Sir Robert " was not born to ^200 per annum, and rose 
to an estate of about ^"1,500 per annum ;" but a marginal note 
of great antiquity but written in another hand, referring to the 
^200, says, " Nor to 20, nor to 2." ( Vide Green's History of 
Framlingham). 

Be his birth what it may, Sir Robert was undoubtedly a good 
man, of a somewhat passionate disposition, clear in intellect and 
an admirable speaker. He commenced his education at the 
Free School at Ipswich, afterwards removing to Pembroke Hall, 
Cambridge, where he entered as a student. He next entered 
himself at Gray's Inn for the purpose of pursuing the study of 
the law, in which profession he was evidently destined to attain 
a high position. In 1596, he was elected member for the borough 
of West Looe. In 1603, he was appointed Attorney-General to 
Queen Anne of Denmark, the consort of King James I. of 
England. A year later, he was appointed Lent reader at Gray's 
Inn. King James appointed him his senior Serjeant-at-Law on the 
4th of January, 1616, at the same time conferring upon him the 
honour of knighthood. On several occasions he acted as a judge 
of Assize, and in the 22nd year of King James I. was Recorder 
of Hadleigh. In 1623, he was elected member for Orford, near 
Woodbridge, for which borough he was again returned at the two 
subsequent elections. He represented that place as member of 
parliament until 1628. Sometime during the reign of King 
Charles I. he purchased a house in the parish of S. Matthew's, 
Ipswich, known as Seckford House or the Great House. 

About the year 1635, Sir Robert purchased of the Duke of 
Suffolk, for ; 1 4,000, Framlingham Castle and the Manors of 
Framlingham and Saxted, in Suffolk, and held the first court for 
his Manor of Framlingham in the nth year of King Charles I. 
The title to his estate was so complicated that it is said, had he 
not been possessed of a strong brain and a powerful purse, he 
could not have cleared it ; which he was so sensible of, that in 
thankfulness to GOD for his wonderful success, he settled it upon 
Pembroke Hall, in Cambridge, for various charitable uses ; among 
other objects of his bounty were the poor of Coggeshall, a know- 
ledge of whose destitution he obtained though the wealthy family 



152 



The Charities. 



of the Guyons of this town, with whom he was familiarly ac- 
quainted. 

The^arms of Sir Robert Hitcham were : 
Gules, on a chief or, three torteaux ; Crest a 
buck salient ppr, attired or, among leaves, 
andjhe trunk of a tree also ppr. 

Sir Robert died the isth of August, 
1636, and was buried in the south aisle of 
Framlingham Church in a magnificent tomb, 
consisting of a table of black marble sus- 
tained on the shoulders of four angels of white marble, their 
hair and wings gilded, each having one knee to the ground. 
Under the table is an urn after the Roman fashion enriched 
with a mantling and two cherubim. At the west end is this 
inscription in gold letters upon black marble : 





SIR ROBERT HITCHAM's TOMB. 



" Reader 

" In expectation of the coming of our Lord Jesus, here 
lyeth ye body of Sr. Robert Hitcham, Kt., born at Leving- 
ton, in ye County of Suff., Schollar in the Free School 
at Ipswiche, and sometime of Pembroke Hall in Cambridge; 
and after of Grayes Inne ; Attorney to Queen Anne 
in ye first yeare of King James, then Knighted; and 



Sir Robert Hitcham's School. 153 

afterward made ye King's Senior Serjeant at Law, and 
often Judge of Assize : aged 64 years. Dyed 
the i$th day of August. Anno 

1636. 
" The children not yet borne with gladness shall 

Thy pious actions into memory call ; 
And thou shalt live as long as there shall bee 
Either poore or any use of Charitie" 

At the east end of the tomb are the arms of Sir Robert. 

The following is a copy of his will, which is of so interest- 
ing a nature that no apology is needed for its insertion in 
extenso : 

"In the NAME of the Glorious and Incomprehensible 
TRINITY. I Sir ROBERT HITCHAM of Ipswich, in the County 
of Suffolk, Knight, the King's Majesties Serjeant at Law, this 
present Monday, being the 8th of August, 1636, in the i2th 
Year of King Charles, Do make this my last Will and Testament 
in Writing as followeth. First, I will, after my death, that all my 
debts be first paid, and the profits of all my lands and heredita- 
ments be committed only to that use, my debts being only 
^3,000, the remnant of my purchase of my Lord of Suffolk ; 
other debts, I do not know that I owe ,20 ; saving ^500. which 
is in my hands in trust for my sister. Item, I will, for the pay- 
ment of my debts and legacies, that my Lease of the Manors of 
Walton and Felixtow, and my Houses in Ipswich, all my jewels, 
household stuff, and plate, there and elsewhere, and all other my 
goods and chattels whatsoever, be sold for the payment of my 
debts and legacies, by my Executors hereafter named, and the 
survivor of them. My Manor of BurvalPs, in Levington, the 
Impropriation mill, fish-ponds, park, and other roialties whatso- 
ever, and all my lands and tenements whatsoever there, or in any 
Towns thereabouts, or thereunto used, now leaton to Mayhew, 
(except the Farm called Watkins, and that therewith leaton, as it 
is now ye lease) I give unto my nephew Robert Butts, and his 
heirs, upon condition, and to the intent and purpose, that he pay 
unto my sister, ^1000. that is to say, ,500. a year yearly after 
my decease ; and for my Farm, Watkins, I give the same unto my 
sister and her heirs, the one presently after my decease, to release 
and convey their right in either of the other part to the other, 
and their heirs, and if either of them fail so to do, then this my 



1 54 The Charities. 



devise to him so failing, to be void ; and then I devise the same 
unto the other, and his or their heirs. 

" For my Castle and Manors of Framlingham and Saxted, and 
all other the Lands, Tenements, and Hereditaments, which I and 
my Feoffees, purchased of my Lord of Suffolk and his Feoffees, 
I will, that my Feoffees and their Heirs, and the survivors of 
them, after my debts paid, Do presently stand seised as in Trust, 
to the Use of 'the Master and Fellows of Pembroke-Hall, in 
Cambridge, and their Successors, according to their incorporation, 
and that upon Request, to be made by them, my Feoffees, and 
their Heirs, and the survivors of them do make good and perfect 
assurance unto them accordingly. Of which said Castle, Manors, 
and Premises, my meaning is, and I will, that the said College 
shall only have to the Use of them, and their Successors for 
themselves, only the Castle, Royalties, and Rents of Tenure, with 
the Mere, and all other Fish-ponds, the advowson of the Church, 
the Hundred of Loes, and the Fairs and Markets there ; but no 
part of the other Lands or Hereditaments : and this my Legacy, 
I will, shall be employed for the Good of the College, as my Gift 
alone by itself, and not to be employed to the Increase of their 
Fellowships, or Buildings, or of any other Thing, belonging to 
their House. And all the Demeans of Lands, of the said 
Manors, and all other the Hereditaments, and Lands purchased 
of my Lord of Suffolk, and his Feoffees besides, and whatsoever 
parcel thereof, or belonging thereunto, I do give unto them, only 
in Trust, to be committed by them, to the Uses and Intents 
following, and they to have no manner of other Benefit thereby. 
Item, I will, that presently after my decease, all the Castle, 
(saving the stone-Building) be pulled down, and the materials 
thereof coming, to be converted as followeth : First, I will, that 
the said College do presently after my death, erect and build at 
Framlingham, One House to set the Poor on work, the Poor and 
most needy and impotent of Framlingham (and) Debenham, (in 
Suffolk) and Coxall, (Coggeshall) in Essex first, and after them, of 
other Towns, if they see cause ; and to provide a substantial 
Stock to set them on work, and to allow to such needy Persons of 
them, so much as they shall further think fit : and likewise I will, 
that they do build One or Two Almshouses, consisting of Twelve 
Persons, (viz.) Six a piece, for Twelve of the poorest and 
decrepid People there ; which I will, shall have Two Shillings a 



Sir Robert Hitcham's Schools. 155 

Week, during their lives, and also Forty Shillings a Year for a 
Gown and Firing every Year, the said Two Shillings to be paid 
weekly, and the other yearly. Item, I will, that a School-House 
be built there at Framlingham, and a Master appointed, whom I 
will, shall have Forty Pounds by the Year, during his life, to 
teach Thirty, or Forty, or more of the poorest and neediest 
Children of the said Towns of Framlingham, Debenham, and 
Coxall, to write, read, and cast accounts, as the said College shall 
think fit ; then to give them, Ten Pounds a piece, to bind them 
forth Apprentices, at the discretion of the Four Senior Fellows of 
the said College : and the said School-master not to take any 
other, upon Penalty of loosing his Place and Stipend. Item, I 
will, that there be presently built after my decease, One Alms- 
house at Levington, for six Female Persons, of the poorest and 
impotent of Levington and Nacton, the same to be built upon 
my Tenement near the Street there, and they to have the like 
allowance in all Things, as the poor of Framlingham are appoin- 
ted to have : to begin First, with the poor of Levington, and so 
successively. Item, I will, that there shall be for ever One that 
shall read Prayers in the Church of Framlingham daily, at the 
Hours of Eight in the Forenoon, and at Four in the Afternoon, 
unto whom I give Twenty Pounds by the Year ; and to the 
Sexton, Five Pounds yearly : and such of the Poor People afore- 
said, and the School-master, or Scholars there, as shall make 
Default in coming to hear Prayers there, I will, that their 
Allowance shall be proportionally abated for the same neglect, 
(except their excuse be allowed by the Minister of the Parish of 
Framlingham, for the time being). And whatsoever shall or may 
further come of this which I have formerly given and devised in 
Trust to the said College, I will, that they convert the same to 
the like Use or Uses, to continue as before for ever. 

"First, I give unto my honourable friend the Lord Keeper, 
;ioo and to his Lady, ,50 and to my Lord Privy-Seal, ^50, 
to be bestowed by my executors in such pieces of plate, as they 
shall think fit. Item, I do give to every of the children of my 
Brother Butts, that he had by my sister, which shall be unmarried 
at the time of my decease, 200 a piece, and to them which 
shall be married, ;ioo a piece; and to my sister, ^100 to her 
former ,500 and whatsoever I have heretofore by this my Will 
given unto her, to be by her put out into some trusty friends 



The Charities. 



hands, and her husband to have no medling with the same ; and 
her children married and unmarried, to have like legacies my 
brother Butts his children by my sister have. Item, I do give 
unto Samuel Ward, of Ipswich, ^20 and 20 to the son of him 
of whom I bought my house and lands at Tannington, he being 
a cripple. Item, I give all my servants that have served me 
above a year, 10 a piece, and a mourning cloak or gown; and 
to my other servants, ^5 a piece, and a mourning gown or cloak. 
Item, I will, that Gyant, my gardener shall dwell where he now 
dwelleth, and keep my house until it be sold, and have for the 
same keeping, & by the year, and the profits of all the gardens 
and orchards ; and I wish and desire that he may so have it 
afterwards during his life, with a reasonable allowance for his 
diet ; and if he shall not have his dwelling, and gardens, and 
orchards, with his allowance during his life-time, then, I will, 
he shall have the other tenement next thereto during his life, 
freely to dwell in. Item, I will, that all my servants shall have 
reasonable allowance for their diet for one month next after 
my decease. Item, I do give unto the Poor of Levington, 50, 
and to the poor of Nacton, ^50 as a Stock, to be put out for 
them for ever ; and to the Poor of Framlingham, ^50, and to 
the Parish where I now live, 20, to be distributed amongst 
them : and whatever I have else, I will, shall be bestowed in such 
like Charitable Uses as before. And whatsoever I have given, 
the same to continue for ever. And of this my last Will and 
Testament, I do make Matthew Wren now Bishop of Norwich, 
my Supervisor ; and Richard Keeble, and Robert Butts, my 
Executors, giving them my Supervisor, and Executors, 50 a 
piece. And if the said College shall wilfully refuse to perform 
this my Will : Then, I will, that this my Devise unto them shall 
be void ; and I do devise the same unto Emanuel College, in 
Cambridge, in the same manner and form, as it is formerly 
devised unto Pembroke-Hall, and to the same Uses, Intents, 
Trusts, and Purposes. And so I commit my soul into the hands 
of the said Holy and Blessed Trinity, believing to be only saved 
by the death and passion of JESUS CHRIST, and my sins to be 
washed away by His blood ; and my body to be privately buried 
in the Church of Framlingham, in one of my Isles there, only 
with a fair Stone, and such like over it ; the same to be buried 
ten feet in the ground, and the same not to be stirred, or hurt. 



Sir Robert Hitcham's School. 15 7 

And I give to my servant John Wright, ;io more, if he be my 
servant at my death. And to my Feoffees ^20 a piece, and a 
mourning cloak or gown." 

By deed under the common seal of Pembroke College, dated 
1 4th August, 1666, after reciting Sir Robert Hitcham's will, and 
that the poor of Coggeshall could have no benefit by what was 
therein devised to them, and was then done at Framlingham, and 
to the intent that the poor of Coggeshall might partake of the 
charity intended for them by Sir Robert Hitcham, Robert Maple- 
toft, Doctor of Divinity, Master or Keeper of the said College 
and the fellows of the same, thereby covenanted with the 
inhabitants of Coxall, alias Coggeshall, to pay out of the rents 
of the demesne lands to trustees by them to be appointed for 
the poor of the town of Coxall, ^150 yearly, at the ' Corn Cross' 
in Framlingham, upon the first Tuesday in September and the 
first Tuesday in March, to be employed for providing a work- 
house and a substantial stock to set the poor and most neediest 
at work, and to allow such poor persons such relief as the 
trustees should think fit, and also to provide a School House and 
to allow the schoolmaster 20 yearly, to teach twenty or thirty 
of the poorest children of Coxall to read, write, and cast 
accounts, and then to allow them such sums of money to 'bind 
them apprentices as the said trustees should think fit, not 
exceeding ;io. The college reserved to themselves the right to 
appoint the schoolmaster and to audit and settle the accounts. 
The college accordingly paid ^150 per annum to the inhabitants 
of Coggeshall till the year 1722, when the lands being of 
insufficient value to pay ,150 per annum to Coggeshall, the 
towns of Coggeshall and Debenham, with the consent of the 
college, agreed to a partition of the charity lands, which was 
effected by an indenture dated the i8th of September, 1722, 
and made between Robert Townsend, of Coggeshall, gentleman, 
on the part of the inhabitants of Coggeshall, and John Turner, 
of Debenham, apothecary, on the part of the inhabitants of 
Debenham ; the allotment to Coggeshall consisting of lands at 
Saxstead, Suffolk, known as Old Frithwood, Bradley Wood, and 
Newhall Wood. This agreement was afterwards by deed, dated 
2 Qth September, 1722, confirmed by William Townsend, Isaac 
Potter, Isaac Buxton, William Fuller, Thomas Burr, John Ar- 
mond, John Sparhawke, John Gladwin, Samuel Carter the elder, 



The Charities. 



John Taylor, John Mount, Matthew Guyon, and Ambrose 
Hayward, chief inhabitants of Coggeshall. 

On 2Qth September, 1779, the college appointed the Rev. 
Henry Du Cane, clerk, William Carter, Richard White, William 
Moss, Jeremiah Dixon, John Decks, John Totman, Isaac 
Whitaker the elder, William Walford, Thomas South, John 
Guyon, John Cardinal, Henry Skingley, John Durrant, Thomas 
Whitaker, John Olive, Thomas Rolfe, John Stafford, Robert 
Chaulkley, and Richard Cable, trustees for managing and dis- 
posing of the charity. 

The government of this charity is now regulated by a scheme 
of the Charity Commissioners, which was approved by Her 
Majesty in Council, on the 2Qth June, 1878, and provides that 
the endowment for Coggeshall shall consist of the present School- 
buildings and master's house, and five-sixteenths of the net 
residue of the Income of Sir Robert Hitcham's Charity, to be 
paid yearly by the master and fellows of Pembroke College, 
Cambridge. 

The governing body consists of nine governors, five of whom 
are appointed by the college, three by the vestry of Great Cogges- 
hall, and one by the vestry of Little Coggeshall. 

The present governors are the Rev. H. M. Patch, chairman, 
the Rev. A. D. Philps, vice-chairman, Dr. E. A. Applebe, Messrs. 
G. F. Beaumont, Robert Curzon, F. H. Gardner, Rev. H. F. 
Rackham, Messrs. Thomas Simpson, and F. W. Pfander- 
Swinborne; and the head master is Mr. Edw. Edgar. The 
tuition fee, including books, is 4. per annum, but if two or 
more boys are sent from the same family the fee for each boy 
is ^3- z i s annually awarded in scholarships which entitle 
the holders to a free education. Other scholarships are tenable 
at this school, as to which see the account of Paycock's Charity. 
^30 per annum is also applicable to the maintenance of Exhi- 
bitions, tenable at some place of higher education to be selected 
by the governors. 

Provision is also made by the scheme for the education of 
girls, but no school has yet been established. 

Under another scheme Pembroke College has a right, in 
preference to all other persons, of free nomination for admission 
to the Albert Middle Class College, at Framlingham, of one boy 
from the parish of Coggeshall, either as a day scholar free of all 



Sir Robert Hitcham's School. *59 

charge, or as a boarder free of charge for education, but charge- 
able with a reasonable sum per annum for board and mainten- 
ance, such boy to be nominated on the ground of merit, to be 
determined by free and open competition among those qualified 
for the nomination, according to such regulations as the college 
may make from time to time (Scheme No. 112]. 

The funds of the charity have been augmented by grants 
from Paycock's and Swallow's Charities (as to which see pp. 164 
and 169, also Schemes No. 827 and 828). 

The present school and the master's residence were built in 
1858, on a piece of the glebe land purchased for the purpose for 
;ioo, which sum was received by the vicar and laid out by him 
in the purchase from Mr. Bullock of Saint Nicholas Chapel, 
and one acre of ground adjoining. The school was opened on 
the 24th June, 1859. 

Mr. Henry Emery, who died on the 4th November, 1844, in 
the ySth year of his age, was master of the school for 49 years, 
and during his time the scholars assembled for instruction in a 
large room in Stoneham Street, part of Crane's Charity. 

Mr. Thomas Hyde was the first master who taught in the 
present building, he was succeeded, in 1863, by the Rev. George 
Horrocks, who resigned the mastership on 24th June, 1864. 
One or two temporary appointments followed, and ultimately the 
present head master, Mr. Edward Edgar, was elected on the gth 
January, 1865. 



I(5 The Chanties. 



THOMAS PAYCOCKE, was a wealthy clothier or cloth 
manufacturer, residing in Great Coggeshall, in the middle 
of the sixteenth century. His residence, situate immediately 
opposite the vicarage grounds in West Street, is one of the most 
interesting houses in the town, being rendered attractive by its 
ancient gateway of carved oak, at the top of the jambs of which 
are two carved figures on brackets ; the gates are of the linen 
pattern. At the base of the upper floor, which projects about 
1 8 in., is an oak frieze running the whole length of the building, 
and richly carved in relief, of a continuous floral design of quaint 
character with recumbent figures. On this frieze can also be seen 
Paycocke's Merchants' Mark, between the initials T.P. The ceil- 
ing of the ground floor is also of oak beautifully carved, and is 
probably unequalled by any in this part of the country. 

Thomas Paycock made his will, on 2oth December, 1580, 
and was buried on the 28th of the same month, in the north 
chancel aisle of Coggeshall Church (see Memorial Inscriptions, p. 
41). By his will he ordained that his executors should purchase 
so much free lands and tenements, as with the sum of ^200 they 
could procure, the yearly profits thereof to be bestowed amongst 
the poor people of Much and Little Coggeshall for ever; and 
that his executors should convey the premises so purchased to 
ten of the headboroughs of Coggeshall or more and their heirs 
upon the said trusts. And he willed that the rents and profits of 
the lands and tenements when purchased should be given amongst 
the poor dwelling in Much and Little Coggeshall, by the consent 
of the collectors of the poor and the churchwardens, in manner 
following, viz. : one-half of the said rents should be expended in 
wood to be distributed indifferently to the poor of the same 
parishes always betwixt Easter and ist August, and the other half 
should be expended one month before Lent in the purchase of 
white and red herrings to be distributed equally among the said 
poor always in the beginning of Lent. 

The sum of ^156 135. 4d., part of the ^200, was laid out by 
Richard Benyon, one of the executors, in the purchase of lands, 
at Halstead, Essex, known as " Sparkes Croft," containing twelve 



Paycocke's Charity. 



161 




ANCIENT GATEWAY. 



M 



1 62 The Chanties. 



acres ; " Gyles Croft," containing six acres ; " Tanners Croft," 
containing three acres ; and " Gerrards Meadow," containing three 
acres ; and the same were conveyed to Mr. Benyon, by an inden- 
ture of bargain and sale, dated 2oth June, 24 Elizabeth (1582). 

By deed, dated the xyth March, 26 Elizabeth (1584), Richard 
Benyon conveyed the above-mentioned property to William Fuller, 
Robert Litherland, Cyprian Warner, Thomas Dammett, Thomas 
Till, Robert Aylett, Henry Purcas, Robert Brittle, George Law- 
rence, Thomas Hopper, Peter Ryse, and Edward Warner, inhabi- 
tants of Coggeshall, upon the trusts of the before-mentioned will. 
From time to time new trustees were by deed duly appointed, and 
the trust property conveyed to them, the last of such deeds being 
dated the 26th December, 1851, by which the following persons 
were constituted trustees : The Rev. William James Dampier, 
Messrs. Osgood Hanbury, Fisher Unwin Pattison, Richard Mere- 
dith White, William Swinborne, Harold Giles, Charles Moore, 
William Gentry Dennis, Matthias Gardner, Joseph Sach, Henry 
Whitmofe, Richard Meredith Kirkham, William Appleford, and 
William Doubleday; of whom, in June, 1887, two only survived, 
namely Mr. Dennis and Mr. Gardner. 

By an Order of the Charity Commissioners, sealed on the 
1 5th June, 1887, the following persons were appointed trustees 
for the administration of the Charity, viz : The Rev. Hubert 
Mornington Patch, vicar of Coggeshall, the Rev. Alfred Downing 
Philps, Congregational Minister, Joseph Smith Surridge, Junior, 
(since dead), George Frederick Beaumont, John Shuttleworth, 
Thomas Simpson, Frederic Henry Gardner, James Simmons, 
William King, and Edward Doubleday, all of Coggeshall, in ad- 
dition to and jointly with William Gentry Dennis and Matthias 
Gardner, the continuing trustees. 

By the decree of Sir John Sammes and others (Commissioners 
of Charitable Uses), dated the 2oth May, 1613, it appears that 
the balance of the sum of 200, which remained after the pur- 
chase of the lands at Halstead, viz : ^43 6s. 8d., at the date of 
the decree had by some means been augmented to four score and 
thirteen pounds (^93) or thereabouts, which was then "employed 
in a beneficial course and yieldeth an annual profit, which hath 
also been employed to the use of the poor people aforesaid ;" 
and it was then intended to lay out such balance in the purchase 
of land ; but, from the report of the Charity Commissioners, in 



Thomas Pay cockers Charity. 163 

1837, it does not appear that the intention was ever carried out, 
and the Commissioners were unable to obtain any information 
upon the matter. 

In 1837, "Sparkes Croft," in two fields, containing twelve 
acres, and adjoining the Sudbury Road, in Halstead, was in the 
occupation of Jonathan Nash, on lease expiring Michaelmas, 1844, 
at 2 S P er annum. "Gyles Croft," containing about five (query 
six) acres of pasture, situate close to Halstead, was in the occu- 
pation of William T. L. W. Pole, as a yearly tenant, at ^15 per 
annum. "Tanners Croft" and "Gerrard Meadow," situate near 
the Silk Mills, in Halstead, and containing about six acres of 
garden ground, were in the occupation of John Cook, as yearly 
tenant, at ^18 per annum. It will thus be seen, that in 1837, 
the income of this Charity amounted to ^58 per annum. 

In 1864, the trustees sold and conveyed to the Halstead and 
Colne Valley Railway Company, the six acres of garden ground, 
called "Tanners Croft" and "Gerrards Meadow," for 1,500, 
which, on the 22nd June, 1864, was invested in Consols. In 
1868, the trustees, with the consent of the Charity Commissioners, 
sold " Sparkes Croft," containing twelve acres fifteen poles, to Mr. 
George de Home Vaisey, for ^1,600, and this sum was subse- 
quently invested in Consols. 

The trust property now consists of .3,364 125. 8d. Consols, 
standing in the names of the Official Trustees of Charitable 
Funds, and the before-mentioned piece of land called " Gyles 
Croft," containing six acres or thereabouts, in the occupation of 
Jacob Evans, at a rent of 12 per annum, the fee simple of which 
field is, by virtue of the order of the Commissioners, dated the 
iSth June, 1887, vested in the Official Trustee of Charity Lands ; 
but the right to sue for, recover and receive, and to give receipts 
and discharges for all sums of money, rents in arrear, and choses 
in action, due to or recoverable for the benefit of the Charity, is 
vested in the trustees, their executors, administrators and assigns, 
in trust for the Charity. 

By way of scheme, the Commissioners, by the before-mention- 
ed order have directed that 

1. The trustees shall consist of twelve competent persons, 
residing in or near the parish of Coggeshall. 

2. Any trustee who ceases to be qualified as aforesaid, or is 
adjudicated a bankrupt, or is incapacitated to act, or communi- 

M 2 



l6 4 The Charities, 



cates in writing to the trustees his wish to resign, or fails to attend 
any meeting of the trustees for a consecutive period of two years, 
shall thereupon cease to he a trustee. 

3. Future trustees shall be provisionally appointed in each 
case by the trustees, by a resolution passed at a meeting specially 
called for the purpose, and of which at least three clear days 
notice in writing shall have been given to each trustee, and to be 
held after the lapse of one calendar month from the occurence of 
the vacancy to be filled up. 

4. Every provisional appointment of a trustee shall be forth- 
with notified by or under the direction of the trustees to the 
Charity Commissioners, at their office, in London, and no provi- 
sional appointment shall be valid until it has been approved by 
the said Commissioners, and their approval certified under their 
official seal. 

5. There shall be a quorum when five trustees are present at 
any meeting. 

A dispute having arisen between the inhabitants of Great and 
Little Coggeshall, as to the distribution of the income of the 
Charity, and the question having been referred to the Commission- 
ers of Charitable Uses, it was by the before-mentioned decree, 
dated the 3oth May, 1613, ordered that the churchwardens and 
overseers of Great Coggeshall, or the feoffees of the Charity, 
should for ever pay to the overseers of Little Coggeshall, the 
yearly sum of ^3, at Michaelmas and Lady-day, by equal portions 
to be deducted out of the profits of the Charity, and to be em- 
ployed for the relief of the poor in Little Coggeshall, at the dis- 
cretion of the overseers of that parish, according to the true 
meaning of the Will of Thomas Paycocke, deceased. 

The income of the Trust is usually distributed early in Febru- 
ary, in sums varying from is. to i. 

By a scheme of the Charity Commissioners, approved by Her 
Majesty in Council, on the i3th May, 1887, after declaring that it 
was desirable to apply for the advancement of education a sum 
of ,500, part of the endowment of Paycocke's Charity, it was 
ordered that, from the date of the scheme, the sum of ^500 
should be part of the Foundation governed by a scheme made 
under the name of Sir Robert Hitcham's Schools, at Coggeshall, 
on condition that, in addition to the scholarships to be maintained 
by the Governors under the Hitcham School Scheme, those 



Thomas Guy 'on 's Charity. 165 



Governors should maintain three other scholarships, to be called 
Paycocke's Scholarships, each of a yearly value of ^"5, tenable at 
the Boys' School maintained under that scheme, to be competed 
for by boys who are and have for not less than three years been 
scholars in any of the Public Elementary Schools, in the parishes 
of Great Coggeshall and Little Coggeshall, but to be subject to 
the like conditions as made with regard to other scholarships, in 
clause 60 of the Hitcham School Scheme, that is to say, that the 
scholarships are to be given as the reward of merit, to be freely 
and openly competed for, to be tenable only for the purposes of 
education, and to be liable to determination for misconduct, idle- 
ness, failure to maintain a reasonable standard of proficiency, &c. 
Of the before-mentioned sum of ^3,364 125. 8d. Consols, 
the Charity Commissioners have transferred to the Governors of 
the Hitcham School, ,487 45. 2d. Consols, equivalent to ^500 
sterling, to be applied in maintaining the before-mentioned scholar- 
ships. 



THOMAS GUYON, of Great Coggeshall, gentleman, father 
of Sir Mark Guyon, made his will, bearing date the aist 
November, 1664, and thereby, after appointing Sir Mark Guyon 
sole executor, gave 200 to be laid out in lands and tenements, 
by Sir Mark, to and for the use and benefit of the most honest, 
aged poor people of Great Coggeshall, and the yearly rents and 
profits thereof arising, his mind and will was, should weekly, upon 
every Lord's Day, after the sermon in the forenoon, be bestowed 
in bread for their relief. And further, his mind and will was, 
that the settlement of such lands as should be purchased with the 
said ^200, should be made to the said Sir Mark Guyon and 
eleven of the chief inhabitants of the said town of Coggeshall 
(by the nomination of the said Sir Mark Guyon), and their heirs ; 
and that, by such deed of purchase, the trust should be declared 
to the use aforesaid, and when so many of the said trustees should 
be dead that there should be but six of them living, his will was, 
that they should raise a new deed to twelve more of the principal 
inhabitants of Great Coggeshall aforesaid, for the better continu- 
ance of the said trust. 



1 66 The Chanties. 



Sir Mark Guyon, of Great Coggeshall, knight, by deed, dated 
the 22nd of January, 1676, granted to Matthew Guyon, Isaac 
Hubberd, John Cox, Sen., Richard Shortland, Joseph Drywood, 
gentleman, John Guyon, Richard Sheppard, William Cox, Thomas 
Buxton, John Cockerell, Symon Richold, and Thomas Keeble, 
clothiers, all of them of Great Coggeshall, one annuity or clear 
yearly rent-charge of ten pounds and eight shillings, to be issuing 
and going out of all that messuage or tenement, outhouses, edi- 
fices, buildings, barns, stables, yards, gardens, orchards, and eight 
closes or parcels of land and pasture, with the appurtenances, 
anciently called or known by the name of 'Windmill Fields,' and 
then (1676) called or known by the several names of 'Garden 
Field,' 'Great and Little Cross-path Fields,' Windmill Fields,' 
' Long Pitch Shott,' ' Potters Field,' ' Middle Eight Acres,' and 
' Upper Eight Acres,' all of which premises are expressed to be in 
Great Coggeshall, and to contain together, by estimation, three- 
score and fifteen acres, more or less, and were then in the posses- 
sion of Sir Mark Guyon, his assigns or under-tenants. The annuity 
was made payable on the four usual quarter days for the payment 
of rent, and is expressed to be held for the use and behoof of the 
poor of Great Coggeshall, according to the true intent of the will 
of Thomas Guyon, viz. : weekly, upon the Lord's Day in every 
week, after the sermon or prayers in the forenoon, the sum of 43. 
thereof, to be bestowed in good wholesome 3d. bread, and the 
same bread to be equally distributed and given to sixteen of the 
most honest, aged poor people of Great Coggeshall aforesaid. 
The deed contains powers of distress for non-payment after 
demand, and has also provisions for the appointment of new 
trustees. 

The deed is signed by Sir Mark Guyon, and bears his seal : 
a shield with three bends, on a canton a lion passant guardant. 

This property belonged to Mr. William Townsend, in 1740, 
and was occupied by him. 

The Rent-charge has from time to time been vested in new 
trustees, the last appointment being by deed dated the i4th April, 
1 T&3> when Osgood Hanbury the elder, of 'Oldfield' Grange, 
Esq., Richard Meredith White, clothier, and Fisher Unwin, 
brewer, the three surviving trustees, appointed Henry DuCane, 
clerk, Vicar of Great Coggeshall, Osgood Hanbury the younger, 
of 'Oldfield Grange,' Esq., Richard White the younger, clothier, 



Thomas Guy on 1 s Charity. 



167 



William Walford, farmer, Thomas Unwin, gentleman, Stephen 
Unwin, clothier, Joseph Bott, clothier, Habakuk Layman, gentle- 
man, Ephraim Willsher, farmer, William Dixon, surgeon, John 
Godfrey, surgeon, and William Potter, Junior, gentleman, all of 
them principal inhabitants of Great Coggeshall. 

The last survivor of these trustees was Mr. Osgood Hanbury, 
who was living in c837. 

The present trustees are the Vicar and Churchwardens of 
Great Coggeshall, who were appointed by an order of the Charity 
Commissioners, dated 4th November, 1862. 

Bread of the value of ^10 8s. per annum is distributed in 
3d. loaves at the church, on Sundays, after afternoon service, 
among poor parishioners of Great Coggeshall. 

As it is important that the identity of the land out of which 
this rent-charge is payable should be maintained, the following is 
extracted from a survey made for Morden College, Blackheath, in 
the year 1740. 



No. on 
Morden 
Coll. Sur. 


Name of Field. 


Quantity. 


No. on 
Ord. 
Survey 


Quantity per 
Ordnance Sur. 


5 


Garden Field ... 


6 


o 34 


310 


5 2 21 


6 


Hither Crosspath Field 


7 


I 2 


34 


7121 


7 


Further ditto ... 


10 


i 7 


33 


10 I 24 


8 


Lower Eight Acres ... 


8 


o 32 


266 


9 o 12 


9 


Upper ditto 


9 


I 32 


220 


9 o 18 


10 


Thomson's Field ... 


13 


2 l6 


267) 


14 O 22 


ii 


Loam Pit Field 


12 


2 O 


302 


12 3 4 


12 


Windmill Field ... 


9 


3 2 


3S 


9 o 16 






77 


i 5 




77 2 18 



BY Deed, dated ist May, 1678, and made between Sir Mark 
Guyon, who is described as then late of Great Cogges- 
hall, but afterwards of Dynes Hall, in Great Maplestead, Essex, 
Knight, of the one part, and Matthew Guyon, Isaac Hubbard, 
Joseph Drywood, Richard Shortland, gentlemen ; Richard Shep- 



168 The Charities. 



pard, Ambrose Sutton, William Cox, Thomas Buxton, Thomas 
Keeble, George Nicholls, Simon Richold and Jacob Cox, clothiers, 
all inhabitants of Great Coggeshall, of the other part ; Sir Mark 
Guyon gave and granted one annuity or yearly sum of ^13 to be 
issuing and going, and to be perceived, received, levied, and taken 
out of all that messuage, farm and lands, called Highfields and 
Windmill Fields, or otherwise situate and being in Great Cogges- 
hall, and then in the tenure of John Cox, upon special trust and 
confidence, and to the intent and purpose that the trustees should 
for ever thereafter dispose of the annuity of ,13, and employ and 
lay out the same in bread, and distribute the same bread upon 
every Sunday or Lord's day for ever, after Divine service or ser- 
mon, namely, to twenty of the most aged poor and necessitous 
persons inhabiting within the parish of Great Coggeshall, to each 
of them a three-penny loaf, the same bread to be placed upon a 
shelf to be set up for that purpose over or near to the seat of the 
said Sir Mark Guyon, then standing in the chancel of the parish 
church of Great Coggeshall. The deed contains provisions for 
the appointment of nine new trustees when the number should be 
reduced to three, such new trustees to act conjointly with the con- 
tinuing trustees. And it is declared that the annuity should be 
payable at or in the south porch of the parish church of Great 
Coggeshall, upon Michaelmas day and Lady day, by equal portions 
without any deduction. Power for the trustees to distrain when 
the rent-charge should be in arrear for twenty days after day fixed 
for payment, the rent however, being first lawfully demanded. 

By deed dated the 2Qth June, 1819, Richard Meredith White, 
of Great Coggeshall, clothier, the owner of the High field's Estate, 
granted and confirmed the said annuity of ^13 unto Osgood 
Hanbury, Esq., Henry Skingley, Esq., the Rev. E. W. Mathew, 
clerk, Isaac Brightwen, merchant, Thomas Andrew, gentleman, 
William Swinborne, currier, John Durrant, saddler, Robert Bright- 
wen, brewer, Richard Townsend, gentleman, John Godfrey, sur- 
geon, and Francis Eagle, surgeon, all of them inhabitants of Great 
Coggeshall. 

The present trustees are the Vicar and Churchwardens of 
Great Coggeshall, by virtue of their appointment by an order of 
the Charity Commissioners, dated the 4th November, 1862. 

The annuity is distributed in bread, in the same manner as 
Thomas Guyon's Charity. 



Swallow 's Charity . 169 



IN or about the year 1520, Christopher Swallow, who was 
Vicar of Messing, conveyed to the Right Hon. John de Vere, 
Earl of Oxford, and other persons, lands at Coggeshall and in 
other parishes in Essex, to the intent that from thenceforth for 
ever an honest, learned and godly man should be maintained to 
execute the office of a schoolmaster at Earls Colne, in Essex, who 
should be learned in the Latin tongue and skilful in grammar and 
able to instruct children in the grammar there, and that the same 
schoolmaster should in respect only of the profits of the said 
lands, without any other reward, instruct in grammar the number 
of 30 children, whose parents should be dwelling either within 
the parish of Earls Colne or in Coggeshall, Ardleigh, Stisted, 
Messing and Marks Tey, &c., and that the schoolmaster should 
hold and keep the school during the space of three years at Earls 
Colne, and during the space of other three years immediately ensu- 
ing at Coggeshall, and then again at Earls Colne, and so alternis 
vicibus in each of the said towns. 

For very many years, probably centuries, the town of Cogges- 
hall derived no benefit whatever from this Charity, and had it not 
been for the unceasing perseverance of the late Rev. William 
James Dampier, the beneficent intention of the quondam Vicar of 
Messing would have been entirely lost to the parish. Under the 
direction of Mr. Dampier, a petition to the Lord Chancellor was 
drawn up by Mr. Malins (afterwards Vice-Chancellor Malins). 

This interesting document sets forth the whole history of the 
Charity, and covers five large skins of parchment. 

The claim of Coggeshall to participate in this trust was ulti- 
mately recognised by the Charity Commissioners, and in their 
scheme, dated i3th May, 1887, they directed that a sum of ^500 
out of the Earls Colne Grammar School Foundation should be 
paid to the Foundation known as Sir Robert Hitcham's Schools, 
at Coggeshall, and they provided that if there was not room in the 
Earls Colne Grammar School for all boys found fit for admission, 
preference should be given to such of them as were of poor in- 
habitants of either of the parishes of Great Coggeshall and Little 
Coggeshall. 



170 The Chanties. 



BY her will, dated in 1618, Jane Gooday, of Peering, widow, 
directed her executor to lay out ^30 in the purchase of a 
house, to be estated to some of the parishioners of Great Cogges- 
hall and their heirs, to the intent that the profits thereof should 
be laid out at the discretion of the vicar and overseers to buy need- 
ful clothing for the aged poor of Great Coggeshall for ever. 

John Gooday, as the executor of his mother's will, in April, 
1618, laid out the sum of .30, with ^20 of his own money, in 
the purchase of a house with a garden in Church Street, Cogges- 
hall, called Pagetts, and by deed, dated 3rd Oct. 1619, conveyed 
the same unto the then Vicar of Coggeshall and nine other inha- 
bitants and their heirs upon trust, to permit the vicar and over- 
seers to receive the rents and profits and apply them according to 
the intention expressed in Jane Gooday's will, with provisions for 
the appointment of new trustees. 

About the year 1714, the house being very much decayed, and 
part having fallen down, and the rent not being sufficient to keep 
it in repair, the trustees sold it for 28 to Daniel Cooke, of Cog- 
geshall. The ground is said to have been laid to the Swan Yard. 

By indenture, dated i3th February, 1718, made between 
William Townsend, of Great Coggeshall, of the one part ; and 
Robert Townsend, Samuel Sparhawke, Isaac Buxton, Sen., Isaac 
Dawes, Thomas Buxton, John Sparhawke, John Armond, Joseph 
Cox, John Mount, John Gladwin, Isaac Potter, Ambrose Hay- 
ward, Jun., and Richard White, all of Great Coggeshall, of the 
other part; William Townsend, in consideration of ^28 paid to 
him by the said Robert Townsend, Samuel Sparhawke, Isaac 
Dawes, and John Barnard, of Great Coggeshall, who were the 
surviving trustees of the old property in Church Street, granted an 
annuity of 325. to be issuing and going, and to be received, levied, 
and taken out of all that messuage or tenement situate in East 
Street, otherwise Gallows Street, in Great Coggeshall, commonly 
called by the name or sign of the King's Arms, and the garden 
and yards thereunto, belonging then or then late in the tenure of 
Robert Sutton, or his assigns, upon trust, that the trustees should 
dispose of the annuity and employ and lay out the same in linen 



Land in West Street. 



cloth upon the 24th June in every year, for the benefit of the 
most aged poor and necessitous persons inhabiting within the 
parish of Great Coggeshall, with provisions for appointment of 
new trustees, and with power of distress and a covenant by the 
grantor to keep the premises in repair. 

The last appointment of new trustees was by deed dated i4th 
April, 1783, the last survivor of whom was Osgood Hanbury, Esq., 
who died in 1856. 

The property, subject to the annuity, was sold by auction in 
1870 by the trustees of the will of the late Mr. William Swinborne, 
and then consisted of a range of five cottage tenements with gar- 
dens in East Street, adjoining the Swan public-house towards the 
east, and then in the occupation of French, Keys, Thurgar and 
Evans, and one unoccupied. 

The cottages were purchased by the late Mr. Matthias Alfred 
Gardner, whose representatives regularly pay the annuity. 

In 1837, the Charity Commissioners suggested that the annu- 
ity should be henceforth paid to the vicar and overseers, to be 
expended as directed by Jane Gooday's will, in needful clothing 
for the aged poor. 

The annual sum of 325. is received by the vicar and church- 
wardens, and given away by them in flannel to eleven aged poor 
persons, chiefly widows. 



n 

THERE is a small piece of ground in West Street, lying 
between the Gelatine Factory on the east and a plot of 
garden ground (No 316, Ordnance Survey) on the west. It was 
formerly let at los. a year, but 75. 6d. only is now paid for it by 
the occupiers, Messrs. Pfander Swinborne. 

This may be the site of the " two almes houses at the upper 
end of West Street, going to Braintree, given by Sir Mark Guyon 
to this parish in lieu of two alms houses yt were pulled down 
neare his houses," referred to in Holman's MS. 

The income of this small property is generally given to the 
Clothing Club. 



I 7 2 The Charities. 



ANN RICHARDSON, by her will (the date of which in the 
Parliamentary Returns of 1786 is stated to be 1726) gave 
to Thomas Wilsher and his heirs, a freehold messuage or farm 
called Romans, with the lands thereto belonging, situate at East 
Hanningfield and Rettendon, in Essex, upon trust yearly and for 
ever to pay to the overseers of Little Coggeshall 8, to be by 
them distributed in bread, weekly, to the poor husbandmen and 
widows of husbandmen belonging to the said parish, who should 
take no collection, but there being no church in Little Coggeshall 
her will was that the bread should be given in the church of Great 
Coggeshall. 

The property, subject to the annuity, belonged, in 1837, to a 
Mr. William Cook, and was occupied by his tenant, Whitamore. 

On the i4th March, 1842, in a suit, the Attorney-General v. 
Cook and others, a scheme was settled by one of the Masters in 
Chancery and provided inter alia, that the overseers and church- 
wardens of Little Coggeshall shall keep a list in each year of the 
names of all the deserving poor husbandmen and poor widows of 
husbandmen who are parishioners of Little Coggeshall not receiv- 
ing parochial relief, from which list they shall select the persons 
who are to partake of the charity, but such persons shall and may 
be removed from such list when and as such overseers and church- 
wardens shall see occasion, who are to distribute rateably and in 
rotation to and amongst such persons, so that all on such list may 
in their turn partake of the advantage of the Charity; that the 
persons who shall be entitled to partake of the Charity shall be 
such persons only as are inhabitants or belong to the parish of 
Little Coggeshall, and are poor husbandmen or widows of poor 
husbandmen not receiving parochial relief, preference to be given 
to the most aged and infirm ; that there shall be five trustees 
appointed of the Charity who shall receive the annuity or rent- 
charge of ;8 per annum, and lay out the same in the purchase of 
bread, weekly, by 35. at a time, except in Christmas week when 
there shall be expended 73., and which bread, when purchased, 
shall be distributed to and amongst poor husbandmen and poor 
widows of husbandmen not receiving parochial relief; that if at 
any time there shall be no trustees of the Charity, the officiating 






Ann Richardson 's Charity. 173 

minister for the time being and the churchwardens and overseers 
shall be considered and taken to be trustees of the Charity, and 
entitled to receive the annuity and give a receipt for the same, and 
to distribute the bread until trustees shall be duly appointed. 

By a subsequent order on further directions, in the year 1842, 
the scheme was varied by appointing the officiating minister and 
churchwardens and overseers of the parish to be trustees of the 
Charity. 

Further information concerning this Charity may be obtained 
by an inspection of the proceedings in Chancery in 1835, Good- 
son v. Cook. 

Mrs. Richardson was probably the same person as Ann, the 
wife of Mr. John Richardson, and daughter of Mr. John Willsher, 
of Scripps Farm, Little Coggeshall. John Richardson died, 2oth 
November, 1693, aged 33, and was buried in Coggeshall church- 
yard, where also was laid his only daughter, Anne, who died, 
September, 1712, aged 18 years. 



COMPRISING 

or 

or 

Cfjaritp, or 

tftc CiHmrp 2Srcab St^oncp, ano J!Hb&en' 
Cottage^. 

T is proposed first to consider each of these Charities in the 
order indicated above, and subsequently to deal with them as 
one combined Charity. 

ueee or 

HP HE site of these houses, for they have long since been de- 
^ molished, is well known to the inhabitants of Coggeshall. 
It comprises about twelve rods of ground, lying at the southern 
extremity of Stoneham Street, and at its junction with Church 
Street. At the time of the report of the Charity Commissioners, 



I 



174 The Charities. 



about 1837, there were posts under ground which defined the 
exact extent of the property. The posts having decayed, the 
parish in vestry assembled, on the i5th June, 1865, adopted a 
plan of the property, which (with the concurrence of the trustees 
of the Charity) was submitted to them by the surveyors of the 
highways. This plan was reproduced by the writer, in a paper on 
the Amalgamated Charities, published in 1888. 

The first record we find of this property is in the report of the 
Commissioners, appointed in the 2nd year of King Edward VI., 
to make enquiries concerning Chantry properties, and in which is 
the following : " Item, one old Chapel in the street there, with a 
little Garden, which is worth by the year, 45." It may be that this 
is the chapel to which reference is made in the will of Thomas 
Halle, of Coksale, dated isth January, 1499-1500, and proved on 
5th February, following : " I bequeth towarde the edifying and 
making of a Chapell within the said towne of Coksale, XX s to be 
paid when the said Chapell is in werkyng," 

King Edward VI. gave the old chapel, &c. to Ralph Agard 
and Thomas Smyth, from whom it passed to Reginald Holling- 
worth, and descended to his son, Lawrence Hollingworth, and 
from him it was conveyed to Robert Wordsworth, of Great Birch, 
Essex, gentleman, who on the 7th October, in the 3oth year of 
Queen Elizabeth's reign (A.D. 1588), for divers good causes, &c., 
granted the same chapel to certain inhabitants of Coggeshall, by 
the description of " Totam illam veterem Capellam modo usitat p 
le Come Markett howse ac unu pvu gardinu eid Capelle adiacen cu 
ptin scituat et existen in Coggeshall pred" or to render it in English, 
" All that old Chapel now used for the Corn Market House, and 
one small garden to the same Chapel adjoining with the appur- 
tenances situate and being in Coggeshall aforesaid." 

From an inquisition, taken by Sir Henry Maxey and Sir 
Thomas Wyseman, knights, and others, in the nth year of King 
James I., it appears that the purchasers from Robert Wordsworth 
were persons representing the trades of the fullers and weavers 
at Coggeshall. These persons converted the chapel into a market 
house or place of mart or meeting, with rooms for stowage and 
other uses, and a clock and watch-bell were there kept for the 
better ordering of apprentices of the two trades. The Commis- 
sioners, after making enquiries into the charity generally, proceeded 
to decree the manner in which the charity should in future be 



The Amalgamated Charities. J75 

administered, which was, to put it concisely, that the property 
should be let to a fuller or weaver, that the house and rooms with 
the clock and watch-bell should for ever be kept repaired, renewed 
and maintained with the rents and profits of the premises, and the 
surplus profits paid to the fullers and weavers and to the poor of 
Coggeshall generally. 

From 1635 tiU I 7 I 9 ^ e property is referred to as the Corn 
and Butter Market Houses; in 1774, as the Market Houses. * 

In 1776, the trustees of the charity let part of the property to 
Richard White, by the description of the Wool-hall over the 
Market Place, reserving to themselves the chamber or room 
wherein the town clock of the parish then stood, with the staircase 
to the same belonging, with free liberty to go to and from the 
same to repair and wind up the town clock. 

The trust deed of 3rd August, 1795, records the following 
facts, viz. : That the old chapel used for market purposes having 
become so ruinous and out of repair as to be incapable of being 
repaired, the trustees (with the consent of the parishioners) caused 
the old buildings to be pulled down and the material thereof to 
be sold, and with part of the proceeds they built a turret or clock 
house upon other premises belonging to the poor of Great Cogges- 
hall (Crane's Charity), and placed therein the said clock and 
watch-bell for the use of the parishioners of Great Coggeshall. 
The surplus of the proceeds of sale was employed in building two 
almshouses on Greenwood's charity land, south of Buttfield, 
near the church. 

The exact date of the pulling down of the Market Houses 
was recorded by Henry Emery, of Market Hill, who died in 1844, 
aged 78; his note is, "Began pulling down the Market Cross of 
Great Coggeshall, i6th June, 1787 23rd, finished pulling." 

In Bufton's Diary is the following note anent the clock, " 3oth 
September, 1686, a new clock was set up at the Market House, 
made at London, said to cost ,23." 

In 1837, the Charity Commissioners directed that the profits 
arising from this plot of ground, and which consisted of rents 
amounting to less than i per annum, paid for stallage when fairs 
were held near the spot, should be applied by the trustees in the 
same manner as the income of Paycocke's Charity. It has not, 

* 1679 Moses Love, weaver cryer, clerk of the market was buried (Bufton). 



The Charities. 



however, been so applied for very many years past, but is devoted 
to the general purposes of the charity, as to which see post. 



AMUEL CRANE, of Great Coggeshall, gentleman, made his 
will, in November, 1669, and thereby gave the rents and 
profits of his messuage, in Stoneham Street, Great Coggeshall, 
then in the occupation of Elizabeth Starling, widow, to the use of 
the poor of Great Coggeshall for ever, to be laid out in bread and 
delivered to them every five and twentieth day of December, and 
so continue for ever. And he authorised his executors to make 
a feoffment of the said premises to twelve, at least, of the most 
substantial inhabitants of the town of Great Coggeshall, and he 
appointed William Cox, the elder, and Isaac Hubbard to be his 
executors. 

William Cox, the elder, and Isaac Hubbard, as such executors, 
on the 8th December, 1671, conveyed the house and premises to 
Matthew Guyon, John Cox, the elder, Richard Sheppard, John 
Bufton, the elder, John Cox, the younger, Thomas Buxton, 
Samuel Sparhawke, Thomas Cox, Paul Pemberton, William 
Guyon, William Cox, the younger, John Willbore, the elder, Isaac 
Cooke, John Cockerill, John Bower, Roger Mullings, John 
Willbore, the younger, Benjamin Sampson, Richard Shortland, 
Ambrose Sutton, Simon Richold, Robert Sampson, Thomas 
Keeble, George Richold and John Bufton, the younger, all 
substantial inhabitants of Great Coggeshall, aforesaid. The deed 
contained provision for the appointment of new trustees when 
the number is reduced to seven. 

The property was from time to time conveyed to new trustees. 

In 1837, according to the report of the Charity Commission- 
ers, the trust premises were divided and let as follows : Two 
rooms were let to James Potter, at 2 per annum ; two rooms to 
Henry Emery, the schoolmaster of Sir Robert Hitcham's School, 
at j^2 i os. per annum; one large room over the master's 
residence, used as a schoolroom for the Hitcham School, the 
passage leading to Potter's rooms and the staircase, were let to 
the master, fellows and scholars of Pembroke College, Cambridge, 
as trustees of Sir Robert Hitcham's Charity, from Michaelmas, 



Amalgamated Charities. 177 

1787, for 500 years, at a peppercorn rent. The consideration for 
which, however, was not known, but it appeared that 60 is. id. 
was laid out by the Hitcham School trustees in extensive repairs 
to this property, about the time the lease was granted. The lease 
was surrendered upwards of twenty-five years ago. 

There was also the clock turret, which, it will have been 
observed from the preceding account of the market houses, was 
supplied out of the fund arising from the sale of the materials of 
the old market houses. 

A free rent of 8d. per annum is payable to the lord of the 
manor of Great Coggeshall in respect of this property. 

The trust premises are now in the occupation of John Cook, 
at a rent of 8 8s. per annum. 

One penny per annum was formerly paid by Mr. William 
Denney, for the use of a pipe laid down in Stoneham Street by 
sufference of the trustees. 

The income of this charity goes towards the general expenses 
of the amalgamated charities. 



or 

As to two of the Almshouses : 

Joseph Greenwood, of Great Coggeshall, by deed, dated 2nd 
August, 1795, granted to the then surviving trustees of the Market 
Houses, namely, Thomas Bridge, David Crumpton, William 
Dixon, Richard Meredith White, Stephen Unwin, Fisher Unwin, 
Haddon Rudkin, Henry Shetelworth, and William Walford, a 
piece of ground, parcel of a close of land, called " Buttfield," 
situate in Church Lane, otherwise Back Lane, in Great Coggeshall, 
containing in length from east to west, 31 feet, and in breadth 
from north to south, 14^ feet, and abutting on Church Lane 
towards the south, upon trust for the poor of the parish for the 
purpose of erecting thereon two cottages or tenements for the use 
of the poor. 

The trustees spent the sum of ^50, part of the fund produced 
by the sale of the Market Houses, in building two cottages or 
tenements on the piece of ground before-mentioned, in order as 
far as in them lay to continue the charitable provision of the 
decree of the commissioners for charitable uses, mentioned under 
the preceding account of the Market Houses. 

N 



1 78 The Charities. 



As to the remainder of the Almshouses : 

The Joseph Greenwood, before-mentioned, by deed, dated nth 
December, 1795, conveyed another part of " Buttfield," contain- 
ing in length from east to west, 62 feet, and in breadth from north 
to south, 144 feet, and abutting upon Church Lane towards the 
south, to Osgood Hanbury, upon trust for the parishioners and 
inhabitants of Coggeshall, to the intent that they should build 
thereon four cottages, for such poor persons belonging to the 
parish to reside in, who should be incapable of providing habita- 
tions for themselves, to be selected by the churchwardens and 
overseers in such manner as they should think most beneficial. 

Four cottages were subsequently built with some monies left 
by the will of the late Mr. Osgood Hanbury, and the proceeds of 
the sale of an old Pest House and perhaps of some almshouses, 
which Morant, writing in 1768, mentions thus, "There are three 
almshouses adjoining to the churchyard without endowment." 

The six tenements comprise twelve rooms, which are occupied 
by a corresponding number of old people. 



or e 
(THoneg. 

"D Y her will, dated 2ist April, 1601, Johan Smith, of Londo^ 
*-^ widow, directed her executors to pay to her son, Sir William 
Smith, 400, therewith to purchase the sum of 40 marks yearly, 
to be bestowed and employed for the relief of the poor in Coxall 
and Bocking, the same to continue and be as her free gift unto 
them for ever ; twenty marks ( 1 35. 4d. each) to be bestowed 
upon the Poor of Coxall yearly, by fs. in Bread every Sunday, 
the distributors thereof to have for their pains yearly, 6s. 8d. 
And the other 20 marks to be bestowed upon the poor of Bocking 
in like manner. 

By deed, dated 25th November, 3rd James ist (1605), Sir 
William Smith, of Lound, Leicestershire, Knight, in consideration 
of ^400 then come to his hands and in due performance and 
execution of the before-mentioned will, and in discharge of 
the confidence and trust reposed in him by his mother, Johan 
Smith, so far as concerned the town of Coggeshall, did grant unto 
Thomas Fuller, Thomas Aylett, Henry Warner, George Cockerell, 



The Amalgamated Charities. J 79 

Thomas Bridges, Thomas Shortland, Nicholas Richold, Thomas 
Gray, John Gray, Jun., Thomas Guyon, William Gladwin, 
Thomas Alleston, Robert Fuller, Jun., William Bufton, Clement 
Gymlett, William Clark, Jun., John Clemence, William Fuller, 
Jun., Thomas Shortland, Jun., and Robert Crane, all inhabitants 
of Coggeshall, one yearly rent of twenty marks, to be issuing out 
of a house and the site of the monastery or priory of Lound, in 
Leicestershire, and the lands thereto belonging, to be paid at lady 
day and michaelmas day, upon condition (inter alia) that if the 
said Sir William Smith should convey one other like rent-charge 
of twenty marks to the trustees, to be issuing out of lands of 
adequate value near London or Coggeshall, then the rent-charge 
on the estate at Lound should cease. 

By deed, dated 6th June, i5th James I. (1617), the said Sir 
William Smith and Humphry Smith, the grantees from King 
James I., of a fee farm rent of \$ issuing out of the rectory 
and church of East Tilbury, in Essex, conveyed the same fee 
farm rent to the before-mentioned trustees, as a full recompence 
and satisfaction of the said yearly rent of twenty marks, charged 
on the estate at Lound, but upon trust for the poor of Coggeshall 
according to the true meaning of the said will, and with a proviso 
for the appointment of new trustees. 

In 1837, the rectory of East Tilbury belonged to the Rev. 
Edwin Lloyd, and at that time the income of the charity (after 
payment of expenses) was distributed in bread made up into 
thirty twopenny loaves, which were given away at the Church 
every Sunday after service, amongst poor parishioners selected by 
the churchwardens in equal shares. 

Thirteen pounds per annum is still given away in bread in 
thirty twopenny loaves at the church every Sunday. 

or 

T^ROM the Parliamentary Returns of 1786, it appears that 
-*- Anthony Hibben, alias Weaver, by his will gave to the 
poor of Coggeshall land then producing ^5 per annum. 

A deed of appointment of new trustees, dated i4th April, 
1783 (after reciting that neither the will of Anthony Hibben nor 
any title deeds to the trust property could be found, and that 
Richard White was then possessed of the property thereinafter 
described), the said Richard White conveyed to Osgood Hanbury 

N X 



l8 The Chanties. 



and twelve others, all that messuage or tenement with the yards, 
gardens and hereditaments, in Church Street, in Great Coggeshall, 
abutting upon Church Street towards the south, upon trust that 
they should dispose of the rents and profits amongst poor 
inhabitants of Great Coggeshall yearly, upon the ist of January, 
for ever, in such parts as they should think fit. The deed con- 
tained provisions as to the appointment of new trustees. 

In 1837, the property of this charity consisted of three 
tenements under one roof, and a small yard in Church Street, 
Coggeshall, then let to William Clarke, John Raven and the 
Overseers, as yearly tenants, at rents amounting to 9 43. per 
annum, which was distributed with Paycock's Charity. 

The trust property is now (1889) in the occupations of 
Robert Evans, Elijah Fairs and Jacob Rowland. 

The income is exhausted by the general expenses for repairs, 
rates, &c. 



HP HE before-mentioned charities are collectively known by 
* this name. 

The first appointment of trustees of these charities by the 
Charity Commissioners, was made by an order, dated 7th August, 
1863, and by it the incumbent and churchwardens and their 
successors in office, and thirteen other inhabitants of Great 
Coggeshall, were appointed trustees, and the legal estate in the 
trust properties was vested in the official trustee of charity lands 
and his successors in trust for the charity. 

The new trustees thus appointed took steps to obtain a scheme 
for the future management of the charity ; but the scheme, which 
was drafted in 1863, was not proceeded with. 

The present trustees are : 
The Rev. Hubert Mornington Patch, Vicar of Coggeshall. 

Joseph Smith Surridge, j Churchwardens. 

George Frederick Beaumont, ) 
William Gentry Dennis. 
John Shuttleworth. 



Edward Alexander Applebe, 
John Beard, 
Edward Edgar, 
John Bruff Frith, 
Thomas Simpson, 



Appointed by order of the Charity 
Commissioners, dated i ith Octo- 
ber, 1887, to act jointly with the 
before-named, who were the con- 
tinuing trustees at the date of 
the Order. 



The National Schools. 181 

By the order of nth October, 1887, the Commissioners 
directed that : 

The right to sue for, recover, receive and to give receipts and 
discharges for all sums of money, rents in arrear, and choses in 
action due to or recoverable for the benefit of the charities, 
should vest in the trustees thereby appointed individually, jointly 
with the continuing trustees, their executors, administrators and 
assigns, in trust for the said charities. 

As there is no scheme for the administration of the charity, 
it follows that the intentions of the several donors must be 
observed as far as possible. 

1. The income derived from the Market Hill, should be 
applied for the relief of the poor, for instance, in the insurance 
and repair of the almshouses. 

2. The income from Crane's Charity, after deducting the 
necessary outgoings, should be laid out in bread for the poor, to 
be delivered to them every Christmas Day. 

3. The Almshouses should be used as such. 

4. Bread of the value of ^15 per annum, less 6s. 8d. for 
distributor (Johan Smith's Charity), should be given away every 
Sunday in equal portions. 

5. The net income of Hibben's Cottages should be applied 
for the benefit of the poor. 



IN the years 1838-9, two pieces of ground on the west side 
of Stoneham Street, where the old workhouse stood, were 
conveyed to the vicar and churchwardens of Coggeshall, as a 
site for a building to be used as a school for the purpose of 
educating the children of the poor according to the principles 
of the National Society. In 1847, a si te was acquired for the 
residence of the master and mistress of the schools, and, in 1875, 
the premises were further extended by the purchase of an adjoin- 
ing cottage and garden. The buildings consist of two spacious 
rooms in separate enclosures, one for boys and the other for girls ; 
there is also a suitable residence for the schoolmistress. The 
schools are maintained by voluntary subscriptions, government 
grants, school-pence, and collections at church. 



The Chanties. 



THESE schools adjoin the Independent Chapel, and are 
built on a piece of land purchased in 1841. They are 
held in trust to provide education for the children of the poor, 
subject to the rules prescribed by those who provide the funds for 
their support, but no child is to be excluded by reason of any 
religious or other matters of distinction of sect or party. Their 
maintenance is provided for in the same manner as the National 
Schools. 



MANUFACTURES. 




|NE of the earliest trades of 'the country was that of 
manufacturing wool into cloth, and the statutes of the 
realm abound with enactments giving encouragement 
to the clothworkers and regulating the manufacture. 
Thus, King Henry II. directed that if any cloth were found to be 
made of Spanish wool mixed with English wool the mayor of 
London should see it burnt, and in the nth year of King 
Edward III. we find it ordained that no cloth should be worn 
but such as was made in England; and in the same year another 
statute encourages the foreigner to settle here, by enacting that 
"all the clothworkers of strange lands of whatsoever country 
they be, which shall come into England, Ireland, Wales and 
Scotland within the King's power, shall come safely and surely, 
and shall be in the King's protection and safe conduct to dwell 
in the same lands choosing where they will, and, to the intent 
the said clothworkers shall have the greater will to come and 
dwell here, our Sovereign Lord the King will grant them franchises 
as many and such as may suffice them." This statute and the 
advantages which followed induced many Flemish manufacturers 
to settle in England, especially in the eastern counties. 

Fuller's Church History describes the attractions offered by 
Edward III. to the foreign manufacturers in graphic language : 
"Here," says he, "they shall feed on beef and mutton till 
nothing but their fulness shall stint their stomachs ; yea, they 
shall feed on the labor of their own hands enjoying a propor- 
tionable profit of their pains to themselves, and the richest yeo- 



l8 4 The Manufactures. 



men in England would not disdain to marry their daughters unto 
them, and such the English beauties that the most curious foreign- 
ers could not but commend them. Happy the yeomen's house 
into which one of these Dutchmen did enter bringing industry 
and wealth along with them. Such, who came in strangers within 
doors, soon after went out bridegrooms and returned sons-in-law 
having married the daughters of their landlords who first enter- 
tained them, yea those yeomen in whose houses they harboured 
soon proceeded gentlemen, gaining great estates to themselves, 
arms and worship to their estates." 

In 1557 (4 & 5 Philip and Mary, c. 5) especial mention is 
made of Coggeshall as a cloth manufacturing town, and there is 
no doubt that at this date the trade was well established here. 
This statute, after reciting that the Act 5 and 6 Edward VI., which 
provided for the true and perfect making of woollen cloth, was 
oppressive to divers clothiers and could not be observed in all 
points, enacted among other things that " Forasmuch as many 
persons do counterfeit the making of Cocksal, Bocking and Brain- 
tree Clothes, commonly called Handywarps, adding thereto such 
like lists as the makers of such clothes do, to the great deceit of 
the King and Queen's Majesties' subjects, therefore no person or 
persons from the first day of May next coming shall add unto any 
cloth or clothes any such like list or lists except the warp thereof 
be spun upon the rock or distaff upon pain of forfeiture of the 
same cloth or clothes or the very value thereof," &c. The 34th 
section of this statute provided that persons dwelling in certain 
counties, or in the town of Goddelmine, in Surrey, might make 
cloth outside a city borough or market town as they had formerly 
done notwithstanding the provisions of this Act, but Coggeshall 
and other towns in Essex were not granted this privilege, and, 
consequently, the trade was seriously affected in these places and 
would probably have become extinct much earlier than it did but 
for the statute passed in 1558 (i Eliz. c. 14), which recites and 
enacts that " Forasmuch as the towns or villages of Bocking, 
Westharfold, Dedham and Cockshall, in the county of Essex, be 
fair large towns and as well planted for clothmaking as the said 
town of Goddelmine or better, and few towns in this realm better 
planted for that purpose, and have been inhabited of a long time 
with clothmakers, which have made and daily do make good and 
true cloth to the great commonweal of the country there, and 



The Cloth Trade. 185 

nothing prejudicial to or for the commonwealth of this realm, Be 
it therefore ordained and enacted by the authority of this present 
Parliament that it shall be lawful to all and every such person and 
persons which now do inhabit and dwell or hereafter shall dwell 
in the said towns or villages of Bocking, Westharfold, Cockshall 
and Dedham, or in any of them now using or exercising, or that 
hereafter shall use or exercise the feat or mystery of making, 
weaving, or rowing of cloth or kersie by the space of seven years 
at the least or have been prentice thereto by the said space of 
seven years to inhabit and dwell in the said towns and villages of 
Bocking, Westharfold, Cockshall and Dedham, and in every or 
any of them, and to use the making, weaving or rowing of cloth 
or kersie as before this time they might have done if the said Act 
had never been made, anything in the said Act to the contrary 
thereof made or any other Act, statute or law heretofore made or 
hereafter to be made to the contrary hereof in anywise notwith- 
standing." 

The following petition (State Papers Domestic, Eliz., Vol. 106, 
No. 47) was presented by the woollen manufacturers of this town 
in the year 1575 : "To the Right honorable Lorde and others 
of her Majesties most honorable pryvie Counsell, Humbly com- 
playning shewe unto your honors her Majesties poore tenauntes 
of the towne of Coxhall and other poore clothiers inhabyting there 
aboute That whereas oppon complaynt lately made by them 
unto her highness against John Hastinges, Esquior, touching 
manye wronges and oppressions offred to them by color of her 
majesties letters patentes granted to him for the making of ffreesa- 
does after the maner of Harlam yt pleased her Majestic oppon 
pytie of their poore estate to commytt th' examination and ending 
of the same cause unto your honors to th' intent that your poore 
orators might receive some ende of their troubles and more peace- 
ably hereafter use their trade. Nowe for information unto your 
honors of the troathe they say that those woollen cloathes called 
Bayes which they usually make and whereby they and many hun- 
dred people lyve and are maytayned be nether within the letter or 
meaning of the aforesaide letters patentes being an other kinde of 
clothe differing many wayes from the ffreesadoes of Harlem making 
as shall appeare; ffirste in name they differ for that th'one are 
called ffreesadoes and the other broade bayes ; in breadthe they 
differ one halfe quarter of a yarde for that their bayes conteyne but 



1 86 The Manufactures. 

vij quarters and his ffreesadoeves by the letters patentes muste 
conteyne vij quarters and one halfe quarter. In lengthe they 
differ for that his ffreesadowes are dosens and their bayes com- 
monly contayne ffortye yards in lengthe. In waighte they differ 
greatly for that their bayes being far more sufficiently made doe 
contayne at the least one pounde waighte in everye yarde more 
then is in the ffreesadowes. Also bayes are made altogither by 
hande warpe, but his ffreesadowes were made by roell warpe ontill 
nowe of late Maister Hastinges did learne the hande warpe of 
certayne clothemakers in Essex. Also bayes are nether died nor 
rottened by your orators to be ffreesadowes but are left whyte to 
bee wroughte to such use as the Drapers please either for blanck- 
ettes, carpettes or otherwise as other whyte cloathes are (for al 
manner of woollen broade cloathes, being white may be wroughte 
into ffreesadowes and so all cloathes should be within the com- 
passe of his letters patentes by Mr. Hastinges' pretence) And 
beside those differences and many others it is very true and so to 
be proved by the othes of many ancient men of creditt whose 
names are subscribed that this maner of bayes now used in Essex 
was usually made in that countrye above Thirtye yeares before the 
date of his letters patentes. All which said premisses upon occa- 
sion of diverse suites of Mr. Hastinges in her Majesties Courte of 
Exchecker and els where have bene proved and made knowne 
bothe to him and many others of good calling and creditt and 
yett notwithstanding your poore orators have been so contynually 
vexed by the said Mr. Hastinges and his servauntes and their 
clothes taken from them and some of their clothes torne in pieces 
by Mr. Hastinges servauntes against all right and equitye so that 
poore men being undone by that occasion have bene forced to 
give over their trade and others have bene compelled against their 
willes to subscribe to articles made according to his will and 
desire Wherein if by your honors good meanes they be not 
spedily relieved it will turne to the utter undoing of your poore 
orators and of many pore men their wyves and famylyes who are 
sett on worke only by that trade. 

NYCKELUS CHASSEY (? Chaffey) hys marke 

by me WYLL A. DENE, 65. 

JOHN SUTTON being LXXXVIII yers 

JOHN BOTHEM being LXX yers 

by me ROBERT SANDER being LXXII yeres 



The Cloth Trade. 187 

WILLIAM TYLL being LXVI yeres 
RICHARD EMENG being LXXV yeres." 

In connection with the Spanish Armada, it may be mentioned 
that the bailiffs of Colchester on the i6th April, 1588, presented 
a petition to Sir Thomas Heneage, Vice-Chamberlain, desiring 
that the inhabitants of Coggeshall, Dedham and East Bergholt, 
might not be excused their contribution towards the furnishing of 
the ship charged upon them for the Queen's service.* 

"A true note and certificate (under date 6th July, 1577) of 
such wull as hath bene bought by the clothiers of Coggeshall 
aforesayde synce the first day of August, Anno 1576'^ shows that 
the following persons were at that time engaged in this the staple 
business of the town : Thomas Tyll, William Armond, John 
Gooddaye, John Pierceson, Robert Draper, Robert Lytherland, 
Robert Jegon, Thomas Annsell, Edmond Tyler, William Trewe, 
John Sweeting, Richard Larke, Christopher Watson, Thomas 
Graye, Robert Pitchfourd, William Gyon, Wm. Clarke, John 
Saunder, Wm. Saunder and Thomas Canon, the last of whom 
" bought, as is supposed, not lesser than XL toddes, for he being 
from home we could not know the certaintye ;" and the certificate 
ends by stating that " all these parcells of wull in ye cast being 
broken hath bene bought of Mr. Freeman, stapeler, and yet a 
maker of bayes at Mauldon (to ye hindrance of all clothiers) or 
of his deputye by those whose names folowe, Thomas Dammat, 
Robert Larke, Thomas Graye, John Watson, Thomas Cole, Tho- 
mas Sutton, Thomas Lawrence." 

Coggeshall is mentioned by Norden, in 1594, as one of the 
" especial clothing towns " of the County of Essex, and he goes 
on to tell us that " Cogshall is specially famous for the most rare 
Whites there made exceeding any cloth in the land for rare fine- 
ness and therefore called Cogshall whites. It is governed by 24 
head-boroughs of whom are chosen two constables for the time 
being chief governors of the town." 

The following extracts from the State Papers, Domestic temp. 
Commonwealth (Vol. 25, Nos. 51 & 52) are of sufficient interest 
to admit of their being set out verbatim, for they give much valua- 
ble information, concerning not only the trade here but the times 
generally : 



* State Papers Dom., Vol. 209, No. 93. t Ibid, Vol. 114, No. 47. 



1 88 The Manufactures. 

" 1652, 29 Oct. To the honble Councell for Trade. 

The Humble Petition of the Clothiers of Coggeshall in 

the County of Essex 
Humbly shewing 

That whereas in their General Peticon many Grievances have 
byn presented to this Honble Councell And yor Petrs had free 
accesse and diverse hearings with promise of redresse with best 
expedition 

And for that the Ingrossers of wooll are now as active in buy- 
ing so soon as the same is shorne, or before it is of from the 
sheepes back as heretofore 

Therefore your Petrs. most humbly pray this honoble. Councell 
to expedite their redresse And also to graunt yor. Petrs. full power 
to elect officers amongst themselves for regulating the making of 
manufacturyes in the aforesaid towne And that they may be 
graunted a distinct seal -with a cocke upon the same to distinguish 
their true making for the honor and benefitt of this Common- 
wealth ; not prohibiting other townes or places from making the 
like sort, they having also their particular scale, or from enjoying 
the same scale they observing the same Rule and Government 
with yor. Petrs. 

And yor. Petrs. shall pray, etc. 

Officers to be chosen yearly by the Inhabitantes (using the 
trade) successively and first to be- established by the persons here- 
under written for Rules and Orders : Thomas Guyon, Wm. Glad- 
wyne, Richard Shortland, John Sparhawke, William Tanner, Sen., 
Edmond Coxe, Henery Johnston, Ambrose Browning, Robt. Hills, 
William Guyon, Richard Sheppard, John Cockerell, John Sampson, 
Wm. Coxe, John Coxe, Wm. Tanner, Jun., John Bufton, Samuell 
Coxe, John Cooke, John Grey." (No. 51) 

" 1652, Nov. 3, To the right honourble. the Councell of State 
for the Commonwealth of England sitting at Whitehall, the hum- 
ble petition of the Clothiers at Coggeshall in Essex. 

Humbly shews that whereas by the making of Coggeshall 
bayes many thousands of poore people are employed, which bayes 
have been exported by merchants into parts beyond seas called 
the Straights which for a yeare past have bin obstructed and of 
late wholly prevented since the Hollander is turned against us in- 
somuch as that without strong Convoyes (to bee granted by this 
state) the merchants will not adventure their goods whereby for 



The Cloth Trade. 189 

sixe moneths past your Petitionrs. have had no sale for their bayes, 
their stocks and credits are improved to the uttermost, and with- 
out some vent of their goods they are no way able to proceed in 
their trade or to set their poore on work which are already become 
so numerous that without worke they must bee kept or starved, 
which yor petitionrs. are not able to prevent for the charge of col- 
lection in this place exceeds all other, every 20 li. per an. paying 
5 li. yeerely to the poore and so answerably and the rather because 
yor petitionrs. have bin and are still much disenabled for that in 
1642 in their ardent affection to the Parliamt. they did upon the 
publike faith lend greater summs of money than any place in the 
nation (they could ever heare of) even . . . . n times beyond 
men of equal estates and indeed beyond their own ability joyning 
together in Bonds for sums of money upon interest, the which for 
great part is held at interest to this day by which meanes many 
persons with their families have bin undone, being not able to pay 
a quarter of their debts and others endamaged by their bonds to 
pay for their neighbours alsoe the time of ten years being now ex- 
pired they are necessitated to represent their undoing condition 
and all the premises considered yor Petitionrs doe humbly pray 
this honble Councell to commiserate their distresse and to grant 
them speedy reliefe. 

1. That the merchants for trade may have all encouragement, 
that they may know of forraine nations who are friends and not 
have their estates suddenly surprised as in Portugale, Holland and 
Denmark in which hazards the richest merchants have bin caused 
to surcease merchandizing and to purchase lands. 

2. That sufficient Convoyes of ships for warre may be with 
speed granted to the Straights and other countreys. 

3. That forasmuch as your Petitioners in general are so ex- 
tremely disenabled and discouraged for want of their money lent 
upon the publicke faith which amounts to above 6000 li. in this 
poore towne and that yor Petitioners have bin constantly faithfull 
and usefull by setting out forces at their owne charges to assist 
the Parliamt. farre beyond their abilities that some way may be 
prescribed whereby yor petitioners may be paid ther true debts in 
the first place and that with speed before your Petitioners are 
wholly undone. 

And your Petitioners shall ever pray, etc. 

Robert Crane, Thomas Guyon, William Gladwine, John Digby, 



i9 The Manufactures. 

John Sparhawke, John Huntsman, Henry Johnson, John Cocke- 
rell, Michaell Richolds, Ciprian Streett, John Streete, Nicholas 
Street, Thomas Cooke, Josiff Clarke, John Till, Wm. Tanner, 
William Cox, John Cox, Samuel Cox, John Bufton, William Ar- 
nolds (? blotted), William Costered, Willyam Motos, Paull Pember- 
ton, Thomas Shortland, John Lees, Thomas Swan, Edmond Cox, 
Richard Shortland, John Gray, John Sampson, Ambrose Sutton, 
William Tanner, Thomas Nicholls, Ffrancis Page, Roger Sturges, 
John Bowyer, William Raulinson, William Emen (? Ennew), 
Richard Pemberton, John Sloman, Edward Bond, Thomas 
Nicholls, John Nicholes, Enoch Hinting, Henry Warner, Henry 
Hinting, William Asly, Robert Asyle, Robert Mills, John Alegant, 
Jacob Watson, Thomas Branwood,* Robert Sebroke, Jeremiah 
Ferryman, Hennery Frost, John Lyance, John Smith, Sen., 
Thomas Braddye, John Brightwen, Robert Barwell, William 
Dimbleby, William Hills, Abraham Cooke, Thomas Bringest, 
Edward Lees, John Till, Jun., John London, Robert Wheeler, 
John Royce, George Irland." (52) 

In or about 1664, certain orders were drawn up for the trade 
and mystery of the clothiers, fullers, bay makers, and new drapers, 
in the town of Coggeshall, and were confirmed by the Quarter 
Sessions of the Peace. These orders provided that none should 
use the trade unless they had been apprenticed seven years, that 
none should be apprenticed unless one of their parents had 403. 
a year freehold, that one journeyman should be kept for every 
three apprentices. Fines were imposed on those who absented 
themselves from the guild; and warrants were issued by the 
magistrates requiring the wardens of the company, and the con- 
stables of the town to prosecute all intruders into the trade, and 
offenders against the orders. The signatories to the orders were 
Richard Shortland, Mathew Guyon, Mark Guyon, John Guyon, 
William Gladwin, William Cox, Jo Cox, Jo Gray, Jo Sampson, 
Sen., Benjamin Sampson, Paul Pemberton, Robert Nicholas, 
Peter Pridmore, K. Neele, T. Purcas, J. Rodley, Sen., T. Keeble, 
R. Sheppard, W. Clarke, S. Harvey, Ambrose Sutton. 

The warders for the fullers, in 1659, were N. Gladwin and 
Wm. Hatton; in 1698, Robert Nicholas and John Andrews; in 

* A query appeared in East Anglian Notes, N.S., Vol. II., p. 255, as to 
this family, a member of which, tradition says, settled in Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, U.S.A., about 1650. 



The Cloth Trades. 



1710, John Hatten, Jun. and John Philbricke; and in 1799, 
William Mayhew and Mark Cowell. 

The feoffees for the fullers, in 1659, were John Rodley and 
Willm. Clark, Junr., and the stock 22 us. 6d. ; in 1799, F. 
Lay and J. Seex, who are the last-named feoffees in the book of 
orders, divided the remaining stock among about thirty persons, 
on 1 4th November, 1800. 

The old Wool Hall is noticed elsewhere, under the head of 
' The Charities.' 

The Guild Hall, which was probably connected with the 
woollen manufacture of the place, may be referred to here. The 
earliest record concerning it is contaihed in the Certificate of 
Chantry Land for Essex, 2 Edward IV., under Coggeshall in Lex- 
den Hundred " Item, one house then called the Yield Hall, and 
is worth by the year, 53." The situation is ascertained by an 
abuttal reference in the Court Rolls of the Manor of Great Cog- 
geshall, contained in the admission of Thomas Ludgater, who, 
A.D. 1693, on the surrender of William Till, and Maria, his wife, 
became possessed of the property which adjoins the site of the 
Guild Hall towards the west, and is described in the abbre- 
viated Latin of those days which, for the benefit of the general 
reader, may be translated and rendered in the following anglicised 
form: All that his parcel of customary land with the house or 
cottage thereupon built lying and being in Church Lane in Great 
Coggeshall, abutting upon a tenement sometime since called the 
Guild Hall over against the west ("on the part of the east" in 
subsequent admissions), which premises were sometime in the 
occupation of George Ireland and are now in the occupation of 
the said William Till. 

The Guild Hall may be found on the south side of Church 
Lane, commonly known as Back Lane, about 80 feet or there- 
abouts eastward of Wayne Lane. It is a dwelling in two tene- 
ments, measuring about 36 feet by 14 feet. It was probably 
originally devoid of partition wall or flooring, and thus adapted 
for an Assembly Room or Hall, and that it was used for this pur- 
pose is somewhat confirmed by the fireplace, which consists of an 
opening on the east side, and measures 6 ft. 10 in. in width by 
4 ft. 7 in. in height. In the north wall of the fireplace is a recess 
2 ft. wide and 9 in. deep, with an oak seat almost concealed by the 
layer or two of brickwork above it ; on the left (i.e. on the east 



192 



The Manufactures. 



wall), in immediate proximity to the recess and 3 ft. from the floor, 
is a niche with an angular top and having a base 6 in. in width ; 
from base to apex it is n inches and it recedes into the wall to 
the extent of 8 in. This small aperture may have been originally 
intended for the crucifix or the image of the patron saint of the 
guild ; in later days, however, it has doubtless served as a recepta- 
cle for the host's refreshment. 

It was the custom of the clothiers to have an annual proces- 
sion in honor of Blaize, or Blasius, Bishop of Sebaste, in Arme- 
nia, who is said to have invented the art of wool-combing, and 
was put to death in the persecution under Diocletian, in the year 
289, and orations were delivered on these occasions. Thus we 
find, in 1699, our local poet, Bufton, writing the following verses 
for the Bellman for the Guilding Morn : 

" This day there will a noble feast be made 
For all amongst us of the Fuller's trade 
This ancient custom they do still uphold 
Which hath been used from the days' of old : 
Their wardens for next year will chosen be 
By voice of those who of the trade are free." 
And again he tells us that in August, 1688, he wrote the fol- 
lowing verses of his own composing : 

"As in all ages have been some that stood 
Most nobly to promote the public good 
So in the present age some are inclined 
The good of this our Fulling trade to mind." 
****** 

The processions, appear to have been continued till the close 
of last century, and below is given the Programme of a Procession 
exhibited by the Weavers of Coggeshall, on Wednesday the i5th 

of June, 1791. 

" Order of the Procession 

Two Leaders 
Two Ensign Bearers 
Flemings two and two 

Two Orators The Union Jack Two Orators 

Two Garlands 

Drums and Fifes 

Captain of the Guards 

Guards two and two 



The Cloth Trade. 193 

Lieutenant of the Guards 

King Henry the Second with his attending Lord on horseback 
Guards two and two 

Band of Music 
The Shepherd and Shepherdess 

A Slay-maker 
A Shackle-maker and Loom-maker 

Two Ensigns of the Trade 

Jack of Newberry and Fleecy care 

Two Tappers 

Platform 

With Britannia and her children, Bezaleel and Aholiab, with 

several branches of the trade at work, viz. : Spinning, Winding, 

Warping, and Weaving and the Weavers' Arms 

Two Pendents of the Manufacture 

Lads and Maids two 
Attending two with Garlands 

Lads two and Maids two 

Attending two with Banners 

Lads and Maids two and two 

Two Orators 
Followed by the Cavalcade two and two 

^^ The Procession will set out precisely at Eight o'clock from 

the Bird-in-Hand 
The Procession will not move out of town." 

One of the original orations is headed by prints representing 
A Woman Spinning. King Henry II. A Man at the Loom. 
Then follows : 

"An Oration 

For the Procession of the Weavers at Coggeshall 
On Wednesday, the i5th of June, 1791. 

From ancient Times our useful Art we trace 
As sacred Writ records in many a Place ; 
All those whose Skill could curious work devise 
Wove Coats for Aaron and his Sons likewise ; 
The Ephod's Robe was woven all of blue 
For Israel's Priest, who holy was and true. 

Wise-hearted Women too spun with their hands, 
The various Ornaments (by GOD'S commands) 

o 






J 94 The Manufactures. 



To inclose the Ark Divine with Curtains made 

Of cunning Work, as 'tis in Scripture said 

Britons were once a naked, painted Band 

But since the nimble Shuttle bless'd the Land 

By just degrees the social Arts arose 

Polish'd our Hearts and taught the use of Clothes 

Long, long may peace extend her pleasing smile 
And commerce flourish in our happy Isle 
Long may the labors of the British Loom 
Clothe distant climes and ages yet to come. 

In the latter half of the iyth century tokens, or small copper 
coins, payable at the place of business of the issuer, came into 
vogue in Coggeshall and other places. The following is believed 
to be a complete list of those which were issued by the clothiers 
and other traders of this town : 
Obverse, * Benjamin Samson Samson.f 
Reverse, In Coggeshall, 1665 B. E. S. 

Obverse, * Samuel Cox of In centre a hand holding a quill. 
Reverse, Coggeshall, In Essex. S. C. 

Obverse, * Robert Purcas The Grocer's Arms. 
Reverse, In Coggeshall R. A. P. 

Obverse, * Thomas Guyon In A. Rose. 
Reverse, Coggeshall, 1667 T. G. 

Obverse, William Guyon, 1670 A fleur-de-lys. 
Reverse, In Coggeshall, In Essex His Half Peny. W.R.G. 

Obverse, Thomas Beckwith, In The Tallow Chandler's Arms. 
Reverse, Coggeshall, In Essex His Half Peny. T. A. B. 

Obverse, * Henry Benyan of A Griffin holding a key. 
Reverse, Coggeshall in Essex H. B. 

Obverse, John Digby A fleur-de-lys. 

Reverse, Cogsall Grocer. J. D. 

Obverse, John Lark, of St George and the Dragon. 
Reverse, Coggeshall, 1667 J. M. L. 

* In the possession of the writer. 

t Samson is represented holding the jaw-bone of an ass in his right hand 
and with a robe over his loins and left shoulder. 



Miscellaneous. 195 



Obverse, Francis Lay, at the a Swan. 

Reverse, In Coxhall this for Half-a-Peny. F. D. L. 

Obverse, Moses Love, Slay a shuttle 

Reverse, Maker, of Coggeshall M. L. 

Obverse, Edmond Spicer a sugar loaf 

Reverse, In Coggeshall a device of two interlaced ovals 

Obverse, Ambros Sutton a greyhound's head collared with a 

coronet. 
Reverse, In Coggeshall, 1665 A. S. S. 



TAMBOUR Lace, or the embroidering of net in cotton, silk, 
beads, and gold and silver tinsel, is manufactured here, 
several hands being engaged in the trade, working generally in 
their own homes. Some of the workers are remarkably skilful 
and their laces find a ready sale in London and on the Continent. 
Exquisitely wrought dresses and shawls have been manufactured 
by the Coggeshall toilers, and have been worn at Her Majesty's 
Drawing-rooms and at other state assemblies. 



trade, which once found work for several hundreds of 
JL men, women and children, has now become extinct. It is 
said that there were 700 hands employed at the principal mill in 
the year 1863. This mill belonged to the well-known firm of 
Durant & Co., the business there being carried on by Messrs. 
Hall & Son. About twenty years ago this large establishment, 
which cost many thousands of pounds to erect and furnish, was 
closed and since then a great part of the population has migrated 
to find work in the neighbouring towns of Halstead, Braintree, 
Bocking and elsewhere. Silk velvet is manufactured in the town, 
but this trade has not been extensively adopted. 



ISINGLASS and Gelatine works were established here many 
years ago by Messrs. Swinborne, Wallington & Co., and the 
business is now carried on by the Messrs. Pfander-Swinborne. 
The articles manufactured by this firm have now a world-wide 

O 2 



The Manufactures. 



reputation, and Lord Coleridge in a recent case in which the Cog- 
geshall manufacturers were called upon to justify their use of the 
words, " Patent Isinglass," in giving judgment remarked, that it 
had been found that the isinglass sold by the Messrs. Swinborne 
was the most concentrated and perfect form of isinglass, and was 
well known in the trade having been used for over 30 years. The 
works are at the upper end of West Street, and many hands are 
there engaged. 



OGGESHALL is noted for the remarkable quality of its 
ales. This is due to the excellent supply of water obtain- 
able here. There are several important breweries, the beers from 
which are carried over an extensive area. The principal businesses 
taking them in alphabetical order, are those of Mr. John Beard, 
Messrs. Beard & Bright, Messrs. E. Gardner & Son, and Mr. 
John Kemp King. Messrs. Gardner's firm had the satisfaction of 
being awarded a Diploma of Honour for their pale ale, or bitter 
beer at the National Brewer's Exhibition, in 1888. 



THE seed-growing industry is extensively carried on in this 
neighbourhood, and in the spring and summer months of 
the year the fields of garden-flowers, including acre after acre of 
sweet pea, nasturtium, aster, mignionette, &c., contrasting with the 
green and yellow corn, are the subject of frequent comment by 
the traveller in the district. The seed-growing business established 
by the late Mr. John Kemp King is now well known throughout 
the country. 



NOTABLE FAMILIES AND MEN. 





| HE arms of this ancient family 

are Argent ; a cross between 

four escallops sable. The 

family does not appear to 
have had a crest until John Coggeshall, 
of Fornham, St. Genovese, Suffolk, pro- 
cured of Robert Cooke, Clarencieux, on 
the 5th September, 1576, the right to 
bear " Upon the helme on a wreath argent, a buck couchant sable 
horned and cleved or., mantled gu., dubled silver " (see Holman's 
MSS.) ; a boar's head is given as the crest of the family, in Add. 
MS., 1746, page 23, and in the Rhode Island Magazine, Vol. V., 
p. 173, the crest appears as a dexter arm embowed holding a 
sword. 

The arms are decidedly typical of pilgrimage, one of the em- 
blems of which is the escallop shell, and another the cross. Carry- 
ing the mind back to the days of Richard I., may we not picture 
an early knight of this family at the Crusades clad in his coat of 
mail, bearing on his breast a cross, in the beautiful language of 
Spencer : 

" The dear remembrance of his dying Lord 
Upon his shield the like was also scored." 

The following is the pedigree of the early members of this 
family : 

i. Sir Thomas Coggeshall, of Coggeshall, Knight, was living in 
the reign of King Stephen (1149), ar >d had a son, 



T 9 8 Notable Families and Men. 

2. Sir Thomas Coggeshall, also of Coggeshall, Knight, who was 

living, 1188 and 1194. He had issue Sir Ralph (3) and Sir 
Roger, who was living 28 Henry III. 

3. Sir Ralph de Coggeshall, of Codham Hall, Wethersfield, Knt., 

was living 1233, died 1305. By his wife, Elizabeth, he had 
issue 

4. John de Coggeshall, who died, 1296, leaving (in addition to the 

son from whom descended the Coggeshalls of Hundon, Forn- 
ham, &c., Suffolk), 

5. Sir John de Coggeshall, of Coggeshall, Knight, who was living 

in 1302, and married Sara, daughter of Jordan le Brun, 
Knight. Sir John died 1319, leaving 

6. Sir John de Coggeshall, Lord of Coggeshall, knighted 1337; 

High Sheriff of Essex for several years. Aged 18 in 1320, 
proved his age, 1322, died 1361 ; married Mary (? Margery), 
daughter and heiress of Henry (? Humphrey) de Stanton of 
Essex. She died, 1342. (It is this Sir John's monument 
that is given in Weever. See Holman's MS.) He had issue 
Sir Henry and Thomas. 

7. Sir Henry Coggeshall, Knight, was 30 years of age in 1361, 

died 1375, buried at Coggeshall ; married Joane, daughter 
and heiress of William de Welles of Exning ; she died 1375. 
They had issue Sir William, of whom hereafter, and Thomas 
of Sandon, who held Newhall, in Boreham, in 1391, and died 
in 1422, having had issue one son and one daughter, Richard 
the heir, aged 13 in 1422, and died without issue in 1432, 
and Elizabeth, the daughter married Thomas Philip. 

8. Sir William de Coggeshall, of Codham Hall, Wethersfield, 

Knight, was aged 18, in 1375 and died 1424. High Sheriff, 
1391, he married Antiochia, daughter and heiress of Sir 
John Hawkwood, Knight, the celebrated Captain of Condot- 
tien, whose residence was at Sible Hedingham, Essex. Her 
second husband was Sir John Tyrrell, Knight, of East Horn- 
don, Essex. Sir William, by his wife, Antiochia, had issue no 
sons but four daughters 

9. i. Blanch, who married John Doreward, Esq., of Bocking. 

ii. Eleanor (? Alice), who married Sir John Tyrell, of Herons, 

Knight, 
iii. Margaret, who married, first, William Bateman, Esq., of 

Little Samford, and, secondly, John Roppeley, Esq. 



The Coggeshalls. 199 



iv. Maud, who married, first, Robert Dacres, Esq., and, 
secondly, John St. George. 

This Sir William Coggeshall held considerable estates in Essex, 
which for want of male heirs were divided amongst the daughters. 
He was living at Coggeshall in the 6th year of the reign of King 
Henry V., as the lease of his Manor of Codham Hall, Wethers- 
field, is tested at Coggeshall. 

The Manor of Coggeshall Hall, as has been noticed (p. 125), 
was for several generations one of the possessions of this family, 
and it is probable that it was their principal seat. There were 
also branches of the family settled at Boreham and Sandon, some 
of whom were buried at Maldon and others in Boreham Church. 
Weever preserves the following inscription, which was formerly 
on a gravestone in the body of All Saints' Church, Maldon : 

"Here lies Richard (Henry) Coggeshall, son and heir of Thomas 
Coggeshall, son of Thomas Coggeshall, Esq. who died 9 Jan. 1427.' 

Others were citizens of note in London, and were buried in 
the Parish Church of St. Margaret, on Fish Street Hill, and in St. 
Nicholas, Cold Abbey (see Weever's Funeral Monuments). Con- 
siderable information relating to the Coggeshalls, chiefly of a 
genealogical nature, is contained in the Davy MSS., vol. 48, in 
the British Museum, and some notes may be looked for in the 
Histories of Essex by Morant and Wright, also as to the later 
members of the family in ' Suffolk Records.' 

From a younger brother of Sir John Coggeshall descended 
John Coggeshall, of Hundon, in Suffolk, whose posterity lived at 
Gosfield and then at Fornham Saint Genovese, in Suffolk ; of this 
branch was Henry Coggeshall, a man of great ingenuity. He im- 
proved the art of mensuration, and in 1677, published a work, 
" Timber Measure by a line of more ease and exactness than any 
other." He also invented a Sliding Rule which was called after 
his name. He had a son, William Coggeshall, of Diss, in Norfolk, 
and a stone in Diss Church records that this William was born at 
Stratford, Suffolk, and died, Aug. 9th, 1714, aged 48, and that 
he, by Elizabeth his wife, had a son, John, who died, April i3th, 
1706, aged 6. 

In Framlingham Church, level with the floor of the aisle, at 
the head of Sir Robert Hitcham's tomb, there was, when Green 
wrote his ^ History of Framlingham] in 1834, a range of three 
marble slabs to the memory of John Coggeshall, two of his wives 



200 Notable Families and Men. 

and a daughter. Above the inscription on his slab were Quarterly 
Coggeshall i and 4, a cross between 4 escallops ; Dover, 2, 
ermine, a cinquefoil ; Sheppard, 3, a fess between 3 talbots pas- 
sant, in their mouths a bird bolt, impaling Cotton, a chevron 
between 3 cotton hanks. Helmet, mantle, crest, a stag couchant 

" Here lieth the body of John Coggeshall, Gent., who died 
i3th of Novem., 1.752, aged 86 years. Also the body of 
Mary his second wife, who died 2ist October, 1729, aged 
41 years." 

In a lozenge, the arms of Coggeshall as before, with helmet, 
mantle, and crest as above. 

"Here is interred the body of Mary, the daughter of John 
Coggeshall, Gent., by Mary his wife, who departed this life 
the ist. of August, Anno. Dom., 1726, setat 17." 

On the third stone 

"Here lieth the body of Elizabeth, the third wife of John 
Coggeshall, Gent., who died 2Qth of October, 1741, aged 
48 years." 

John Coggeshall, Gent., in 1742, gave to the Church of Fram- 
lingham, a large silver flagon, weighing about 53 ounces, also a 
brass branch for 20 lights. 

The following notes are from the Herald's College, "John 
Coggeshall, of Gosfield, in Essex, Gent., married and had issue : 
Roger, sone and heire; Richard, 2; John, 3; William, 4 ; Roger 
Cogshall, of Fornham St. Martin, in Suffolk, married Elizabeth, 
ye daughter of Smith, of Boxley, in Essex, and had issue : 
John, sone and heire. 

"John, sone and heire of John, married to his first wife, 
Elizabeth, ye daughter of George Bacon, of Hesset, in Suffolk, 
and had issue : Edmond ye first who died yonge, 2nd after he 
married to his 2nd wife, Ann, ye daughter of John Bene (? Reeve) 
of Thwaite in Suffolk, and by her had issue : Elizabeth, married 
to John Bacon, ye younger, of Hesset. 

" George, ye sone and heire of John, married Ann, ye daugh- 
ter of Edmond Orange, of Berry St. Edmonds, and as yet hath 
no issue. Died without issue, 1615." 

From another pedigree in the same College we learn that a 
Roger Coggeshall, of Fordham, Suffolk, had a son, John, who 
resided at Orford, Suffolk, and married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Robert Beversham, of Orford. They had issue : Thomas (4th 



The Coggeshalls. 201 



son), who married Sarah, daughter of Edward Scott, of Glemsford, 
Suffolk; Henry, of Benham (PBenhall), Suffolk (2nd son), 1664, 
married Ellinor, daughter of John Geoffrey, alias Spooner, of 
Tanington ; James, of Carson, married Barbara, daughter of 
Anthony Yorke, and John of Melton, Suffolk, Gent., 1664, who 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Philip Boone, of Saxted, Suffolk. 
Henry and Ellinor Coggeshall had issue John, sone and heire, 
aged about 9, anno 1664, Henry, Thomas and Mary. 

There is among the Harl. MS.S. (1136, p. 62), this pedigree : 
" John Coggeshall of Hundon, Co. Suffolk, had issue John 
Coggeshall, of Gosfield, Co. Essex, who had issue : Richard, John, 
William and Robert (? Roger) of Fornham St. Martyn, Co. Suf- 
folk, who married Elizabeth, daughter of Smith, of Burley. 
They had a son, John, who married Anne, daughter of John Reeve, 
of Suffolk, and Elizabeth, daughter of George Bacon, of Hesset. 
By his marriage with Elizabeth he had a son, Edmond." 

The following extracts are from the Coggeshall Registers : 

MARRIAGES. 

1572 Aug. ii. John Coxill (? Caxill) and Joan Damat. 

1574 April 22. Thorn. Coxill (? Caxill) and Cicelie Freeman. 

1603 Feb. 2. William Hull and Sarah Coxall. 

1610 Feb. 25. Jhon Rogers (PKeyes) and Annis Coxall. 

1626 July 3. Nathaniel Greeve and Annis Coxal. 

BURIALS. 

1585 Oct. 8. Anne, daughter of Jo. Coxill. 
1600 Jany. 9. Joane, wife of Ralphe Coxall. 

A search of the Register of Baptisms, Marriages and Burials 
from their commencement down to the present time has been 
made, but no other entries than the above have been found. 

There is only one entry under this name in the Gosfield Re- 
gisters, and that is of the marriage of Alice Coggeshall with 
Robert Wilton, in 1548. This information was kindly furnished 
by the Rev. Elliot, Vicar of Gosfield, who also wrote that the 
arms of Coggeshall are found quartered with those of Baker 
Cotton, Gent, Greene, Ingowe, Strangman, Thursby, Tyrell and 
Wentworth. 

At St. Andrew's, Halstead, there is a mural brass to " Eliza- 
beth, the wife of John Watson, the daughter of John Coggeshall, 
Gent., who was buried, February the 23rd, Anno Dmi. 1604." 
There is the figure of a lady kneeling at a desk facing, to the left 



202 Notable Families and Men. 

in front of the desk two boys, and behind her three girls all facing 
as the mother ; and, in the foreground, under the daughters a 
chrysom child, but there are no armorials. 



(g^union of t$ 

ON the Qth September, 1884, some 400 or more descendants 
of one, John Coggeshall, assembled at Newport, Rhode 
Island, America, to hear the address of the Hon. Henry T. Cog- 
geshall, of Waterville, New York, upon their family history. This 
John Coggeshall appears to have been born in England about 
1591, having died on 27th November, 1647, aged 56 years, at 
Newport, Rhode Island. He was a puritan and was among those 
who, seeking to escape the persecution of the times, sailed from 
their native country in the ship "Lyon," on the 23rd June, 1632, 
arriving at Boston on Sunday, the i6th September following. 

His business is believed to have been that of a silk merchant, 
and it is probable that he was born in Essex or Suffolk, and 
although his father's name is not known we know that his mother's 
name was Ann, and that when she made her will, on i6th April, 
1645, she was residing at Castle Hedingham. By her will, she 
gives to her son, John Coggeshall " now," as she says, " dwelling 
in New England, my house and lands at Sible Hedingham, to- 
gether with the legacy given him by his uncle, John Batter, with 
remainder in event of John's not claiming them to Henry Ray- 
mond, my grandchild, son of Richard Raymond, deceased. She 
also gives certain parts of her property to John, Anne, Mary, 
Joshua, and James Coggeshall, children of her son John. Her 
will was proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 171 
Essex, on i6th April, 1645. The emigrant wife's name was Mary, 
and when they left England they took with them their three child- 
ren, John, born about 1618, Joshua, born 1623, and Ann, born 
1625 ; and from the records of the First Church, Boston, Massa- 
chusets, it appears that they subsequently had daughters, Hana- 
niel, baptised 3rd May, 1635, and Wait, baptised n Sept. 1636, 
and a son, Bedaiah, baptised 3oth July, 1637. 

Shortly after his arrival at Boston, John Coggeshall was made a 
freeman of the colony, and was about the same time elected a 
member of the church in Roxbury. He afterwards settled at 
Portsmouth, Rhode Island, where, after starting a settlement, he 
with others removed to the southern part of the island of Aquid- 



The Coggeshalls. 203 



neck, where the town of Newport now stands. When the four 
towns of Newport, Portsmouth, Providence and Warwick were 
united, John Coggeshall was elected to the honourable position 
of first President. He died on 27th November, 1647, aged 56, 
and was buried on his own land in Newport, where his descend- 
ants have erected a monument to his memory, and enclosed the 
little family burial ground with a neat and substantial stone wall ; 
it is situate in Coggeshall Avenue, near Victoria Avenue. His 
son, John, who was, as we have seen, born in England, was a 
Major of the Militia in the new country. 

For further information as to John Coggeshall, the emigrant, 
and his descendants, the reader is referred to the Rhode Island 
Magazine for October, 1884, which contains, in addition to the 
address of the Hon. H. T. Coggeshall, occupying 28 pages, a con- 
tribution towards a genealogy of the family extending over 17 
pages, the greater part of which is fraught with interesting narrative 
or detail. 

The address of the President of the Re-union concluded in 
this appropriate strain : " Thus have we reviewed the Coggeshalls 
of the past. Their high aspirations and proud achievements illu- 
mine with credit the page of your family history. That the Cog- 
geshalls of to-day deserve honorable mention it is needless here 
to say. * * * * Of the Coggeshalls yet to come, could the 
future be unfolded, we should see whether distinguished by 
science or art, literature or politics a long line of deserving men 
and women, law, abiding, liberty loving, trusting in man, brave, in 
war, sincere in friendship, fond of home and its associations, for 
these are characteristics which do not die." 

The name of Coggeshall as a personal name is almost extinct 
in England, but there are Coxalls in Essex and elsewhere, and the 
persons with this corrupted patronymic are doubtless derivatives 
from the former possessors of Coggeshall Hall. 



THE arms of this family are argent, a lion rampant sable, 
crowned or. ; on a canton azure, a chevron between three 
acorns of the 3rd, crest a demi lion rampant sable crowned and 
supporting an anchor erect or. 



204 Notable Families and Men. 

The first English representative of the present Lord of the 
Manors of Great and Little Coggeshall was 

1. John Du Quesne, of Canterbury, afterwards of London, who 

came out of Flanders on account of the persecution of the 
protestants by the Duke of Alva, temp. Elizabeth. He had 
a son, 

2. John Du Quesne, born in London; married 22nd January, 

1599, Sarah de Francqueville, and died in 1612. He had 
a son, 

3. Peter Du Quesne sometimes called Du Cane, of London, 

Esquire, born 1609; was elected Alderman, 1666, and dis 
charged upon payment of a fine of ,500 and 20 marks. 
He died, 7th February, 1671, aged 62. Buried in a vault at 
east end of St. Pancras, Soper Lane. He married Jane, 
daughther of Elias Maurois, of Canterbury, by Elizabeth, 
daughter of Laurence Desbouverie, of Sandwich, Kent. 
They had a son, 

4. Peter Du Cane, of London, Esquire; born the i7th March, 

1645 ; married on 6th January. 1675, Jane, eldest daughter 
of Richard Booth, Esq., who was elected Alderman of Lon- 
don in 1668, and discharged on payment of ^520. Peter 
DuCane died, i6th September, 1714, and was interred in the 
family vault at St. Pancras, Soper Lane. He had an only 
child 

5. Richard Du Cane, of London, Esq., born, i3th October, 

1 68 1, served in the first Parliament of George I. for the 
Borough of Colchester ; arms granted to him 6th February, 
1730; married, in 1710, Anne, only daughter and heiress of 
Nehemiah Lyde, Esq. Lord of the Manors of Great and 
Little Coggeshall. She died 21 Sept. 1722, aged 33. Her 
husband died 3 Oct. 1744, aged 63, leaving issue, 

Peter, of whom hereafter. Richard, who died, 4 Feb., 
1743. Jane, only daughter, born 22nd June, 1711 ; married 
27 March, 1735, Charles Boehm, Esq., son of Clement Boehm, 
Esq., one of the Directors of the Bank of England. She 
died 9 January, 1756, aged 45. Had issue (i.) Jane, born 8 
Aug. 1737, died 19 May, 1738 ; (ii.) Elizabeth, twin sister of 
Jane, died 26 Sept., 1738; (iii.) Jane, the 2nd, born 4 Dec., 
1738, died 13 April, 1740; (iv.) Richarda, born 26 June, 
died 27 Sept., 1742 (issue buried at Coggeshall, seep. 50). 



The Du Canes. 205 



6. Peter Du Cane, eldest son and heir, born the 22nd of April, 

1713; married 27th March, 1735, Mary, only daughter of 
Henry Norris, Esq., of Hackney, Middlesex. Died 28th 
March, 1803, buried at Braxted, Essex. He was High 
Sheriff of Essex, a Director of the Bank of England, and of 
the East India Company. They had issue among others, 
Peter, of whom hereafter, and Henry, Vicar of Coggeshall, 
who was born 2ist Sept., 1748 ; married Louisa Desmadrill, 
and had issue (i.) Rev. Henry Du Cane, of Witham Grove, 
Essex, born in 1785, and had issue, (ii.) Richard, a Major in 
2oth Regt. of Dragoons, born in 1788, died leaving issue, 
Col. Sir Edmund Frederick, K.C.B. vide Debrett ; (iii.) 
Charles, born 1789, of whom hereafter; (iv.) Louisa, born 
1781 ; (v.) Anna, born 1783; (vi.) Sarah, born 1791; (vi.) 
George, who died without issue. 

7. Peter Du Cane, Esq., of Braxted Lodge, Essex, born the 

2oth April, 1741, died in 1822, buried at Braxted; married 
in 1769, Phoebe Phillips Tredcroft, eldest daughter of 
Edward Tredcroft, Esq., of Horsham, Sussex. They had 
issue, Peter, of Braxted Lodge, Esq., Sheriff of Essex, and 
M.P. for Staining, Sussex, born i9th August, 1778, died 
23rd May, 1841, without having been married; Henry, who 
died young; Mary, born 7th September, 1770; married 
Edmund, son of William Smith, Esq., of Horsham, and had 
issue (i.) Edmund Smith, died aged about 23, unmarried; 
(ii.) Rev. Percy Smith, Rector of Pattiswick, Essex (iii.) 
Frederick Smith, Esq., married Isabella daughter of Rev. 
James, and five other children; Sarah, born i6th June, 
1772, died 2ist June, 1782; Charlotte, born October, 1774. 

8. Charles Du Cane, a Commander of the Royal Navy (cousin 

of Peter No. 7, son of Henry and grandson of Peter, No. 6) 
born 1789, died i?th November, 1850; married Francis, 
daughter of the Rev. Charles Prideaux Brune, of Prideaux 
Place, Cornwall. Had eight children, of whom was, 

9. Sir Charles Du Cane, K.C.M.G., of Braxted Park; he was 

born 1825, educated at Charterhouse and at Exeter College, 
Oxford, B.A. 1847, Hon. 4th Class Classic and Mathematics 
M.A. in 1864; was a Civil Lord of the Admiralty, 1866-8; 
Governor of Tasmania, 1868-74; and a Royal Commis- 
sioner to inquire into the Factory and Workshop Acts, 1875 > 



206 Notable Families and Men. 

in 1878 he was appointed Chairman of the Board of Cus- 
toms, which position he retained till his death. He was a 
staunch Conservative and was M.P. for Maldon, 1852-3, and 
for North Essex, 1857-68; a Justice of the Peace and a 
Deputy-Lieutenant for Essex. He married in 1863, the 
Hon. Georgiana Susan Copley, daughter of the ist Baron 
Lyndhurst, and died 25th February, 1889, leaving two sons 
and three daughters, the eldest son being (i.) Charles Henry 
Copley Du Cane, born 25th May, 1864 (ii.) John Philip Du 
Cane, born 5th May, 1865 (iii) Edith Georgiana Sophia, 
born 4th February, 1867 (iv.) Florence Gertrude Louisa, 
born 2ist May, 1869, and (v.) Ella Mary, born 4th June, 
1874. 

An account of the family Du Quesne and especially of the 
branch which settled in England in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
has been compiled by Lieut.-Colonel Edmund Frederick Du 
Cane, C.B., and is a remarkably complete genealogical record. 
It was published by Messrs. Harrison and Sons, in 1876. 



THE Hanbury family for upwards of a century and a half 
have been settled at Holfield or Oldfield Grange, Cogges- 
hall. The first of the name who settled here was John Hanbury, 
who, Morant says, was a rich Virginian merchant. He married 
Anna, the daughter of Henry Osgood, the owner of this estate, 
who was probably a descendant of John Osgood a merchant of 
the city of London in the latter part of the seventeenth century. 
John Osgood had two sons, the eldest Salem married Ann, who 
was afterwards the wife of Joshua Gee, of London citizen. 
Salem had two daughters, Rebecca and Ann. He made his will 
on 10 June, 1703, and when he died he was possessed of a share 
of a 2ooth part of New Jersey, in America, which he inherited 
under the will of his father, dated 17 May, 1694. Burke, in his 
Armory, speaks of the Hanburys, of Holfield Grange, as ' a great 
commercial family of the City of London,' and gives the arms as 
or., a bend engrailed az, cotised sa ; crest, out of a mural crown 
gules charged with two estoiles or, a demi lion ramp guard erm 
holding in the dexter paw a battle axe ppr. This family, as bank- 
ers, brewers and merchants, is allied to business firms of great 
repute. 



The Hanburys. 207 



The John Hanbury before mentioned appears to have died 
about 1750 ; on his death the estates passed successively to his 
son, grandson, and great-grandson, all of whom bore the Christian 
name of Osgood. The great-grandson died on the 3rd May, 1882, 
at the age of 56, leaving an only son, Osgood Beauchamp, and 
three daughters. Mr. Osgood Beauchamp Hanbury attained his 
majority in 1888, and then succeeded to the estates. On the i7th 
October, 1889, he married Flora, the only daughter of Major 
Francis Tower, of Thremhall Priory, Takeley, Essex, but hardly 
had the " mellow, wedding-bells golden bells " rung out their 
joyous peal than the tolling of the "iron bells" announced that 
the young squire had passed away. His death, resulting from an 
attack of scarlet fever, took place, on the 25th October, 1889, at 
Leamington, where he was spending his honeymoon. He was 
buried in the vault at Pattiswick, in which his grandfather and 
father were laid to rest in 1873 and 1882. (The father of the for- 
mer having been buried in 1852, and the grandfather in 1784, in 
the Friends' Burial Ground, at Coggeshall.) With the demise of 
the youthful bridegroom the name of Osgood Hanbury has be- 
come extinct, and the estates have passed to the Tower family. 
Mr. Hanbury had three sisters, one of whom was married on 26 
February, 1884, to Capt. Heron-Maxwell; another sister, Con- 
stance, was married on 26th September, 1888, to Henry Charles 
Sloane Stanley, Esq. ; and the third sister, who was unmarried, 
died of fever at Cairo, on 7th March, 1886, aged 22. 

The old residence (Holfield Grange) was pulled down by the 
late Mr. Osgood Hanbury about ten years ago, and a large red 
brick mansion with stone facings erected on the same site. This 
estate, which was formerly one of the granges of the monastery, 
shortly after the dissolution was granted to Sir Clement Smith, of 
Little Baddow, Essex, on whose death it descended to John, his 
son and heir, who sold it to Robert Gurdon ; he, dying in 1578, 
was succeeded by his son, John Gurdon, who sold the property to 
Henry Osgood, whose daughter became allied in marriage to John 
Hanbury, and in this family the estate continued till 1889. 



MEMBERS of this family will be found noticed in several 
parts of this work. Their name is variously spelt Pecock, 
Peacock, Paycock, Peaycocke, &c. The first of the family of 



208 Notable Families and Men. 

whom we have touch was the Thomas Paycocke who died 2ist 
May, 1461, and whose memorial inscription is recorded in 
Weever's ' Funeral Monuments (ante p. 42). 

John Pecok (presumably the son or grandson of Thomas Pay- 
cocke above-mentioned) made his will on 2oth January, 1505-6, a 
great part of which appears on pp. 75 and 76, but there are a few 
genealogical items which more appropriately find a place under 
this general reference to the family. From this will we gather the 
following facts, namely that John Pecok had two sons, Robert and 
Thomas, and a daughter Alice, and his wife's name was Emma ; 
he left his house in Church Street, and the house he dwelt in, and 
the land called 'Braziers' (No. 355, Ord. Sur.), also his house 
between the Bridge and Little Coggeshall to his wife for life, and 
then to his eldest son John. 

Some part of the will, dated 1518, of Thomas Paycocke, son 
of John Paycocke above-mentioned, has been set forth on pp. 76 
and 77. The document itself is of considerable length, but the 
genealogical items have been summarised by Mr. H. W. King, 
and the following notes are derived from his paper read before the 
Essex Archseolgical Society, at Coggeshall, i gth October, 1 888 : 
Testator mentions "Anne my wife, my brother John Paycocke, 
Thomas Paycocke, son of my brother Robert Paycocke, and 
Robert his brother, Robert and Margaret Upcher, my sister's 
children " ; he gives directions for the laying down of his sepul- 
chral memorial, with the brass effigies of himself and his two 
wives, in Coggeshall church (see p. 43), and the cost of it ; and of 
another in memory of his father-in-law, with brass effigies in Clare 
church, Suffolk, his wishes being expressed in this manner : " My 
executors to purvey a marbill stone with myne image and both 
my wif's, and they to bestow ^5 thereon. I will also that they 
purvey and order a stone to be laid in Clare church, and laid on 
my father-in-law, Thomas Harrold, with his pycture and his wife 
and children thereupon." The testator gives several legacies to 
the Goodays, a family whose name is of constant recurrence in 
the Coggeshall Parish Registers. These entries have been ex- 
tracted, and with the information contained in Mr. King's paper, 
would enable any one interested in the family to construct a fairly 
good pedigree. It is hoped that Mr. King's valuable paper will 
appear in extenso in the Transactions of the Essex Archaeological 
Society. In Messing church the arms of Peacocke are quartered 



The Paycockes. 209 



with those of Haselfoot ; i and 4 quarterly, or. and sa., a cross 
of four lozenges counterchanged, Hazelfoot ; 2 and 3 gu, on a 
fess engrailed arg. between 3 bezants, each charged with a pea- 
cock's head erased proper impaling arg., on a fess gu., 3 eagles 
displayed wings inverted or., Peacock : Crest, a demi-peacock or., 
wings expanded az., holding in the beak a snake proper entwined 
round the neck. \East Anglian Notes and Queries, Vol. II, 244.] 

The following notes from the Coggeshall Registers, up to the 
year, 1653, are believed to be the only entries relating to the 
family, at any rate the only items that are legible : Baptisms, none. 
Marriages 1563, June 24, Thomas Till and Joan Peaycocke ; 
1563, Nov. 6, Edward Rand and Margerie Peaycocke. Burials 
1562, June 14, Grace Paycocke, 1580; December 28, "Thorn. 
Peaycocke, who gave ijc li. (^200) to buy lands for the use of the 
poore of Cogshall for ever;" 1584, Sept. 7, Margaret, wife of John 
Peaycocke; 1584, Feb. 14, "John Peaycocke, the last of his 
name in Coggeshall;" 1590, Nov. 30, Joan Peaycocke, wid. 



THIS family was very numerous here in the i6th and i7th 
centuries, as appears from the Parish Registers. Some of 
them attained great wealth, notably Thomas Guyon, the rich 
clothier, who, it is said, amassed no less a sum than ^100,000. 
He was probably the same person as Thomas, son of Thomas 
Gyon, who was baptised here on 24th, Dec. 1592 ; as it will be 
seen from the memorial inscription on his tomb, that he was 72 
years of age at the time of his death in 1664, and his mother was 
doubtless a daughter or the widow of one Gray, as the marriage 
register has "1591, January 23, Thorn Gyon and Margerie 
Graie." His wife's name was Annis, by whom he had several 
children ; among them George, baptised, 3rd. Aug., 1628 ; Rich- 
ard, baptised i4th Nov. 1630; Mathew, baptised, loth March, 
1632, and Mark, baptised i5th Nov. 1635. 

The Guyons were possessed of considerable estates at Cogges- 
hall and elsewhere in Essex. In 1667, Sir Mark Guyon bought 
Dynes Hall, Maplestead, and made it his residence. Morant says 
he took down a great part of the old house and rebuilt it in a 
very substantial manner, but did not live to see it finished. 

With this family the families of the Bullocks, the Abdys and 

p 



210 Notable Families and Men. 

the Skingleys are connected. The first two are mentioned by 
Bufton in the following notes relating to Sir Mark Guyon : 

" 1678, July Sir Mark Guyon was made Justice of the Peace. 

"1679, June 19 The Lady Abdy, of Kelvedon, died. June 
24 The Lady Guyon, Sir Mark's second wife, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Abdy, died, and was buried on 26th late in the evening, 
by torches without a sermon. 

" 1682, Dec. 14 Sir Mark Guyon was married to Mrs. Augurs, 
his waiting maid, and kinswoman of Mrs. Andrews, of Peering. 

" 1690 Squire Bullock married Sir Mark's eldest daughter. 
1691 Mr. Thomas Guyon married Sir Mark's second daughter. 
1693 >Mr. T. Guyon was brought down from London and buried 
here. Mr. John Bullock married to Mr. T. Guyon's widow." 

The Skingleys became allied to this wealthy family by the 
marriage, on the 25th May, 1765, of Henry Skingley, Esq. (great- 
great-grandfather of Henry Percy Chevallier Skingley) with Mary 
Guyon, daughter of John and Ann Guyon, born 5th March, 1739. 

The extracts from the Parish Register, Court Rolls and. other 
documents which the writer has made from time to time would, 
with a little patient research of the old wills at Somerset House 
and at the Ipswich and Bury Registries, enable anyone interested 
to construct an elaborate pedigree of the Guyon family. 



Fabians were a family of some note in this county and 
. in the city of London in the i5th and i6th centuries. 
Stephen Fabian held under lease from Robert Sewalle, of Cogges- 
hall, a water mill in Stisted, as early as 1404. In 1426, he 
purchased from Sewalle the manor of Jenkins, in Stisted. Morant 
says this Stephen Fabian was a cordwainer at Coggeshall, but 
undoubtedly a man of substance ; his posterity became consider- 
able and flourished in Stisted parish in plentiful circumstances. 
Stephen had a son, John, who was succeeded by his son bearing 
the same name. The last-mentioned John had a son, Edward 
Fabian, Esq., who died on 4th February, 1561, possessed of the 
Manor of Jenkins, and other lands in Stisted, Pattiswick and 
Coggeshall. He was succeeded by his son William. In 1462, 
Robert and John Fabian were living at Coggeshall. This family 
gave name to a farm lying north of the church (see Ordnance Sur- 
vey). There are but few entries relating to them in the Registers ; 



The Fabians and Ayletts. 211 

among the marriages these occur: 1569, May i4th John Fabian 
and Elizabeth Ambrose ; 1570, Nov. 5th John Fabian and Joan 
Daniel; 1591, May i6th John Sweeting and Joan Fabian; no 
baptisms, but these burials : 1565, Feb. lyth Agn Fabian ; 1570, 
June loth Elizabeth, wife of Jo. Fabian; 1590, Feb. 6th John 
Fabian. 



IN the latter half of the i6th century, and in the beginning of 
the 1 7th, some members of this family were resident here; 
the earliest record relating to them is the registration of the birth 
of William, son of Robert Aylett, on 7th February, 1584. As the 
baptismal register commences in this year it is not possible to say 
definitely whether or not was born here Robert Aylett, LL.D., the 
English poet, who is supposed to have been born about the year 
1583. This Robert Aylett was educated at Cambridge where he 
took his degree ; he was afterwards appointed to a Mastership in 
the High Court of Chancery. In the year 1654 he published 
" Divine and Moral Speculations in Metrical Numbers upon 
various subjects." He is said to have been buried at Great 
Braxted. 

Boydin Aylett is the earliest ancestor of the family who can 
be traced in this county. He had lands at Bradwell, near Cog- 
geshall, in the reign of Henry II. Richard Eylotte, who was 
returned among the chief gentlemen of Essex in 1433, was of 
this family. Some of the descendants of Boydin Aylett settled 
at Rivenhall, then at Hovells, in Coggeshall, and from them 
sprung the Ayletts of Braintree, Stisted and Braxted. 

The Coggeshall Registers record the marriage, on 2nd Sept., 
1595, of Dorothy Aylet with Robert Riddlesdale. She was pro- 
bably the daughter of Robert Aylett, who married Miss Thorow- 
good and who died in 1603 ; her grandfather appears to have 
been William Aylett, Gent., of Stisted, who died in 1583, leaving 
as his eldest son and heir, Richard, then aged 40. She had a 
brother, Thomas, who resided at Hovells. Thomas had issue, 
who were baptised at Coggeshall on the following dates : Anne, 
31 August, 1600; Dorothy, 24 May, 1604; John, 8 September, 
1607; Elizabeth, 25 May, 1613; Nicholas, 16 March, 1614; 
James, 10 June, 1617; Alice, 10 June, 1619; and Jeremy, 
6 August, 1621; the last entry has the mother's name Anne 

P 9 



212 Notable Families and Men. 

A Robert Aylett had three children baptised here between 
1584-9; there are also records of the burials of some of the 
family at Coggeshall. 

One of the possessions of this family, as we have seen, was 
Hovels, an estate which has several synonyms such as Holvill, 
Holfield, and Holvil. It was, according to Morant, the Manor 
House of Great Coggeshall. This seems very probable, for the 
name appears to imply that it is the site of the old-ville or the 
old-field, an allusion to which has already been made (p. 10). The 
estate belonged to the Abbey prior to its suppression, since which 
time the seignorial rights, which are incident to the freehold and 
copyhold lands of the manor have been severed from the demesne 
lands. 

Thomas Aylett, of Great Coggeshall, gentleman, purchased 
the demesne lands of the manor from King Charles I. and re 
mained in possession of them until his death on the igth October, 
1650, at which time he was 80 years of age. He lies buried in 
Coggeshall Church, and on his gravestone, not now extant, he 
was described as Lord of the Manor of Coggeshall. 

The family did not long possess Hovells, for one of them 
shortly after the death of Thomas, in 1650, sold the estate to 
Thomas Lovett, Esq. ; who sold it to Thomas Guyon, the wealthy 
cloth manufacturer, who gave it to his grandson, George Guyon, 
captain of a company of the Trained Bands, who died at Hovells, 
in October, 1676 ; on whose death it passed to Anne, the wife of 
Thomas Forster, Esq., ancestor, it is believed, of the late noted 
politician, William Edward Forster, Esq. ; and from the Morden 
College Rentals it is found that the estate belonged to John 
Forster, in 1740; Susan Forster, in 1749; Elizabeth Forster, and 
the widow Lamplow, in 1750-3 ; Catherine Forster and the widow 
Lamplow's son, John Foster Lamplow, in 1766-8 ; Elizabeth Bur- 
der and J. F. Lamplow, in 1772 ; Elizabeth Burder and Osgood 
Hanbury in 1776-9. From 1782 to 1889 it was possessed by 
successive Osgood Hanburys. The connection between the Han- 
bury and Forster families has already been noticed (p. 146). 



THOMAS HAWKES, gentleman, was one of the retainers 
of John, Earl of Oxford, at Earls Colne Priory. It is 
probable that he resided on part of the property called 'Con- 



Coggeshall Martyrs. 



213 



stantines,' abutting upon the Market Hill. He was first brought 
into trouble by his refusal to have his child baptised in accordance 
with the ceremonies of the Roman Catholic religion. The 
dialogues which ensued upon this and other questions, between 
Bonner, Bishop of London, and Hawkes, are fully set forth 
in Foxe. Hawkes, notwithstanding the Bishop's persuasions 




BURNING OF THOMAS HAWKES. 



remainded firm, and replying to the exhortation to return again 
to the bosom of the mother church, said " No my lord, that I 
will not, for if I had a hundred bodies I would suffer them all to 
be torn in pieces rather than I will abjure and recant." Hereon 
followed the sentence of death and though condemned on the 
9th February, 1555, he was not committed to the flames till loth 
June following, on which day having been consigned to the 
charge of Lord Rich, he was brought with six other fellow prison- 
ers down to Essex to suffer martyrdom. Of these Hawkes only 
was burned at Coggeshall, tradition says in the Vicarage field, 
in West Street, and it is related, that " when he was led to the 
place appointed for the slaughter, he there mildly and patiently 



Notable Families and Men. 



prepared himself for the fire, having a strait chain cast about his 
middle, with a multitude of people on every side unto whom he 
spake many things. At length after his fervent prayers first 
made and poured out unto GOD, the fire was set unto him ; in 
the which when he had continued long and when his speech was 
taken away by the violence of the flame, his skin was drawn 
together and his fingers consumed, so that now all men thought 
that he had expired, when suddenly this blessed servant of GOD 
(being mindful of a promise secretly made to his friends) reached 
up his hands, burning on a light fire over his head, to the living 
GOD and with great rejoicing as it seemed struck or clapped them 
three times together, and so the blessed martyr of CHRIST 
straightway sinking down into the fire gave up his spirit, June 
loth, 1555." 



BESIDES Hawkes there were others of this town who were 
sufferers during the Marian persecutions. Three of them, 
Thomas Osmond, a fuller, William Bamford alias Butler, a 
weaver, and Nicholas Chamberlain, also a weaver, were sent 
down from London to Essex to be burned; Osmond, at Man- 
ningtree, Bamford, at Harwich, and Chamberlain, at Colchester. 
It is said that they were not executed at the place where they 
lived for fear of an insurrection among the people. Chamber- 
lain perished on the i4th June, 1555, and Osmond and Bamford 
on the following day. 

Cicely Warren and Christianna Pepper, of this town, were 
sent with about twenty-two others from Colchester, and it is said 
that they also would have been burnt had it not been for the 
clemency of Cardinal Pole. 

William Flower, of Snow Hill, in Cambridgeshire, who for 
some time was a schoolmaster in this town, was burnt at West- 
minster, on 24th April, 1555. 

Thomas Brodehill, a weaver, Richard Web, a weaver, and 
another Thomas Osborne, a fuller, residents here, recanted and 
did penance. 



Bishop Jegon. 215 

of 

T OHN JEGON was born at Coggeshall on the loth December, 
1550, probably in a house now demolished on the east side 
of Wayne Lane and in the rear of the Cloth Factory, for 
' Dr. John Giggings ' was the occupier of this house in the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth. He was the son of Robert Jegon by Joane 
his wife, daughter of White, whose family had flourished in 
this county since the reign of Edward III. John Jegon received 
his early education in this town, and was afterwards sent to Cam- 
bridge, where he was chosen fellow of Queen's College, and so 
continued twenty-five years. On roth August, 1590, he was 
elected Master of Corpus Christi College, an office which he 
held twelve years. He was four times Vice-Chancellor of his 
University, Chaplain in Ordinary to Queen Elizabeth ; Installed 
Dean of Norwich 22nd June, 1601, and subsequently elected 
Bishop of that See (June 18), and was consecrated at Lambeth 
2oth February, 1602, was Bishop fifteen years, died March i3th, 
1617, and was buried in the chancel of Aylesham church, 
Norfolk. His widow, Lilia by name, married Sir Charles 
Cornwallis. 

Dr. Jegon is said to have been a most serious man and grave 
governor, yet withall of a most facetious disposition, that it is 
hard to say whether his counsel was most grateful for the sound- 
ness or his company for the pleasantness thereof, take one 
eminent instance of his ingenuity : Whilst Master of Bennet 
or Corpus Christi College he chanced to punish all the under- 
graduates therein for some general offence, and the penalty was 
put on their heads in the buttery, and because he disdained to 
put the money to any private use it was expended in the new 
whiting the walls of the college, whereon a schollar hung up these 
words on a screen : 

" Dr. Jegon, Bennet Colledge Master, 
Brake the schollars heads and gave the wall a plaister." 

But the Doctor had not the readiness of his parts any whit 
impaired by age, for perusing the paper he extemporarily sub- 
scribed : 

"Knew I but the wag that writ these verses in a bravery, 
I would commend him for his wit, but whip him for his knavery." 

He had a brother named Thomas ; born at Coggeshall ; 



2l6 



Notable Families and Men. 



Master of Corpus Christi, Camb. ; Rector of Sible Hedingham ; 
Archdeacon of Norwich ; Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge Univer- 
sity ; buried in the chancel of Sible Hedingham church, in 
1617. 

There are several entries under this name in the early Cogges- 
hall registers of baptisms, marriages and burials. 

Of this family was probably Robert Giggins, who Bufton says, 
distinguished himself by coming from Colchester in the road 
backwards on zist October, 1679. 




Right Reverend Richard Mant, Bishop of Killaloe and 
JL Kilfenora, and afterwards Bishop of Down and Connor, 
has been noticed under the head of the Clergy, as he was vicar 
here in the early years of the present century. His portrait, 
from which the above reproduction is taken, was not received in 
time for its insertion in the short biographical notice of the 
bishop, on page 65. 



Godard, Rogers and Carter. 217 



JOHN GODARD, "wherever born, had his best being at 
Coggeshall, where he became a Cistercian monk. Great 
was his skill in arithmetic and mathematics, a science which 
had long lain asleep in the world and now first began to open its 
eyes again. He wrote many treatises thereof and dedicated 
them unto Ralph, Abbot of Coggeshall. He flourished Anno 
Dom. 1250" (Fuller's Worthies, p. JJj). One of his works 
was entitled, ' Concerning the threefold method of calculating? 



(Koget*. 



* I ''HE Rev. Nathaniel Rogers was the son of the Rev. John 
JL Rogers, a man, says Col. J. L. Chester \Essex Archaeo- 
logical Journal, Vol. IV., p. -/"<?<?.] "of extraordinary oratorical 
powers, and familiarly known two centuries and a-half ago as the 
famous preacher of Dedham, and his bust in his peculiar pulpit 
attitude still adorns the chancel of that church. The son, 
Nathaniel, emigrated in 1636 with his wife Margaret, who was 
the daughter of Robert Crane, of Coggeshall. The descendants 
of this one pair are supposed to be more numerous in America 
at the present day than those of any other early emigrant family, 
and I am happy to say they have generally done honor to their 
origin. The eldest son John was born at Coggeshall; became 
5th President of Harvard College, the University of America par 
excellence ; and to pass to the other extreme end of their line, 
one of their descendents (Col. Chester) has at this moment the 
honor to address you. Cotton Mather, in his famous ^MagnaliaJ 
counts this Nathaniel Rogers among the fathers of the New 
World." From the registers we learn that Nathaniel Rogers and 
Margaret his wife had three children baptised here, John, on zyth 
June, 1627 (buried 2ist June, 1627); Mary, on 8th February, 
1628 ; and John, on 23rd January, 1630. 



JOHN CARTER, the son of a labourer, was born on the 
3ist July, 1815, in this town. He was educated at the 
Hitcham School, but instead of devoting his attention to 
the subjects set by his instructor, he was frequently to be found 



2l8 



Notable Families and Men. 



depicting on his desk or in his copy book the figure of a man, a 
horse or other animal. His natural talent might never have 
developed had it not been for the accident which befel him in his 
early years. On Saturday night, as the Rev. W. J. Dampier 
relates, in the month of May, 1836, John Carter, with some of 
his companions, was attracted to the rookery at Holfield Grange. 
Ascending one of the tall trees in search of birds he reached a 
height of about 40 feet, the limb of another tree, to which he is 
said to have been crossing, yielded more than was calculated upon 
or deceived him by its distance, he missed his hold and fell 
to the earth upon his back. He was taken up senseless and from 
that time never moved hand or foot. He was conveyed home to 
his wife on Sunday morning upon a hurdle by his affrighted 
companions, but a serious injury to the spine had deprived him 
of all power of voluntary motion below the neck ; the mischief, 
which was at the fifth, sixth, and seventh vertibrae, paralysed the 
whole body downwards. The muscular power of the neck was 
retained, no permanent mischief was sustained by the organs of 
the head, and the faculties were unimpaired. 




JOHN CARTER (FROM A DRAWING BY THE REV. W. J. DAMPIER). 

Having read of one, Elizabeth Kinning, an inmate of an 
asylum in Liverpool, who, having lost the use of her hands, had 
learnt to draw with her mouth, it occurred to him that he might 



Buf ton's Diary. 219 



do the same, and he set to work accordingly. The posture in 
which he drew was lying on his side with the head a little raised 
by pillows. A small, light desk of deal, made under his own 
directions, was adjusted for him ; on this desk his drawing paper 
was fastened with brass headed pins, the drawing to be copied 
being placed in a convenient position, he first sketched in his 
subject with a lead pencil which he held between his teeth ; a 
saucer of Indian ink was prepared and the brush was moistened 
by his attendant and placed in his mouth and secured firmly by 
his jaw teeth ; by the motion of his head he produced the most 
marvellous results, his strokes being most accurate and delicate. 
He was accustomed to work with very fine hair pencils (some 
almost as fine as needle points) about 6 inches long. His death 
was occasioned by the overturning of his invalid carriage. He 
expired on the 2nd June, 1850. A catalogue of his works with 
copies of many of his illustrations, is contained in the beautiful 
' Memoir of John Carter] by the Rev. W. J. Dampier, from 
which the preceding account has been derived. 



JOSEPH BUFTON, the Coggeshall Diarist of the i;th 
century, was baptised at Coggeshall on the 3oth December, 
1650, and was the son of John and Elizabeth Bufton. He 
had a brother John, baptised on the i5th November, 1646, and 
three sisters who were baptised at Coggeshall, Mary, 8th May, 
1636; Elizabeth, on 6th June, 1644; and Rebecca, in 1649. 
His sister Elizabeth was buried on i6th April, 1666, and his 
mother on the 27th June, 1675. This is all the information 
which can be gathered from the registers concerning the family. 
Bufton appears to have been engaged in the staple trade of the 
town, and he tells us that when he lived with Mr. Hedgthorne, 
his master took in 23 weavers, and that when Mr. Hedgthorne 
died, he had 8 combers and 60 weavers. Bufton's father, also a 
woollen manufacturer (ante p. 188), was buried on 7th January, 
1694, having reached the ripe old age of 86. His funeral sermon 
was preached by Mr. Boys, the vicar, and we are told that i 
was paid for the sermon ; the gloves given away at the funeral 
cost i us. ; the burying suit, 125. ; but the most costly items 
of all were the liquors consumed, viz. : ^i 125. for 4 gallons 
of sack, and 175. for 27 gallons of beer. 



220 Notable Families and Men. 

The following extracts are from the original diaries and note 
books, which the author purchased from Mrs. Kirkham, widow of 
the late Mr. Richard Meredith Kirkham. The writing is most 
beautifully neat and the way in which the work is executed shows 
that the scribe was a man of considerable industry and possessed 
of more than ordinary ability, in fact the notes are marvellous 
specimens of penmanship considering the times in which they 
were written. The subjects which he transcribed and noted, 
show that he devoted a great part of his time to religious matters. 
The following extracts, however, tell us something of the princi- 
pal dwellers here toward the close of the iyth century. Other 
notes will be found interspersed throughout this work. 

DIARY. 

Notes entered in a Goldsmith Diary of 1672. " An account 

of the funeral sermons which Mr. Jessop preached at Coggeshall, 

which were in all thirty." 

"The first was at the buriall of John Sudbury, clothier, upon 
Wednesday, the first of April, Anno 1663. [Here, as after all 
the following, is appended the text of the sermon.] 

The second was at the buriall of Old Edmond Cox, clothier and 
farmer, at last, upon Saturday, January 23rd, Anno 1663-4. 

The third was at the buriall of the Widdow Hills, who lived at 
West Mill, upon Friday, July the eighth, Anno 1663-4. 

The fourth was at the buriall of Old Mr. Thomas Guyon, the 
great clothier, upon Satterday, in the evening by candlelight, 
November ye 26th, Anno 1664. 

The fifth was at the buriall of Mr. William Gardner, lawyer, 
who lived at Kelvedon, but dyed a batchelor at his mother's, 
Mrs. Merrills. This was upon Friday, February the 8th, 
Anno 1666-7. 

The sixth was at the buriall of Mr. Richard Shortland, clothier, 
upon Friday, December the 13, Anno 1667. This sermon 
was finished by candlelight. 

The seventh was at the buriall of Mrs. Brockwell, first wife to Mr. 
John Brockwell, physitian, and daughter to old William Glad- 
win, upon Tuesday, May the igth, Anno 1668. 

The eighth was at the buriall of Elizabeth Guyon, maid, daughter 
of William Guyon, clothier, she died at Michaell Richolds, 
about 20 years of age. This was on Thursday, June the 25, 
Anno 1668. 






Buf ton's Diary. 221 



The ninth was at the buriall of Robert Todd, of Little Coggeshall, 
who there held a great brewing office. This was on Wed- 
nesday night by candlelight, September the 3oth, Anno 1668. 

The tenth was at the buriall of Robert Sack, ffarmer, upon Thurs- 
day, Aprill the ffirst, Anno 1669. 

The eleventh was at the buriall of Michaell Richolds, clothier, upon 
Munday, March the i4th, Anno 1669-70. 

The twelfth was at the buriall of Mr. Robert Merrills, of Little 
Coggeshall, upon Wednesday, February the 7th, Anno 167!. 

The thirteenth was at the buriall of Mary Phillebroivne, maid, 
daughter of Thomas Phillebrowne, ffarmer, upon Friday, 
June 2ist, Anno 1672. 

The fourteenth was at the buriall of John Wilbore, a young lad, 
sonne of John Wilbore, carpenter, upon Thursday, October 
the 1 5th, Anno 1674. 

The fifteenth was at the buriall of Charles Binion, brother of Mr. 
Henry Binion, he dyed at Mr. Thomas Staffords, of Inworth, 
but was buried at Coggeshall, upon Friday, December the 
nth, Anno 1674. The sermon was preached by candle- 
light. 

The sixteenth was at the buriall of Simon Richold's ffirst wife, who 
was daughter of Mr. Robert Merrills, of Little Coggeshall. 
This was upon Tuesday, January the 26, Anno 1674-5. 

The seventeenth, was at the buriall of My Deare Mother, upon 
Sunday, June ye 27th day, Anno 1675. 

The eighteenth was at the buriall of Ambros Armond, inn-holder, 
who lived at the White Hart, upon Munday, November the 
8th, Anno 1675. 

The nineteenth was at the buriall of young John Brockwell, who 
dyed a batchelor, and lived but a little while after his father. 
This was upon Tuesday, December the 7th, Anno 1675. 

The twentyeth was at the buriall of old Mrs. Raven, widdow, she 
was about 92 yeares old, and grandmother to Mr. Mattfiew 
Guyoris Wife. This was upon Munday, January 31, Anno 
1675-6. 

The one-and-twentieth was at the buriall of Ambros Button's First 
Wife, she was a Surry woman. Upon Satterday, the third of 
June, 1676. 

The two-and-twentieth was at the buriall of Mr. George Guyon's 
Wife, who lived at Hovills, she was Mr. Plumb's daughter, 



222 Notable Families and Men. 

of Yeldham, her name was Rachel, upon Tuesday, June the 

i3th, Anno 1676. 
The three-and-twentieth was at the buriall of Richard Shortland's 

first Wife, she was daughter of John Grimes, who was 

called Major Grimes, upon Tuesday, October the 3rd, Anno 

1676. 
The four-and-twentieth was at the buriall of Mr. George Guyon, 

of Hovills, who was Captain of a Company of ye Trained 

Bands, upon Friday, October the 6th, Anno 1676. 
The five-and-twentieth was at ye buriall of Old Mr. William 

Glad-win, clothier, he was almost 93 yeares old, upon 

Munday, January the i5th, Anno 1676-7. 
The six-and-twentieth was at the buriall of Mr. John Cox, 

clothier, who lived at the Mount, but dyed at another house 

neare by, upon Ffriday, June the 29, Anno 1677. 
The seven-and-twentieth was at the buriall of John Joyce, comber, 

but lat-ward sold cheese, butter, bacon, &c., upon Tuesday, 

September the 4th, Anno 1677. 
The eight-artd-twentieth was at the buriall of ffrands Lay's Old 

Wife, who lived at the Swan, who before he married her was 

the widdow Moore, upon Munday, March the i8th, Anno 

1677-8. 
The nine-and-twentieth was at the buriall of Francis Lay, who 

lived and dyed at the Swan, upon Munday, November the 

nth, Anno 1678. 
The thirtieth was at the buriall of Mr. Matthew Guyon, clothier, 

a rich man, who left 4 sons and 2 daughters, upon Friday, 

March the 7th, Anno 1678-9." 

" Here followes also an account of the Funeral! Sermons 
which were preached at Coggeshall by Mr. Boys : 
" The first was at the funerall of Goodman Wilshier, ffarmer, of 

Little Coggeshall, upon Satterday, July the 24th, Anno 1680. 
The second was at the ffunerall of Mris. Guyon, Mr. Matthew 

Guy on' s Widdow, upon Tuesday, August the 3ist, Anno 

1680. 
The third was at the ffunerall of Mr. Richard Rayment, who had 

been exciseman, but of late a maultster, he lived in ye Ham- 
let, upon Munday, May the 3oth, Anno 1681. 
The fourth was at the ffunerall of Old Mistress Hills, old Robert 

Hill's Widdow, upon Friday, November the 4th Anno 1681 



Bu] -ton's Diary. 223 



The fifth was at the ffuneral of young Edmund Atkinson, barber, 

called the young gold, because his father was called the gold, 

upon Friday, October the twentyeth, Anno, 1682. 
The sixth was at the ffunerall of old Mr. Ambros Sutton, clothier, 

he had no child, he was I think above 60 yeares of age, 

upon Friday, May the eighteenth, Anno 1683. 
The seventh was at the ffunerall of old Mrs. Merrills, old Mr. 

Robert Merrills' widdow, upon Friday, September the 28th, 

Anno 1683. 
The eighth was at the ffunerall of the Wife of Thomas Levitt, 

butcher, she was Thomas Tunbridge's widdow before he 

married her, upon Thursday, December the i3th, Anno 

1683. 
The ninth was at the funerall of Robert Groome, a young man 

that dyed at Mr. John Digby's, he was his nephew, on 

Friday, January the 4th, Anno 1683-4. 
The tenth was at the ffunerall of Old John Cooke, carpenter, he 

was near four score yeares of age, upon Wednesday, May 

the 1 4th, Anno 1684. 
The eleventh was at the ffuneral of ye first Wife of William Cox, 

son of Mr. Thomas Cox, minister, she was Dr. Harrison's 

daughter, she dyed in childbed of her first child and the 

child was buried with her, upon Munday, July the seventh, 

Anno 1684. 
The twelfth was at the funerall of Mr. Thomas Stafford, lawyer, 

sonne of old Thomas Stafford, glover, upon Friday, August 

the 1 5th, Anno 1684. 
The thirteenth was at the ffunerall of the wife of Mr. David 

Battey, at the White Hart, she was 3rd sister of Mr. Jeremy 

Ayletts wife, upon Monday, September the i5th, Anno 1684. 
The fourteenth was at the ffunerall of the wife of Mr. John Wood, 

tanner, she was the daughter of Mr. Glasscock, schoolmaster, 

of Felsted, upon Satterday, October the fourth, Anno 1684. 
The fifteenth was at the funerall of the wife of Mr. John White, 

apothecary. She was one of Mr. Harrison's daughters. She 

kept her chamber about half-a-yeare before she dyed, upon 

Monday, Aprill the i3th Anno, 1685. 
The sixteenth was at the ffunerall of old Mrs. Mount, widow. She 

kept schollars, her husband lived at Tollsbury, upon Sunday, 

June the twentieth, Anno 1686. 



224 Notable Families and Men. 

The seventeenth was at the ffuncrall of old Mr. John Digby, a lame 
man, who had formerly been a shopkeeper, upon Fryday, 
January the i4th, Anno 1686-7. 

The eighteenth was for young Mr. Andrews, a kinsman of Mr. 
Andrews's, of Peering, who dyed and was buried at Peering, 
about July 2, 1687, but this ffunerall sermon was preached at 
Coxall, upon Wednesday, July 13, Anno, 1687. 

The nineteenth was at the ffunerall of Mrs. Judith Shortland, an 
ancient maid, daughter of Mr. Richard Shortland, upon 
Thursday, November the 24, Anno 1687. 

The twentieth was at the ffunerall of the Wife of old Thomas 
Strafford, glover, she was a very ancient woman, it is said 
had lived 60 yeares with her husband, upon Wednesday, 
May the second, Anno 1688. 

The twenty-ffirst was at the ffuneral of old Mrs. Shortland, 
widdow of old Mr. Richard Shortland, she was a very 
ancient woman, upon Fryday, June the ffirst, Anno 1688. 

The twenty-second was at the funerall of the second Wife of Mr. 
John Wood, tanner, upon Wednesday, September ye i8th, 
Anno 1689. 

The twenty-third was at the ffunerall of Mr. Robert Merrils, 
singleman, who lived in the Hamlet, upon Tuesday, Febru- 
ary the nth, Anno 1689-90. 

The twenty-fourth was at the ffunerall of Michael Miles, butcher, 
singleman, eldest son of John Miles, upon Wednesday, 
February the i7th, Anno 1691-2. 

The twenty-fifth was at the ffunerall of the second Wife of John 
Cox, esquire, she was Major Haine's daughter, she dyed in 
childbed, upon Wednesday, September the 28th, Anno 
1692. 

The twenty-sixth was at ye ffunerall of my dear father, John 
Bufton, who dyed in the 86th yeare of his age, upon Mun- 
day, January the 7th, Anno 1694-5. 

The twenty-seventh was at the ffuneral of William Stokes, a 
carpenter, who wrought with John Cook, he was a batchelor, 
upon Sunday, March the i7th, Anno 1694-5. 

The twenty-eighth was for Henry Ireland, comber, who dyed 
suddenly July the 8th, and was buried July the gth, but this 
sermon was preached upon ye Sunday after, July the i4th, 
Anno 1695. 



Buf ton^s Diary. 225 



The twenty-ninth was at the ffuneral of an ancient widdow, who 
was the mother of young Isaac Potter's Wife, upon Tuesday, 
April ye i4th, Anno 1696. 

The thirtieth was at the ffunerall of old John Willbore, carpenter, 
he was very ancient, upon Munday, June the 29th, Anno 
1696. 

The thirty-first was at the funerall of Mr. William Cox, who 
lived in ye Back Lane, but was lately removed, and dyed at 
his daughter Mulling's, upon Fryday, July the 3ist, Anno 
1696. 

The thirty-second was at the funerall of Goldin Mullings, butcher, 
a young man, upon Satterday, September the i2th, by 
candlelight, Anno 1696. 

The thirty-third was at the funerall of Mr. Matthew Guyon, a 
singleman, who was the son of Mr. Matthew Guyon, he died 
at Pattiswick, at his brother's, Mr. Charles Guyon, upon 
Thursday, May the 2oth, Anno 1697. 

The thirty-fourth was at the ffunerall of Edward Miles, carpenter, 
son of John Miles, upon Thursday, June the loth, Anno 1697. 

The thirty-fifth, was at the ffunerall of the first wife of Mr. 
William Armond, she was Councellor Coxe's sister, upon 
Satterday, September the nth, Anno 1697. 

The thirty -sixth was at the ffunerall of old Mrs. Cox, the widow 
of Mr. John Cox, she was an ancient woman, upon Fryday, 
August the 1 9th, Anno 1698. 

The thirty-seventh was at the ffunerall of the first wife of Edmund 
Tanner, who was Mr. Gale's daughter, she had a cancer in 
her breast, upon Tuesday, November the 22nd, by candle- 
light, Anno 1698. 

The thirty-eighth was at the funerall of old Mrs. Peirson, a very 
ancient gentlewoman, she was Mrs. Livermore's mother, it 
was preached at Markshall church, upon Wednesday, Febru- 
ary the ist, Anno 1698-9. 

The thirty-ninth was at the ffunerall of Robert Cornill, a ffarmer, 
who lived at Grigg's, and had lain lame and sick about four 
or five yeares, upon Fryday, March the 3rd, by candlelight, 
Anno 1698-9. 

The fourtieth was at the ffuneral of Anthony Blackbourne, farmer, 
a singleman, who lived in ye Hamlet, it was preached at 
Bradwell church, upon Friday, April the 2ist, Anno 1699." 

Q 



22 6 Notable Families and Men. 

"I left Coxall, January ist, 1699, and so kept no further 

account of funerall sermons." 

After giving " an account of what books which came to my 

hand I wrot things out of into more books than one :" he 

proceeds 

"Aug. 8, 1766. I reckon I have here 22 almanacks, 13 Riders 
and Gellen, pretty broad, 6 Goldsmith narrow ones, i Par- 
tridge, very large one, i Raven's, of a particular sort, i 
Tanner is a stitched one. Of the 13 of Riders, &c. 5 filled 
up chiefly with things taken out of other books, 2 old 
accounts, one for Lon., i for Cole, i filled chiefly with buriall 
and marriage, i with the monthly account I kept, i field up 
with notes of sermons, i has account of household stuff, &c., 
i I kept some accounts in, i I keep on my board and write 
in dayly. Of ye 6 of Goldsmith's 2 fill'd up chiefly out of 
other books, i fill'd great part with Bellman's verses, i great- 
est part with Irish letters, i has an account of funerall 
sermons,* i has the orders in Comber's book, &c. Partridge's 
writ most out of other books and Irish letters. Raven's 
out of Irish letters, &c. Tanner's out of a dictionary." 

Extracts from one of Bufton's Note Books, marked on cover 
4 VI.' and commencing " These are the notes of 39 funerall ser- 
mons in this book." Then follows the order of the sermons, the 
name of the preacher, and the text. 

" The heads or notes of ye sermon preached at the ffunerall 
of old Mr. Thomas Guyon, November the 26, 1664, by Mr. 
Jessop : 

" I now come to ye occasion. My worthy friend as when he 
was alive he was above your censures, so now he is deceased he is 
not concerned in your commendations. He was a person of 
great wisdom and judgment ; he was a person of sober conversa- 
tion ; he was diligent in his employment ; he was surpassingly 
compassionate to ye poore. I fear, now this great man is fallen 
among you, many mourners among the poore will go about the 
streets. He was of a peaceable disposition to the neighbourhood, 
and I persuade myself he was a religious attender on GOD in his 
ordinances and had a respect to ye ministry, which is a rare virtue 

* This is the book whence these and all the preceding extracts are taken. 
Goldsmith, 1672. 



Buf tori's Diary. 227 



in these days. So I take my farewell of my friend and neighbour 
in his bed of earth, in which I, myself, must shortly lie, and you 
that heare me must follow me ; wherefore let us pray to GOD and 
labor for faith and repentance and new obedience, and then, 
' Come Lord JESUS, come quickly." 

"The notes of ye sermon, preached at ye buriall of Mr. 
Richard Shortland, by Mr. Jessop, December the i3th, 1667 : 

" Now for the occasion. I was in a great dispute in my 
thoughts, whether to speak or to hold my peace, of this my 
worthy friend, considering the teachyness and cencoriousness of 
ye place we live in. I thought at first to omitit, but considering 
death hath placed my friend above your censures I shall offer 
somewhat to it. My worthy friend, his parentage you all know, 
his parents were persons of substance and repute among yee. 
His father intended him for learning and sent him to ye Univer- 
sity of Cambridge, where he was brought up at the feet of 
Gamaliell, and his tutor was Mr. Joseph Mede. But for want of 
health he was incapacitated for a further progress in study, where- 
fore he was sent for home to succeed his father in ye sometime 
beneficiall trade of clothing. This 5 year I have had ye happiness 
to be acquainted with him. He would often complain that his 
soul was hindered by ye clog of ye body. I am confident there 
be sundry here that can protest his abilities in ye publick busy- 
ness of ye towne ; he was courteous to his neighbours and to 
my knowledge he was a forgetter of injuries ; he was a loving 
husband, and as you know he was not negligent in ye bringing up 
of his children ; and he was firme for government both in church 
and state ; as for religion, to my knowledge he was well versed in 
Scripture, and what was ingraven on his memory was ingraven on 
his heart too ; he was orthodox in his opinions and he was a 
constant attender on GOD'S publick worship, which I know he 
did out of conscience. Many people enter into publick worship 
as ye high priest into ye Holy of Holies but once a year, if they 
do that. But (above all, to return to my worthy friend), this I 
looked upon as ye flower of all his vertues, that he had a great 
esteeme of our Lord and Master, JESUS CHRIST, he never spake 
of Him without great submission and affection and resignation 
of soul. The last words I heard him speak were ' Oh what are 
we ! we have nothing without JESUS CHRIST ;' I shall speak no 

Q 2 



228 Notable Families and Men. 

more of him but to you my loving neighbours. I would exhort 
you to step in and supply his place, that by your interposing he 
may be ye less missed. Some of you have abilities sufficient for 
publick busynesses. Let it not be said that GOD gave you not a 
heart to make use of them. My loving neighbours, if now that 
our serviceable member is 'cut off, if whatever was imitable in 
him may be redoubled in you that are alive, it will be a good 
thing." 

" Notes of ye sermon preached at ye buriall of young Mr. 
Thomas Guyon, at Coxall, by Mr. Brooks, of Yeldham, June 17, 
1673. : 

"Concerning ye person brought hither to be buried, he lived 
but a little time in all ; but yet something I shall say of him. 
He was a gentleman very likely to have been usefull in his place 
if GOD had continued him here ; he loved to be in imployment 
and followed it diligently which is very commendable, and though 
his calling carried him into places of great temptation, yet I never 
heard him charged with any miscarriages. He owed much to 
GOD for restraining grace, and as I hope for renewing grace. It 
pleased GOD to visit him with a lingering consumption ; and he 
often complained of ye vanity and folly and hardness of his heart, 
and that he had not made returns to GOD as he should have done 
for his many and signall deliverances ; and he has told me many 
times with tears in his eyes, that though he was kept from grosse 
sins yet he could never be sufficiently humbled for these and other 
sins. He was often in private devotion and fervent in it. He 
gave much good counsel to his surviving brothers and often 
begged of his sorrowfull mother that she would not be troubled 

for his death He lay a considerable time in a very 

submissive frame of sperit and willing to be at GOD'S disposing. 
Tis true, for a long time he desired life and hoped to recover, and 
used meanes and who can blame him for it. But when he saw 
meanes proved ineffectual he seemed to me not to be troubled, 
but rather rejoiced that the time of his dissolution was so neare. 
And though he had enough to defend ye world withall and many 
dear relations loth to part with him, yet he was not solicitous to 
live but willing to die. A little befor his death when he was told 
some parts of the body were cold, he seemed not troubled at all, 
but wished his body were all over so if GOD saw it good. The 
Lord grant that we may all be so instructed by his death, that we 



Bu/torfs Diary. 



may lay to heart and labor to prepare for our owne death, that so 
we may die ye death of ye righteous as I hope he did." 

" The notes of the sermon preached by Mr. Lithermore, at ye 
ffunerall of the old Lady Honey-wood,* at Marks Hall, October 26, 
1681 : 

" The occasion of this present assembly is plaine before you, 
being to performe the last piece of service that we can doe to ye 

body of ye pious and renouned Lady Honeywood 

I know, now, you expect I should say something of ye pious lady 
here deceased. Her light was too great to be put under a bushell. 
Her works were such as now praise her in ye gate. I shall say no 
more than what may be truly said and to which you will say 
amen. I shall begin with her birth and descent She came of 
pious and religious parents such as were tried and growne up 
under persecution. She was ye daughter and coheire of John 
Lamot, Esq., marchant, in London, whose parents came from 
Flanders, thence driven by persecution. She was piously educa- 
ted and so she continued all her dayes, making good that saying, 
' Traine up a child in ye way he should go and when he is old he 
will not depart from it.' She was twice married, her last husband 
was Sr. Thomas Honeywood by whom she had 7 children, of 
which but two survive her. She stood in severall relations. As 
a wife she was one of the best of wives, so kind and loving in all 
respects ; I have often heard her say, ' I love a Honeywood,' 
which she made good by making much of her husband's friends 
Take her as a mother and a grandmother, she was a loving, care 
full and indulgent one. As to her servants, she was one of ye 
best of ladyes, more like a mother than a mistress. She was a 
lady of admirable parts of quickness of understanding, &c. . . 
This noble and never to be forgotten lady is gone from us, never 
to come again. Let us live, so that we may meet her in heaven 
and live with her in everlasting happyness." 



* A history of the family of Honywood and of the parish of Marks Hall 
is obviously outside the province of this work. It would of itself fill a fair 
sized volume. 



ANCIENT HOUSES, FIELD NAMES, 
ROADS, BRIDGES, &c. 




[HE most interesting part of the town will be found 
centred round the Market Hill, and an endeavour 
will here be made to call attention to the principal 
buildings which still remain, as well as to record a few 
notes relating to those which have fallen into decay and are now 
no more. There are doubtless many choice little pieces of carved 
woodwork in the old houses here, which are now covered with 
plaister, but which will be brought to light in years to come. 
Other carved work of two to four centuries back may be seen 
in many of the existing houses, but eighteenth and nineteenth 
century vandalism' has removed much that should have been 
treasured with reverence. Fortunately the circulation of archaeo- 
logical literature among all classes of society is doing much to 
make people understand that the value of these relics of byegone 
days is utterly destroyed when the handiworks of their forefathers 
are removed from their original situations. 

In the centre of Market Hill, there formerly stood a little 
chapel which in later years, as has been shown on a previous page 
(ante p. 174,), was a CORN AND BUTTER MARKET; later still, we 
find the upper part converted into a WOOL HALL. Here, too, was 
the Turret with its Clock and Bell, for the better ordering of ap- 
prentices. This building, also known as the Market Cross, was 



Market End. 231 



doubtless of a similar character to many such buildings as are to 
be seen at the present day, the lower part being open and the 
upper part, consisting of a spacious apartment adapted for meet- 
ings. The Market Cross was pulled down in 1787. 

Close by on the west side was, and still is, the CHAPEL INN, a 
sign almost if not quite unique. It is also known as AYWORTH'S, 
or Edgeworth's and Seals or SEWELLS, and it is probable that here 
stood the house of John Sewell, who was Sheriff of Essex in the 
4th year of King Richard II. (A.D. 1381,) an allusion to whose 
residence is contained in the Assize Rolls of Divers Counties, 5th 
Rich. II., No. 7, in these words, " They all (i.e. the insurgents of 
the days of Wat Tyler) " rode about armed in a land of peace 
with the company aforesaid, who rose up against the King and 
his lieges to the Temple of the Prior of St. John of Jerusalem, to 
Cressyng, and to the house of John Sewall, of Coggeshall, and 
overthrew the houses and buildings of the same Prior and John, 
and feloniously took and carried away their goods and chattels 
there found." And elsewhere we read that the insurgents took 
away one thousand four hundred marks in money belonging to the 
same John Sewall (Essex Arch. Soc. Trans. N. S., Vol. I., p. 217). 

Below this house at the southern end of Stoneham Street, is 
the LION Inn. 

On the south side of the Market Houses is the large block of 
buildings known as CONSTANTINES, or LADY VENTRISS'S, compri- 
sing the shops occupied by Messrs. Lawrence, Barton, Frith and 
Goodchild, and a building used as a Temperance Hotel. The 
property takes its name from Richard Constantine, who was the 
owner of it in the reign of King James I., in which year he 
granted a lease of these houses to Robert Cooke for 5000 years. 

Passing to the south side of East Street, we find ourselves in 
Market End, and here in the days long passed away could have 
been seen an interesting display of trade signs, not all taverns or 
public houses as some might imagine but the pictorial sign boards 
of traders in all kinds of goods, wares and merchandise. Mr. 
Miller Christy points out, in his interesting work on the Trade 
Signs of Essex, that in the days when only an infinitessimally 
small proportion of the population could read it would have been 
absurd for a tradesman to have inscribed above his door his name 
and occupation, or the number of the house, as is now done, but 
if each dealer displayed conspicuously before his place of business 



232 Ancient Houses, &c. 

a painted representation of the wares he sold, the arms of the 
trade-guild to which he belonged, or those of his landlord or 
patron, or some other device by which his house might be known, 
there would be little probability of mistake. 

The principal of these houses appears to have been the 
CROWN, which was, as we have seen (p. 66), an ale-house. It is 
now the Post Office and the printing and publishing establishment 
of Mr. Edwin Potter. It is this house that Bufton was referring 
to when he recorded that, on February i5th, 1692, "There was a 
bonfire made at the Crown for joy that Squire Honeywood got 
the day of Sir Eliab Harvey and was not cast out of Parliament ; 
and when he came home from Chelmsford, the night after he was 
chosen, abundance of candles were lighted up for joy." But the 
sign of the Crown in this town dates back to a much earlier 
period, as will be seen from the extracts from the Court Rolls of 
Great Coggeshall Manor (ante, p. 112) ; from this document it 
appears that in the days of Queen Elizabeth (in the year 1567) 
the owners of the Crown were required to take up the gate in the 
water lane, and to widen the lane. Where the particular lane was 
is not now apparent, but as it is known that formerly the water 
from St. Peter's well used to flow in an open channel down Church 
Street, it is probable that the Crown, of Queen Elizabeth's time, 
was on the same site as the present Post Office, if so the water 
lane referred to was on or near this property. In connection with 
the open water-course in Church Street, it may be mentioned that, 
in 1792, Mr. Fisher Unwin, brewer, laid down pipes under the 
highway from the well belonging to his malt house in Church 
Street, for the purpose of conveying water from that well to his 
brewhouse, called the cellar, at Market End, such pipes being laid 
with the consent of the Lord arid tenants of the Manor of Great 
Coggeshall and the inhabitants of the town. This well adjoins 
the public well, known as St. Peter's Well, in Wain Lane. The 
sign of the Crown is one of the oldest of English trade signs, and 
if time had not altered the manners and customs of the people 
the title page of this book would have announced that it was 
" Printed and sold by Edwin Potter, at ye sign of ye Crowne, at 
ye Market End, Coggeshall." 

Next to the Crown, proceeding westward, was a house, called 
MAVESONS or MABSONS, a name probably derived from the person 
who possessed it upwards of 300 years ago (p. 129); the east 



Gravel End. 233 



part now belongs to Mr. William Mount, but the western part 
is the more ancient and is of interest, the construction of the 
uppermost chamber in the roof being somewhat singular. 

Proceeding further in the same direction, the adjoining house 
is the WHITE HART HOTEL. It appears to have been called 
MAYKYNES in the reign of King Henry VIII. , and then belonged 
to the Paycocke family (ante p. I2y\ being held of the manor of 
Coggeshall Hall, but the sign post belonging to it was built on the 
waste of the Manor of Great Coggeshall. Bufton records the 
death, in 1675, of Ambrose Armond, of the White Hart. The 
sign is generally considered to have had an heraldic origin. 

Opposite the White Hart was the BLUE BOAR. Adjoining the 
White Hart on the west is a house which was called the TRUE- 
BLUE (ante, p. 131,), a sign which does not appear to exist else- 
where in Essex, at any rate it has not come under the notice of 
the author of The Trade Signs in Essex. The property possessed 
this name in 1758, when the Coggeshall Hall Manor Map was 
prepared. 

The block of property between the White Hart and Bridge 
Street, or Cellar Lane, was, in 1758 and 1789, known as the 
GREEN DRAGON, a sign, it may be imagined, which did not har- 
monise very well with its neighbour, the True-Blue. The True- 
Blue and the Green Dragon may together represent the property 
which, in the i7th year of King Henry VIII. was an inn called 
the DRAGON. The Dragon is a very ancient trade sign in England, 
and would seem to have been taken from the flag of the cohorts 
of a Roman legion. As a national ensign this winged serpent 
was long continued in this land ; it was borne by Harold's stand- 
ard-bearer, and in later years was carried before the kings of 
England in their wars. 

There was a house in this locality known as the MAVICE. 

Passing Bridge Street, and proceeding towards the Gravel, we 
find from the Great Coggeshall Manorial Survey that the SHAMBLES, 
or the stalls where the butchers exposed their meat for sale, stood 
in the triangular piece of ground here. These business premises, 
called the OLD HALL, in 1775 (ante p. 120,), were on or near the 
site of the Cricketer's Inn, and belonged to the Manor of Great 
Coggeshall. The roof of the back part of the Shambles, Bufton 
tells us, fell in on the 25th February, 1686. Here also was pro- 
bably the CASTELL OF GYNES, which in the reign of Edward IV. 



234 Ancient Houses, &c. 

was nothing more than a cottage (ante, p. 122). Its name imports 
that in byegone days it was a residence of some note, but, unfor- 
tunately the only traces of its history lie in the mention of the 
property in the manorial records. 

The FISHMARKET (p. 119) was near the Shambles, and in this 
locality was a house called the BELLS AND BREWERS, abutting 
upon Hares Bridge towards the north. A house called the FOXES 
adjoined the last-mentioned property. 

Opposite the Castell of Gynes was the lord's tenement called 
the COCKE, now part of the brewery premises of Mr. John Kemp 
King, the field at the back being still known as Cock Orchard. 
The Cock is a good old English sign, and was in use in Coggeshall 
in the times of Edwd. IV. and James I. (pp. 86 and 123), and 
from the fact that this house was one of the monastic properties 
at the time of the dissolution of the Abbey, it would seem that 
the name may have been assigned to it by the monks whose seal, 
as has been noticed (p. 94), bore three cocks ; one is, however, 
more inclined to believe that the sign owes its origin to the days 
of cock-fighting a pastime which was indulged in generally on 
Sunday, in reference to which practice Stubbs, in his Anatomic 
of Abuses, written in 1585 (see Brand Pop. Antiq., Vol. II. p. 57), 
says, " They flock thicke and threefolde to the cock-fightes, where 
nothing is used but swearing, forswearing, deceipt, fraud, collusion, 
cosenage, skoldyng, railyng, convitious talkyng, fightyng, brawlyng, 
quarrellyng, drinkyng, and robbing one another of their goods, 
and that not by direct, but by indirect means and attempts. And 
yet to blaunch and set these mischiefs withall (as though they 
were virtues) they have their appointed days and set houses where 
these devilries must be exercised. They have houses erected to the 
purpose, flags and ensigns hanged out to give notice of it to others, 
and proclamation goes out to proclaim the same, to the end that 
many may come to the dedication of this solemn feast of mis- 
chiefe." To Bufton we are indebted for the record that on "29 
March, 1697, there were a great many fighting-cocks carried 
through Coxall on horseback in linen bags or clothes." 

The CORRECTION HOUSE was located between the Gravel and 
the stream running from Hares Bridge to Short Bridge, and in 
the 1 7th century belonged to Matthew Guyon. 

SHORT BRIDGE spans the ancient course of the River Black- 
water, and from the presentments in the Court Rolls of the Manor 



The Bridge. 



235 



of Little Coggeshall, it appears that it was maintained by the Sur- 
veyors of the Highway. 

The bridge over the artificial channel between the old river 
and Grange Hill is known as LONG BRIDGE, the HORSE RIVER 
BRIDGE and STEPHEN'S BRIDGE. It was doubtless originally built 
under the direction of the monks as lords of the manors and 
owners of the land in this locality, shortly after they settled here, 




STEPHEN'S BRIDGE. 

but it is improbable that any part of the original structure, except 
it be the foundations, is now extant, though it would seem that 
many of the bricks used in the first erection have been worked 
into the present bridge. Some years ago iron rails were substituted 
for the protecting wall of the bridge, and on this wall over the 
middle arch there was a stone with the arms or badge of King 
Stephen, a saggitarius, a creature half man and half horse, carved 
on it, and there was formerly also this inscription in free-stone 
inlaid in the upper part of the bridge " This bridge was repaired 
in the year 1705, at the cost and charge of Nehemiah Lyde, Esq., 
Lord of the Manors of Great and Little Coggeshall, and of the 
severall fee farmers and proprietors of the Lands and tenements 
late parcell of Coggeshall Abbey." 

Adjoining Long Bridge on the north east is a house called 
the ROOD HOUSE. Foxe tells us that in the year 1532, "The 
image of the crucifix was cast down and destroyed in the highway 
by Coxhall ;" but whether this crucifix stood here or not there is 
nothing to show. This property, as the writer has shown more 



Ancient Houses, &c. 



fully elsewhere (East Anglian Notes and Queries, N.S., Vol. II., 
p. 67), was on the ist May in the 3rd year of King James ist, 
conveyed by Cyprian Warner, Thomas Shortland, Thomas Aylet 
and Nicholas Richold to Michael Hills. In 1664 it is described 
as the Roode House, adjoining the north side of the Common 
River near the Great Bridge there. It is probably on the site of 
Roode's land (as to which see ante, p. 80), a surmise which is 
confirmed by the fact that Randolph Wolley, of London, merchant 
tailor and Thomas Dodd, citizen and grocer, of London, were 
the grantees from King James I. of, among other properties, one 
house upon the north side of Long Bridge, as fully as the same 
came or ought to have come to the hands of Kings Henry VIII. 
and Edward VI. or Queen Mary or Queen Elizabeth, by reason 
of the dissolution or surrender of the monastery, &c. The Rev. 
E. L. Cutts (Essex Arch. Soc. Trans.) gives a sketch of Long 
Bridge, and says this house very likely took its name from the 
erection in the small space before it of a Rood to mark the en- 
trance to the Abbey demesnes ; and in a note he calls attention to 
an illumination in the i4th century MS. in the British Museum, 
No. 10,293, fl- J 86, in which is a representation of a bridge with 
a tall cross beside it just as suggested above. 

GRANGE HILL derives its name from the Home Grange of the 
Abbey at the top of the hill, a grange being another name for a 
farm house or granary belonging to any of the monastic orders. 

In Church Street, commencing from the upper end, the first 
house of note is that known as the WOOLPACK, a most appro- 
priate name for a hostelry in a town whose growth was due in a 
considerable degree to the wool-merchants of the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. This house, which is situate on Church 
Green, has received some notice already (ante p. 140), having 
been the residence of the Rev. Thomas Lowrey, an ejected 
minister of the Church of England. It has a double-gabled 
front with projecting upper floors, and carved oak-work within 
and without. As early as 1 708, it is in the title deeds called the 
Woolpack, but in documents, dated 1769 and 1803, the Inn is 
called the WOOLPACK AND PUNCHBOWL. It was probably this 
house that Bufton was referring to, when he noted that on ist 
May, 1693, 'ye soldiers set up a maypole at ye Woolpacke door,' 
and here it was, too, that Abram Emming roasted a small bullock 
whole, on the i2th February, 1678, being Shrove-Tuesday, for 



Church Street. 237 



Bufton says, that this culinary achievement took place on Church 
Green. Another house, situated half-way between the Church 
and Market Hill, bore the name of the Woolpack, as appears 
from the Great Coggeshall Manorial Survey. 

On the south side of Church Street and now forming part of 
the CEDARS, formerly stood the GREEN DRAGON, a name which 
was attached to the property as early at least as 1693, as is 
evidenced by the Court Rolls of Great Coggeshall Manor. It 
was pulled down about 1809 and the site laid into the garden 
or yard of the Cedars, sometime the property of Thomas 
Andrews, a solicitor of this town, who died in 1826. 

Lower down the street, on the opposite side of the road and 
east of Wain Lane, is a treble-gabled fronted house with some 
carved woodwork. Over the doors are texts, e.g., ' Except the 
Lord build the house,' &c., and on the wall plate in Wain Lane, 
'Richard White, 1736,' is inscribed. It was at the back of this 
house, as has been shown (p. 215), Dr. Jegon, Bishop of Norwich, 
was probably born. 

WAIN or VAIN LANE is doubtless a survival of the Anglo- 
Saxon Wcegen, which means ways, perhaps because the lane 
connects Church Street with Church Lane. It will be seen from 
a presentment in 1720 (ante p. 119), that this place was then 
called the Wayne Yard of Mary Cox adjoining PETER'S Well, as 
to which see ante p. 15. 

HORN LANE, opposite Wain Lane, may have some connection 
with the May-day custom of blowing with and drinking out of 
horns, which prevailed till comparatively recent times. 

The BULL INN, on the north side of Church Street, was so 
called in 1731, previously to which time it was known as the 

COGKE-ATTE-HlLLES. 

Almost opposite this Inn, is a house (Ordnance Bench Mark, 
113.8) with an oak frieze carved in relief, bearing date 1565 and 
initials T.C. or T.G., probably the initials of a member of the 
Cox, Guyon, or Gray family. The upper floor projected until the 
wall of the ground floor was built up flush with the dormitories. 
This frieze is one of the relics of old Coggeshall which should be 
jealously preserved for all time. 

The THREE-STORIED HOUSE, belonging to Mr. John Beard, 
opposite the Baptist Chapel, attracts attention as one of interest. 
The first floor projects about a foot into the street, and the second 



238 Ancient Hoiises, &c. 

is built still farther outward. In 1689 the house belonged to 
William Armond and Elizabeth his wife, and was about that time 
occupied by John Buxton, a member of the wealthy family of 
that name, which for considerably more than three Centuries has 
been connected with this town. 

The cottages on the west are called SPOONERS, from the name 
of a former owner. Farther on is the GREYHOUND INN. 

On the west of Swan Yard is HERRINGS, so called as early as 
1394 (p. 121). It belongs to Mrs. Appleford and is occupied by 
Mr. David Mount. 

The house adjoining Herrings, towards the west, is known as 
PLUMMERS, and was so called in 1576 (p. 81). In 1740 it 
belonged to and was occupied by Mark Grime, doubtless of the 
same family as Colonel Grime, who, for his bravery in the wars in 
Flanders and the Spanish Netherlands, was awarded a pension by 
Wm. IV. (see Memorial Inscription, p. 45.) 

Opposite Plummers is the Parochial Reading Room, which, 
with the garden in front of the two red brick villas standing some 
way back from the street, was formerly called WYBORS, probably a 
corruption of the name of a family called Wilbore, which resided 
in this town. In 1789, the property was known as the GREEN 
MAN. William Mayhew, who was member for Colchester, resided 
here for some time ; his opponent, Spottiswood, was first returned 
to Parliament, but on petition was unseated, and it is related that 
Mayhew arrived at the House of Commons just in time to record 
his vote in favour of the Reform Bill, of 1832, which was carried 
by a majority of only one vote. 

On the same side of the road, but nearer the Market Hill, is 
the BLACK BOY, so called since, if not before, 1803. This, and 
the house between it and the Market Hill, was, in 1708, known 
as the CORNER HOUSE. 

In Church Lane is a fair sized house opposite Wain Lane, on 
a mantle piece in which are the following lines with appropriate 
symbols (compare Glad win's Memorial Inscription, p. 51) : 
The hour runneth An hour glass 

And time flieth The sun 

As flowre fadeth A withering flower 

So man dieth A skull 

Sic transit gloria mundi. 
Beyond the Town Clock, which was restored in 1888 as a me- 



Stoneham Street. 239 



morial of Queen Victoria's Jubilee, is a house, in Stoneham Street, 
which, in 1731, was called the WOOLPACK AND CROWN. 

Where the Friends' Meeting House now stands one is disposed 
to locate the CROUCH HOUSE, which, in 1426, was nothing more 
than a decayed cottage (ante, p. 122). The field at the back is 
still called CROUCHES, as to which reference has already been 
made (ante, p. 16.) 

On the north of Crouch's Alley the WORKHOUSE stood until 
the establishment of. the union house at Witham. 

Near the upper end of Stoneham Street, and on the west side 
is a row of cottages called MOSES, or Moises, by which name it 
was known as early as 1462, when it belonged to Richard Bullock 
(ante p. 122). 

At the junction of Robins Bridge Road and Tilkey Road is 
the YORKSHIRE GREY built in the south-eastern corner of Hart 
Field. There does not appear to have been any house here in 
1758, and the sign in this town is probably not more than 50 
years old. Mr. Miller Christy suggests that the Yorkshire Greys 
are named after some famous racer. 

Nearer the Market Hill, on the east side of the street is the 
ROYAL OAK, a sign which is intended to perpetuate the memory 
of King Charles II. 

Below Church Lane is CUCUMBER HALL, but why so called is 
unknown. Nearer the Market Hill was the BLACK HORSE, now 
the LOCOMOTIVE, a name given to it about 35 years ago by a 
ganger on the railway, who occupied the house after the comple- 
tion of the line. 

The new residence called MOUNT PARK, at the east end of 
East Street, was built by Mr. T. C. Swinborne and now belongs 
to Mr. Robert Curzon, J.P. It belonged to John Stacey in 1731, 
and afterwards to the Skingley family. About 40 years ago the 
old house was ransacked by a gang of burglars, who, when they 
had possessed themselves of the valuable contents set fire to it 
and levelled it to the ground. 

The STAR Inn, in East Street, was opposite the eastern entrance 
to Starling Leeze, and was freehold of the Manor of Coggeshall 
Hall, but the porch of it was built on the waste of the Manor of 
Great Coggeshall, and at the time of the survey of that Manor, in 
1731, the inn had the double sign of the SWAN AND STAR. As a 
star is the crest of the Innholders' Company it is not surprising 



2 4 Ancient Houses, &c. 

that it should so frequently have been adopted by publicans as a 
distinguishing mark for their houses. The combination of the 
Swan and Star appears to be inexplicable but there was doubtless 
some reason in its origin. 

On the north side of East Street, a house or two west of Star- 
ling Leeze, was called the BLUE BOAR, a sign which very naturally 
occurs in this district as it was one of the cognizances of the De 
Veres, Earls of Oxford, who held large estates in Earls Colne and 
the neighbourhood. It may be that the first holder of this Inn 
was one of the Earl's retainers who, out of respect to his late 
master and to show his former connection with so noble a family, 
had the signboard fresh painted, and henceforth the boar, not in 
its natural colour but of blue, was suspended from above the door 
of the hostelry. This was the sign of the house one hundred and 
sixty years ago, but how much earlier is a question the answer to 
which has yet to be supplied. 

The SWAN, on the north side of this street, was possessed of 
the same sign in 1731. Francis Lay issued a token in the iyth 
century payable at the Swan ; the word is not written but the bird 
appears in the centre of the coin (p. 195). Next to this inn on 
the west was the SUGAR LOAF, which leads one to suppose that the 
house belonged to Edmond Spicer, whose trade token bore on one 
side a sugar loaf (p. 195). It was at one time called the KING'S 
ARMS. 

Between the Sugar Loaf and the Bird-in-Hand was a house 
called BUCKS, probably the name of a former owner. 

The BIRD-IN-HAND was formerly called the Through Inn, pos- 
sibly from the fact that there was a right of passage through the 
house from East Street to Church Street. As a curious coinci- 
dence it may be mentioned that a few years back the name of 
the tenant of the Bird-in-Hand was Joseph Bird, and that of the 
owner Richard Bird Holmes. This ornithological sign in this 
town dates back at least 160 years. A reference top. 193 will 
show that it was from this house that one of the last processions 
of weavers set out in the year 1791, just a century ago. The sign- 
board formerly had on it a hand holding a bird recalling the pro- 
verb 

"A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush." 
The premises belonged at the time of the dissolution to the 
Abbot and Convent of Coggeshall. 



The Roman Road. 241 



The house, now four cottages, immediately opposite the Bird- 
in-Hand, has been known at different times as the BLUE HOUSE 
and the GEORGE. The upper floor formerly projected, but a brick 
front was a few years ago introduced to the lower floor, on the top 
of which can still be seen the carved wooden beam or frieze with 
the date 1585. 

About ten yards west of Blue House Lane, is an ancient house 
which until recently had some good carved wood-work in it. The 
cellar of this house is of interest. 

Next to the Bird-in-Hand is a house which, in 1731, was 
called RICES, but about a century later converted into an Inn 
called the NEW BIRD-IN-HAND. On the opposite side of the road 
were houses called STAFFORDS, BURDENS and the DYEHOUSE. 

Near the western extremity of West Street stands, as it stood 
160 years ago, the WHITE HORSE.. 

Opposite the Vicarage Field were houses and land called 
WINDLOVES, or NEALS and LADYWOODS, now called SUNNEDON. 

The FLEECE is situate opposite Sir Robert Hitcham's School, 
and still retains the name it had in 1731. This sign is associa- 
ted with the wool trade. 

PAYCOCKE'S HOUSE, as it is called, is on the east side of the 
Fleece. It has already been referred to, and an illustration of the 
gateway figures on page 161. The house 160 years ago belonged 
to Isaac Buxton, senior, and was occupied by John Buxton. It 
is much to be regretted that this interesting relic of the domestic 
architecture of several centuries back ever left the possession of 
this family as in their hands it would doubtless have been pre- 
served from decay. Behind the house and extending westward 
is VINCENT'S CLOSE, which, in the i6th century, belonged to John 
Paycocke or Peacock (ante p. 80). 

The Roman Road from Saint Albans, through Bishop Stort- 
ford and Braintree to Colchester, although it has already been 
slightly noticed in an early part of this work (pp. i and 6) has 
not yet received the attention which it deserves. Close to BLACK- 
WATER BRIDGE is an enclosure of land which, until 1889, formed 
a detached portion of the Parish of Great Coggeshall ; it was for- 
merly in four fields and was freehold of the Manor of Coggeshall 
Hall, being held of the Lord by the annual free rent of 23. 6d. 
The Bridge has been noticed on p. 9, and it will be remembered 
that when it was rebuilt, 30 or 40 years ago, planks of board were 

R 



242 Ancient Houses, &c. 

found at some depth below the bed of the river. From the in- 
quests, published by the Record Commission (London, 1811, fo. 
p. 303), it appears that an enquiry was instituted in the first year 
of King Edward II. (A.D. 1307) concerning the refusal of the 
Abbot of Coggeshall to repair this bridge, and it was held by the 
jury that he was not liable to repair the bridge of Stratford (the 
Street Ford) between Braintree and Coggeshall, as within the 
memory of man there had been no other bridge over the river 
than a certain plank of board (planchea de horde) which, as the 
jury found, had at all times been considered sufficient for horse- 
men and pedestrians. The Abbot was again troubled on account 
of non-repair of this bridge in the reign of Edward III (Pat. 15 
Edw. III., p. 2, m. 5 & 39, see also 51 Edw. III. Calendar of In- 
quisitions, post mortem}. Among the Westminster Abbey manu- 
scripts there is a rough sketch of Blackwater ' Brigge,' with notes 
of the holders of land in the vicinity in the time of Henry IV., 
also copy proceedings (temp. Henry VIII.) against various persons 
in reference to the repair of the bridge ; among these persons was 
the Abbot of Westminster, on account of his fishery there and 
his tenements adjoining the bridge. 

The road has to be traversed about a mile eastward before we 
are again in this parish, at which point Braintree is 4 miles and 
Colchester 1 1 miles distant. On entering Coggeshall parish here 
the road is called STOCK STREET, names which, when found in con- 
junction, have great significance as the work Stock or Stoc is the 
Anglo-Saxon for a stockaded place or an enclosure protected by 
stakes or piles, and the word Street indicates that at one time that 
part of the road which is so called was a well-constructed, if not 
actually paved, way with houses on either side. The Romans 
called it Stratum, but their successors transformed the word to 
Straete or Street, hence the two words when thus found associated 
can lead to no other conclusion than that in Saxon times this was 
a stockaded place on the old Roman road. These villages of the 
barbarians were formed in most instances by the felling of the 
trees of a wooded district they sometimes called the open space 
a field, e.g. Q\&-field and on the ground which had been cleared 
they built their rude huts for their own habitations and still ruder 
buildings for the folding of their cattle, using the fallen trees for 
the construction of their houses and for the staking of the en- 
closure. Without some explanation it would strike the general 



Place Names. 2 43 



reader as strange that a farm-house with six or eight cottages some 
distance apart should be called a Street. 

A mile further eastward is Crow or Crop Field, or Crop Barn 
Field, where so many Roman remains have been found from time 
to time (pp. 6-8). From this point to Hares Bridge the road is 
called West Street, the condition of which was such that Thomas 
Paycocke, three hundred and seventy years ago, gave ^40 for its 
repair, referring to the road as " foulways." 

HARES BRIDGE is at the south-east corner of the Vicarage 
Grounds, and was so called when the before mentioned Thomas 
Paycocke made his will. The name is derived from the family of 
Hares, one of whom was a grantee from the lord of the manor of 
Great Coggeshall of a piece of land lying next to Sir William 
CoggeshalPs meadow, (ante p. 122) As Sir William CoggeshalPs 
meadow was close to Hares Bridge it follows the piece of land 
granted to Walter Hares was also in this' locality. The bridge 
crosses the stream which conveys the waters of the Marks Hall 
drainage area to the river, discharging them at a point where the 
TYE MILL formerly stood ; the word Tye here doubtless indicating 
the junction of the two streams, unless it derives its name from 
the British word Ty, a house. Passing through the old market 
place EAST STREET is reached, and by this name the road is 
known as far as Dead Lane. In ancient documents this part of 
the highway is frequently referred to as GALLOWS STREET. Where 
the Gallows stood is now a question which must probably remain 
unsolved ; Joseph Foster, aged 70, had it, by relation, that this 
instrument of execution stood near the present Gas Works, but it 
is worthy of note that there is a field, copyhold of the manor of 
Peering with Pattiswick, which is called Gallow Croft. It is No. 
143 on the Ordnance Map of Peering parish, and lies to the east 
of Lees Farm on the south side of the road from Coggeshall to 
Colchester. That there was a Gallows here, as in nearly every 
parish, there can be no doubt, for it is referred to in the Hundred 
Rolls (temp. Edw. I.), and at that time it belonged to the Abbot 
of Coggeshall, whose right to possess it was not disputed by the 
Crown when the writs of Quo Warranto were issued. From 
Dead Lane, for some distance along the Colchester Road, the 
highway is known as ROTTEN Row, a name which it may have 
acquired through lack of proper attention on the part of the Sur- 
veyors of the highways. 

R 2 



2 44 Ancient Houses, &c. 

DEAD LANE may in some manner be associated with Gallows 
Street, but one rather inclines to the opinion that its name origi- 
nated at the time of the Black Death, those awful days in the 
middle of the fourteenth century when nearly three-fourths of the 
population of certain districts succumbed to that pestilential 
disease, or perhaps it is traceable to the pestilence which the reg- 
isters of the parish show, destroyed so many of the inhabitants of 
this place between 1578 and 1604, (ante pp. 37 and 38), or it may 
be that it is to the Great Plague of 1665, when in London, and 
many towns beside, the mortuary cart went round at night, pre- 
ceded by the bellman crying in solemn tones "Bring out your 
dead," that we must look for the origin of this ghastly name, but, 
as to the last mentioned plague, there is no evidence from the reg- 
isters that its ravages extended in any marked degree to this town. 

In connection with Dead Lane it may be well to record here 
that a field on the east side of Colne Road, (No. 190*) is called 
DEADMANS HILL in the Court Rolls of the Manor of Great 
Coggeshall, and on the other side of the same road is an enclosure 
(No. 1 60) which, in the Coggeshall Manor, &c., Survey, is known 
as DEADWOMAN'S HiLL.t To the west of this field is LEECH POND 
LEYS, or LEES POND FIELD (No. 153 and 161). Though the 
word, leech, may here have reference to the medicinal blood- 
sucker it must be borne in mind that it is not improbable that the 
field is another burial ground or field of corpses (kick, a corpse), 
and if such should be the case it is doubtless the resting place of 
our Saxon predecessors. In the north-west corner of No. 153 is 
a cottage which still retains the name of the PEST HOUSE. Lying 
on the north of Deadman's Hill, immediately opposite to Dead- 
woman's Hill, is an enclosure called CHURCH PASTURE, and the 
field north of Leech Pond Field is called CHURCH FIELD. North- 
east of Church Pasture is the FOLLY (Nos. 186, 188), a word 
which Edmunds says is derived from folc-ley, meaning the people's 
or public land, held by all persons in common. There is in this 
remarkable association of names pointing, as they seem to do, 

* The numbers refer to the Ordnance Map of Great Coggeshall except 
when followed by L.c. when they refer to the map of Little Coggeshall. 

t Called STAR-WALLS in Tithe Survey, as to which see Edmunds (p. 104), 
who says the word Wall marks the site of Roman works, and as an instance 
he gives Cox-wall. This note should be considered in reference to the Ety- 
mology of our town's name, as to which see ante p. 6-13. 



Place Names. 2 45 



to the holy acres where " the rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep," 
involved a history the pages of which are for the present locked 
by the clasp of obscurity, but, as time rolls on, the husbandman, 
the potter and the builder may bring to the light of day once 
more the urns, the bones, the swords, the spear-heads and the 
beads which our Saxon predecessors in deep reverence laid to 
rest in the distant past. Such a discovery was made near the 
river bridge, at Kelvedon, and the following note with reference to 
it appeared in the Essex Naturalist, for July, 1888: "Mr. G. F. 
Beaumont exhibited an adult human skull, a cinerary urn, four 
beads of red earth ornamented with green and yellow (the orna- 
mentation of two of them consisting of an encircled snake), a 
large amber bead, a cross-shaped bronze fibula, an iron buckle, 
and an iron knife-blade or spear-head, all of which he believed to 
be of Saxon date. These remains were exhumed by Mr. 
Beaumont in the south corner of a field situate near the river 
bridge at Kelvedon, and No. 7 in the Ordnance Survey map of 
Inworth parish. Mr. Beaumont remarked that although the 
ground had been levelled, and there were no external signs of 
barrows, he had ascertained from an old survey (A.D. 1758) that 
the field was called ' Barrow Field,' and the lane running along 
its south-west side bore the significant name of ' World's End 
Lane.' The fields numbered 436A and 437 (Ordnance Survey 
Map, Peering Parish) which adjoin No. 7 (Inworth Parish) to- 
wards the north, are known as ' Barrow Hills.' A great many 
antiquarian articles, similar to those exhibited, were found in this 
locality some years ago, notably in the disused gravel pit, No. 9, 
Inworth Parish Map, but, unfortunately, they have for the most 
part either been destroyed or lost. Mr. Beaumont announced 
that he had decided to hand his exhibits to the Essex Arch- 
a5ological Society for the Colchester Museum." The lands (called 
Longlonds, ante p. 128) adjoining the field where these interesting 
remains were found were formerly freehold of the manor of 
Coggeshall Hall, although more than half a mile distant from any 
land in Coggeshall Parish ; and from the abuttal description it 
appears that in immediate proximity to the Barrows was a field 
which, till the reign of Henry VIII., was known as Shadwell, 
perhaps indicating that here was a well or font dedicated to St. 
Chad, one of the earliest Bishops of London, who is said to have 
been sainted for bringing the inhabitants of these parts again to 



246 Ancient Houses, &c. 

Christianity after their apostacy, and it is reputed that he erected 
several churches in this county. The latest discovery in the 
Barrow Field was made in November, 1889, when a stone coffin 
hewn out of a solid block of oolitic limestone was brought to light. 
It was six feet seven inches long and two feet four inches wide. 
The body was encased in lime, and, had it not been for the 
ignorance of the workmen, it is probable an almost perfect cast of 
the corpse could have been obtained. The skull and other bones 
were in an excellent state of preservation. 

It will be convenient here to call attention to a similar aggre- 
gation of weird field names, which, though in Kelvedon Parish, 
are just on the south border of Little Coggeshall Parish, and 
appear on the map of Ltttle Coggeshall Hall Manor. These are 
Callows, or GALLOWS END LANE (Pantling Lane in Ordnance 
Survey), leading from Bradwell into the road from Coggeshall to 
Kelvedon. DEADMAN'S HILL forms the south-western portion of 
No. 68, Kelvedon Parish (Ordnance Survey). LEACH POND 
FIELD is No. 50, and LEACHPOND LEYS SLOP the western half of 
No. 49. Of one or more of these fields it may be said 

" Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid 

Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire, 
Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed, 
Or wak'd to ecstacy the living lyre. " 

The western half of No. 51 (K.P.) is called PLUMLEYS, which 
seems to denote that here was formerly a plum orchard, afterwards 
laid down to pasture. The south-eastern part of the same field is 
called ROMLEY, which apparently points to Roman associations, 
literally the Roman meadow. PANTER LANDS are Nos. 20, 21, 
and 2 2 (Ordnance Survey, Kelvedon Parish). Nos. 18 and 19 
are called BURNT HOUSE. Such names as TOM, or TOWN'S ACRE, 
and GROGGERY (No. 93, L. C.) remind us of the Saxon Tun or 
Town and its Christian missioner, St. Gregory. 

There are also, in Little Coggeshall, fields called GULL HOLE 
(No. 127, L. C.), GULL CROFTS (No. 149, L. C.), GULL FIELD 
(No. 152, L. C.), GULL MOOR (No. 153, L, C.), and GULL FIELD 
MEADOW (No. 155, L. C.), RAIN CROFT, or RFND'S CROFT, and 
SHRIVES (No. 129. L. C.), CHURCH FIELD (No. 125, L.C.) KIT- 
CHEN FIELD (No. 126, L. C.) [See Seebohm's Vill. Com., 262 
and 432.] PIT FIELD (No. 116, L. C.), SHIRLEYS (No. 114, L. C.) 
BOON SHOTS (No. 103, L. C.), CUTHEDGE FIELD (Nos. 98 and 



Place Names. 247 



no, L. C.), CUTLER'S CROFTS (Nos. 104, 106, and 107 L. C.), 
PORTER'S CROFTS (Nos. 96 and 97, L. C.), COURT FIELD (No. 
87, L. C), HARE FIELD (Nor 134, L. C.), Ditto (No. 135, L. C.), 
HOP GROUND (No. 136, L. C.), TENTER FIELD (No. 134, L. C), 
Ditto (No. 50, L. C), WINCHGATE FIELD (No. 148, L. C.), 
KEYSES FIELD (No. 92 L. C.), CURD HALL FARM, on the Tithe 
Survey is called BLEST END FARM, but Blest End itself appears 
to be further west, between CAPON'S FARM and HERRING'S FARM, 
STOCK FIELD (No. 71, L. C.) 

To return to Great Coggeshall Parish. We have fields bearing 
the following names, BABE'S FARM YARD, &c. (Nos. 243 and 
247) at Stock Street. Coote (Romans of Britain) considers that 
the surname Babb is the radical portion of the Roman name 
Babbius, a fact which is not without importance in connection 
with the Roman remains which have been found near this locality. 
BUNN FIELD is No. 254, COKER'S is No. 234, ADAM FIELD is No. 
265. The VINEYARD, near Holfield Grange, is shown on the 
map. BARREN DANSON'S is No. 117, BROCKMAN'S is the north- 
western part of No. 249, HUNGERTON'S is No. 94, CROSSPATH 
BRADLEY is No. 87 ; PENNY LANE leads from HovelPs to Potash 
Farm, and the field on the west of it (No. 51) is called PENNY 
LANE MEADOW, names which lead to the surmise that Roman 
denarii, of which our English pennies are the representatives, have 
been found here in some quantities (see ante, p. 10.) Here, too, 
are HIGH HALL FIELD (No. 50), WHALEY or VALEY CROFT (No. 
67), GREAT GATE FIELD (No. 65), LITTLE GATE FIELD (No. 85), 
COGGESHALL GROVE (80, 81, 82, and 83), QUARTER MILE FIELD 
(No. 113), BROOM FIELD (No. 52), MOAT FIELD (No. 21), 
FINCH FIELD SPRING ( No. 48), LITTLE BUNGATE (No. 46), to 
the north of which is BUNGATE WOOD. BAKER'S LAND (No. 73), 
NEW ENGLAND (the eastern parts of Nos. 43 and 44.) The 
western half of No. 2 is called MOUNT FIELD, and it will be ob- 
served from the map that it is at the north-western extremity of 
the parish. There are no traces of barrows in this field. Round 
Gate House Farm are GATE FIELD (No. 126), HIGH FIELD (No. 
76), HOD'S CROFT (No. 124), GOLDEN FIELD (north part of No. 
133), CHURCH PASTURE, the southern portion below which is 
TOWN FIELD (No. 134), and TOWN LEY (No. 269), to the west 
of which two last-mentioned fields are COLEMAN'S CROFTS (No. 
129), GREAT Lows, or THE Lows (eastern half of No. 121), 



248 Ancient Houses, &c. 

HIGH Lows (the part of No. 137 which lies north of No. 143 
and the adjoining plantation, which is numbered 138 on the 
map). Wide Wide Croft, otherwise JOHN'S CROFT (No. 141) 
adjoins it towards the east, ROOKLANDS, or RUCKNEY (Nos. 
169 and 170), WISDOMS (No. 162), DAMOKE FIELD (No. 177), 
JOHN'S CROFT, or DAMOCKS No. 179), JOHN'S CROFT (No. 180), 
WINTERFLOODS (No. 187), POPLARS (Nos. 181 and 182), FRENCH 
LANDS (No. 185), PEASELANDS (No. 190), FABIAN'S FIELD 
(No. 381), TOWN FIELD (No. 390), LITTLE TOWN FIELD (No. 
389), Row FIELD (No. 388), WINDMILL FIELDS (Nos. 388 and 
395), HACKLEY FIELD (No. 396), RAIN CROFTS (Nos. 401, 402, 
and 403) which seems in this instance to be derived from the 
old English word Raine. a boundary, for the boundary line of 
the Parish runs along the south-eastern side of these fields. 
MOUNT FIELD is No. 393 ; THE MOUNT, Nos. 344, 345, 346, 
347, and 348 ; COOK FIELD, No. 343; SHEFPCOATS, No. 354; 
BRAZIKRS, No. 355 ; CHURCH FIELD, Nos. 360, 361, and 362 ; 
BUTT FIELD, No. 364; GREAT AND LITTLE DOLE, or DOOL, 
FIELD, No. 372 ; BASIN POND FIELD, or BENT FIELD, Nos. 373 
and 375 ; INGORY DOWNS, Nos. 280, 292, and 276; JAGGARD'S, 
Nos. 365 and 367; STARLING LEES, Nos. 350, 351, and 352 ; 
POPES LEES, Nos. 333 and 334 ; COCK FIELD, the upper part of 
No. 300 ; COCK MEADOW, No. 327 ; VINCENT'S CLOSE, No. 329 ; 
CROPS, No. 321 ; BISSING GUTTER FIELD AND MEADOW, No. 322 ; 
KING'S CROFT, No. 323 ; EARSWELL, or Earl's Well and Low- 
field,* lie between Highfields Lane and the Gelatine Works. 
TENTER FIELD is No. 310; CROW BARN FIELD, No. 315 and 
south part of No. 314 ; CROUCHES, Nos. 294 and 295 ; TYEMILL 
PIGHTLE, No. 45 ; BLACK HALL, No. 316, at south-west corner 
of No. 315. 

* Low is the Saxon word for a barrow. Read this note in connection 
with the note on page 83. 




FAIRS, CUSTOMS, FOLK-LORE AND 
MISCELLANEOUS. 



|T is probable that fairs are the survival of the ancient 
pagan festivals, as may be gathered from the letter ad- 
dressed by Gregory the Great to Mellitus (A.D. 60 1), 
wherein he says that some solemnity must be provided 
for the English people in exchange for their former celebrations, 
and they were consequently to be allowed "to build themselves 
booths from the boughs of trees about those churches that have 
been turned to that use from temples." The fair in many places is 
held on the same day as the feast of dedication, and, as we have 
seen on a previous page (ante 19), the fair at Coggeshall was to 
continue for eight days, namely, from the eve and on the day of 
St. Peter ad Vincula, and for six days following. On page 16 
attention has been called to the site of an earlier church, near a 
property which about two centuries ago was called " Old Ales," 
in reference to which it may here be remarked that Dr. Pettingal 
derives the word Gule, which is synonymous with Ale, from the 
Celtic or British word Gwyl, signifying a festival or holiday, and 
explains " Gule of August " to mean the holiday of St. Peter ad 
Vincula in August when the people of England under Papal rule 
paid their Peter's Pence (Brand's Pop. Antiq., Vol. i., p. 347.) This 
association of the fair with the dedication of the church, and the 
survival of the name Old Ales, are facts of no mean significance. 

The grant which was made to the monks of Coggeshall of the 
right to hold a fair was probably more in the nature of a confirm- 
ation of an existing custom than in itself an original grant. At 
these festivals the gathering was not only of a religious nature, 



250 Fairs, Customs, Folk-lore, 6-c. 

but was used for pleasurable pursuits, and for purposes of trade 
and business generally. The fair was in ancient times held in 
the churchyard, but an Act passed in the i3th year of Edward I. 
provided that henceforth fairs and markets should not be kept in 
churchyards. 

Adjoining the present churchyard is an enclosure known as 
" Butts Field," indicating that the shooting at butts was one of 
the sports which in days of yore was here indulged in, and 
although the field has not been used as a playground within the 
memory of the oldest inhabitants, yet some of them have heard 
their parents say that it was formerly so used. 

The following notes from Hall's Precedents may have reference 
to the feast of dedication : 

" 1543, 22nd May. Coggleshall. Thomas Clarke and 
Richard Trewe had not maide n mo torches, nor yet kepede 
the drynkinge in the Parish of Coxsall, accordyne to the laudable 
use and custome of the same parish."/ in b. 

" 1543. Coggleshall. . . . We present Thomas Paykoke, 
yt he hath broken an old awncient and laudable custome of or 
Church, in makynge of torches, that haith bene usid every oute 
of mynd of man. And that the same Thomas is elected to be 
one of the torchwardyns, and doth refuse to take upon him the 
same office, accordynge to the laudable custome of the same 
parishe."-^ 28 b. 



OF the ceremonies which were observed at the funerals of 
some of the' principal inhabitants of this parish at the 
end of the iyth century, Bufton has left us a few notes, in ad- 
dition to the notes of the sermons (ante, p. 226) which were 
preached on these occasions. 

" The Lady Guyon (Sir Mark's second wife, and Sir Thomas 
Abdy's daughter) dyed June 24th, 1679, and was buried ye 26th 
late in the evening, by torches without a sermon." 

"1685, Nov. 18. The first wife of Mr. Boys was buried. 
Six gentlewomen carried up the pall, with white hoods and night 
gowns ; and Mr. Livermore preached at her funeral, and I was 
gone to London." 

" 1690, Nov. i. Sr. M. Guyon was buried about 10 o'clock 



Burial Customs. 251 



in ye evening, by torches, without a sermon ; there was about 
half a score coaches, and about 30 or 40 men had black gowns 
and caps ; they carried the torches to light the coaches. There 
was one breadth of black cloth hung round the chancill. and ye 
pulpit was covered with black, and the great Bible." 

" 1691, Aug. 21. Wm. Guyon, Esq. Sr. Mark's son, died 
at London, being 2 1 years' old, and was brought down to Coxall 
with great pomp, nigh 200 horsemen riding before, about 40 or 
them with black cloaks, and about 10 coaches following, about 
9 o'clock at night, by torches, and abundance of people." 

It was formerly a very common custom when a virgin died 
that one nearest to her in size and resemblance should carry 
before the corpse, or the funeral procession, a garland, which 
was afterwards hung up in the church. 

" To her sweet mem'ry flow'ry garlands strung, 
On her now empty seat aloft were hung." 

So we read in Bufton that on "5th July, 1686, a daughter 
of John Church, singlewoman, was buried, and a garland hung 
up;" and on "June 5, 1691, A maid, daughter of the widow 
Chilton, was buried, and a garland carried before her." 



IN every place and parish every old woman 'with a wrinkled 
face, a furrowed brow, a hairy lip, a gobber tooth, a squint 
eye, a squeaking voice, a scolding tongue, having a ragged coat 
on her back, a skull cap on her head, a spindle in her hand, a 
dbg or cat by her side, was, says Gaule, in his Select Cases touching 
Witches, 1646, not only suspected, but pronounced for a witch. 

Such an unfortunate creature there was at Coggeshall about 
two centuries ago, and Bufton tells us about her thus : 

" 1699, July 13. The widow Comon was put into the River 
to see if she would sink, because she was suspected to be a witch, 
and she did not sink but swim. And she was tryed again July 
19, and then she swam again and did not sink. July 24. The 
widow Comon was tryed a third time by putting her into the 
river, and she swam and did not sink. Dec. 27. The widow 
Comon that was counted a witch was buried." The manner of 
her death is left untold. 



25 2 Fairs, Customs, Folk-lore, &c. 



IN 1779 the Volunteer system of national defence was brought 
into prominence, by reason of the threatened invasion of 
Ireland by France and Spain, but it was not until about 20 years 
later that the organization became complete. Several Acts of 
Parliament were passed between 1794 and 1804 to provide for 
the administration and discipline of the force which in 1805, 
when the invasion of Napoleon the First was imminent, amoun- 
ted to 429,165 men. 

The loyal little town of Coggeshall raised a small band of 
warriors as its quota to the general muster for the defence of 
the kingdom, and what they did, and how they did it, is told in 
the form of "A farce in two acts, by an Inhabitant of Great 
Coggeshall," entitled "The C*******ll Volunteer Corps." So 
popular was the skit that it reached at least four editions. The 
writer was one Thomas Harris, a schoolmaster, who in his preface 
says that, " notwithstanding the deficiency of the corps in respect 
to privates there were only three, the rest of the members were 
officers and its abrupt breaking up, the plan for raising the corps 
was perfectly judicious ; nor, indeed, could it be otherwise, as it 
was a work of profound deliberation, the wisdom of the parish 
being thrice concentrated for that very purpose ; but as the best 
concerted schemes, from some trifling accident, have failed, so in 
this instance, from a too hasty zeal in its execution, the whole fell 
to pieces, the cause of defect being that the business was begun 
at the wrong end." The preface proceeds : " As some individuals 
have applied certain of the characters to themselves, it may be 
necessary to say that nothing personal is intended ; but if gentle- 
men will, in defiance of this assertion, obstinately persist in the 
contrary, and will, against all truth and reason, say, ' I am meant 
for Sergeant Scroggins or for Corporal DriU'em,' or 'I am the 
old woman,' &c., the only reply will be Sir, upon my honor 
you are mistaken ; the cap was not intended for you ; I neither 
took the dimensions of your head. Have you tried it ? Does 
it fit? If so, and you have a particular fancy to it, why, Sir, 
in that case you are welcome to wear it." 

The caps fitted the heads of many of the Coggeshall folk, 
for it is reported that although Thomas Harris had his joke, 



The Coggeshall Volunteers. 253 

he paid dearly for it, for he lost his pupils, and got into much 
trouble. 

Here are a few extracts from the farce. 

Scene A Market Place. Enter Cryer ringing his bell, and 
followed by a mob of boys, &c., huzzaing. 

Cryer O yes ! O yes ! O yes ! This is to give notice that the 
committee for conducting the business of the Volunteer Corps is 
now sitting all persons who are desirous of entering as privates, 
and will find their own clothes, guns, and gunpowder, are de- 
sired to attend. Wanted, two drummers and a fifer, also a few 
men for pioneers the more grim and ill-favoured the better. 
As the Corps at present consists mostly of officers, no more will 
be admitted ; but should any neighbouring Corps be in want 
of a few, it may be accommodated at the rate of one officer for 
one private, and in every dozen so exchanged an officer will be 
thrown in extra. GOD save the King. 

Scene A Street. A bell tolls. Enter old woman meeting 
Dobbins. 

Old Woman Pray neighbour Dobbins, who does the bell toll 
for? 

Dobbins For the Volunteer Corps. 

Old Woman Whose Corps ? 

Dobbins The Volunteer Corps. 

Old Woman You don't say so ! And so poor Mr. Volunteer 
is dead at last ? I have heard great talk of the gentleman. They 
say he was very harmless and inoffensive ; it seems he has left a 
numerous family. And pray, neighbour Dobbins, when did he die ? 

Dobbins You are under a mistake, old lady, the bell tolls for 
the inhabitants of the parish to meet at the Church vestry in order 
to form themselves into a military society to kill Master Buona- 
parte if he should happen to come this way. 

Later on we learn from Scroggins, the Sergeant (No. 15 in the 
illustration), that in case of invasion, and if the enemy were ad- 
vancing from Colchester, the corps was to take route for Braintree, 
or which, as Scroggins explains, is just the same thing, suppose 
the enemy came north the orders would be to march south, keep- 
ing as near as they could at least a distance of 10 miles. 

Scene The Vicarage Field. Enter Corporal DriU'em (16) 
with a muster-roll followed by a group of mechanics dressed ac- 
cording to their several occupations. 



254 



Fairs, Customs, Folk-lore, &c. 




THE COGGESHALL VOLUNTEERS. 

Corporal Gentlemen soldiers, halt ! Now fall back, and let 
each man come forward as his name is called over. Attention ! 
Jeremiah Clodpole (i) [here!]. Thomas Appletree(2) [here!]. 
Roger Pebbleback (3) [here !]. Fall into the rank, Master Peb- 
bleback, take your hand out of your breeches and hold up your 
head. Obadiah Slendershanks (4), Obadiah Slendershanks, an- 
swer to your name. [He is pushed forward^ 

Slendershanks An please your Corporalship, I'm deaf. 

Corporal How long have you been deaf ? 

Slendershanks Yes, three children. My wife died of a quinsey. 

Corporal I ask how long have you been deaf? 

Slendershanks The youngest is 3 years come Whitsuntide. 

Corporal Daniel Thickset (5) [here!] Abraham Chub (6) 
[here!] Peregrine Paunch (7) [here!] Timothy Splayfoot (8) 
[here !] Lazarus Feeble [here ! faintly,} come forward, Lazarus ! 
How old be you, Mr. Feeble ? 

Lazarus Threescore and five, come the time. 

Corporal Are you a marksman ? 

Lazarus Yes, but I must rest my gun upon my forked stick. 
I've killed many a sparrow so ! 

Corporal Well, Lazarus, for the present I must set you with 
Mr. Slendershanks. Attention! David Cowleech, (10) [here!] 
Humphrey Sharpshins (n), [here !] Timothy Fillpot (12), [here !] 
Anthony Hamstring (13), [here] Simkin Stradem (14) [here] ! 



Coggeshall Jobs. 255 



At 

AMONG the MS.S. of G. A. Lowndes, Esq., is a letter dated 
1643, J u ty 3 r d> Coxhall, from Thomas Honywood to Sir 
Thomas Barrington, in which the writer says, "there are some 
soldiers willing to go their colors if they had money to bear their 
charges. If Sir Thomas will let Mr. Crane, of Coxhall, lay out 
some money for them, they will march, otherwise they will not 
move." 

On 4 Feb., 1679, a Watch house was set up in Mr. Hubbard's 
corn fields (Bufton). 

On ist March, 1688. There was a guard house set up for 
the soldiers at the Market House. On i3th of the same month 
the soldiers went away (ibid). 

On the 27th July, 1690. Two companies of the Trainbands 
which lay here were marched up to the church in the forenoon, 
being Sunday, with their arms, and drums beating and flags fly- 
ing (ibid). 

Bufton has a reference to the Rye House Plot, " 1693, Sept. 9, 
being Sunday, it was kept as a day of thanksgiving for the dis- 
covery of a plott about 3 months before against the King's life, 
and there was much ringing of bells and shooting off nmsketts 
and ye drakes and making of bon-fires " (ibid). 

1694, June 19. Our two great guns were fetched away from 
the church (ibid). 



FOR some strange reason Coggeshall is remarkable for its 
'Jobs,' and there are several extraordinary stories told 
about this place and its people, thus we read, that when the 
Coggeshall folk wanted to divert the current of the river, they 
fixed hurdles in the bed of it for the purpose. 

Another tale says, that a mad dog bit a wheelbarrow and the 
people fearing that the injured object would go mad, chained it 
up in a shed (Brewer's Die. of Phrase and Fable). 

There were two windmills here, in close proximity, but as 
there was not sufficient wind to turn both of them, one was 
levelled to the ground. 

If an epidemic prevailed in a neighbouring parish, it is said 



256 Fairs, Customs, Folk-lore, &c. 

the people were wont to hang up blankets in the roads to prevent 
the pestilence being borne hither by the wind. 

An enthusiastic fisherman, seeing, as he supposed, the moon 
in the river, and being somewhat curious as to its structure, did 
his best to draw it out with a rod and line. 

The following lines have an allusion to Coggeshall : 
" Braintree for the pure, 
Bocking for the poor, 
Cogshall for the jeering town, and 
Kelvedon for the boor." 

Fuller, in his ' Worthies,' mentions the expression, ' Jeering 
Coxhall,' and adds, " How much truth herein I am as unable to 
tell as loth to believe ; sure I am that no town in England of its 
bigness afforded more martyrs in the reign of Queen Mary, who 
did not jeer or jest with the fire, but seriously suffered themselves 
to be sacrificed for the testimony of a good conscience. If since 
then they have acquired a jeering quality it is time to leave it off, 
seeing it is better to stand in pain till our legs be weary than sit 
with ease in the chair of the scorners." 

at 

BUFTON tells us that on the 8th Sept., 1692, "being Thurs- 
day, and the same day that Jacob Cox dyed, about two 
o'clock, there was an earthquake at Coxall and many towns beside 
hereabouts, and at London and severall other countries we heard, 
and the news-letter said it was at the same time in Holland and 
ye rest of ye provinces in ye Netherlands. I was in our garret 
at that time and heard the house crack and perceived it shake, 
and was afraid it would fall, and therefore ran down stairs." 

Nearly two centuries afterwards, namely on the 22nd April, 
1884, about twenty minutes past nine in the morning, another 
earthquake occurred here, and throughout the greater part of 
Essex arid in the neighbouring counties, the shock being most in- 
tense near the east coast of this county where very considerable 
damage was done. At Coggeshall some of the chimneys in houses 
in Church Street and Bridge Street were thrown down ; a looking 
glass was thrown off a table and broken, a panic was caused 
among the girls in the National School, clocks were stopped, bells 



Punishments, &c. 257 



rang violently and an oscillation was generally experienced by the 
inhabitants similar to the passing of an express train through a 
station, or of a heavy traction engine along the road ; wells which 
had before been almost useless now yielded a plentiful supply, 
while in other cases some became almost barren. An old crack 
in the Church tower was intensified and the parapet so loosened 
that a sum of ^170 had to be expended in the work of reparation. 



from 



" A PRIL 23rd, 1680, a new pillory was set up in Coxall." 

L\. This was a pillar, usually of wood, with a hole made in 
it through which the head of the miscreant was projected ; there 
were sometimes other holes for the arms or legs. The punish- 
ment of the pillory was inflicted for various offences among others 
upon bakers for selling short measure, and was in vogue from 
Saxon times down to the year 1837. 

" 1682, July 6th, a Ducking Stole was set up in Coxall.' 
Another name for this instrument was the Cucking-Stool. It was 
first invented for taming female shrews, and is said to have been 
an ecclesiastical engine of popish extraction for the punishment of 
fornication and other immoralities. 

" 1681, Feb. i. There was a man, a stranger, whipt up Church 
Street at the cart's tail. 

" 1682, Dec. Ye widow Mootone paid ^15 because she had 
had a bastard. ;io of it was given to the poore. 

" 1684, Dec. It was said that 7 butchers were robbed by 4 
thieves of above 500 pounds ; above 100 of it of Nicholas Fosters, 
and above 40 of Roger Mullings. 

" 1697, June 15. Old Mr. Buxton was robbed on the London 
Road. 

" 1686. About March the meal men first began to come to 
Coxall Market, and had their meal cryed 1 5 pounds for a shilling, 
and the bran was taken out and 14 pounds for 14 pence. 

" 1693, May 18. The poor did rise because the bakers would 
not bake because some of their bread was cut out the day before 
for being too light. 

" 1695, Oct. 8. The poor did rise at Coxall in ye evening to 
hinder ye carrying away of corne. And Jonathan Cable beat a 
drum to gather them together, for which he was carried before a 

s 



258 Fairs, Customs, Folk-lore, &c. 

Justice but not sent to Jaile. The poor did rise at Colchester and 
other places about ye same time and it is said burnt several wag- 
gons. The combers broke up their purse. It was occasioned by 
Jonathan Cable being so unreasonable. It was thought if he 
might he would have had all the money belonging to the purse." 



Qtantes. 



HERE is a collection of personal names derived from animals, 
trees, trades, places, &c., borne by persons who have been 
connected with this town in times past. The list might be con- 
siderably extended : Sparrow, Larke, Raven, Martin, Starling, 
Jay, Bird, Duck, Mavis, Sparhawke, Teale, Cocke, Cockerell, 
Mutton, Lamb, Ram, Roe, Hart, Wilboare, Bull, Calfe, Colt, 
Coney, Hare, Seal, Sammon, Whitinge, Beeke, Maggot, Olive, 
Armond, Peartree, Crab, Plum, Cherry, Berry, Beane, Pease, Rice, 
Pollard, Bush, Hedge, Root, Parsley, Garland, Lilly, Butcher, 
Baker, Tanner, Turner, Skinner, Cooper, Fuller, Weaver, Tailor, 
Tiler, Draper, Glover, Dyer, Carter, Wheeler, Fisher, Chandler, 
Gunner, Potter, Slater, Mason, Sawyer, Miller, Cartwright, Gard- 
ener, Shepheard, Ringer, Groom, Clerk, Chamberlain, Smith, 
Grocer, Cooke, Nurse, Page, Swain, Man, Huntsman, Squier, 
Savage. Stafford, York, Norfolk, Sudbury, London, Hedingham, 
Flanders, Tunbridge, Cornwell. Pope, Monk, Abbot, Vicars, 
Righteous, Church, Death, Marriage. Frost, Summers, Summer- 
son, Christmas. Black, White, Greene, Gray, Scarlet, Fairhead, 
Whitehead, Head. Broome, Cask, Cape, Sling, Bell, Club, Hunt, 
Blud, Proud, Joy, Write, Streight, Weight, Miles. Waters, Rivers, 
Wells, Pool, Pond, Shed, Towers, Castle, Bridges, Cliff, Clay, Sand, 
Stone, Diamond, Farrow, Webb, Cotton, Keyes, Marsh, Field, 
Hills, Streete, Lee, Creek. Wood, Boughtwood, Drywood, Dog- 
wood, Eastwood, Westwood, Hazlewood, Underwood, Woodward, 
Hayward, Appleford, Walford, Fishpole, Whiteacre, Holmstead, 
Overhill, Holditch, Stanbridge, Highgate, Springate, Shortland, 
Cowland, Headland, Park, Archpool, Litherland. Pitchforke, 
Gimlet, Picknut, Glasscock, Cockshief, Slowman, Wiseman, Bear- 
man, Deadman, Love, Loveday, Goodday, Goodwine, Crackbone, 
Spiltimber, Pinchback, Shakeshaft, Cutlipp, Wildblood, Jelle- 
browne, Goldwire, Leapingwell, Maydwell, Lesswell, Thorough- 
good, Hopper, Skipwith. 



In Memoriam. 259 



JOSEPH BEAUMONT. 

/ "T A HE high esteem in which the late Mr. Joseph Beaumont* 
_L was held in Coggeshall and throughout the County of Essex* 
as evidenced by the remarkable assembly at his funeral and by the 
lengthened obituary articles which appeared in the columns of 
the press, leads the author to believe that extracts from the literary 
testimonies to the sterling worth of his deceased father will not be 
considered out of place in the " History of Coggeshall." 

The East Anglian Daily Times gave an account of the profes- 
sional and social career and sudden demise of Mr. Beaumont in 
a long article which appeared on the day following his death. 
From this article the following short notes are extracted : 

" One of the leading professional men of East Anglia has 
been suddenly called over to the majority. A cheery face, beam- 
ing upon all smiles that were contagious, will henceforth be only 
a memory. On Thursday morning, when the good people of Cog- 
geshall rose to begin the labours of another day, the saddening 
and unexpected news fell upon their ears that in the still hours of 
the night one of their most highly respected fellow-townsmen, Mr. 
Joseph Beaumont, had been summoned from the affairs of life, 
in which for many years he had played so active a part. A man 
more generally esteemed by those who knew him best, it would, 
indeed, be hard to find, and it is no exaggeration to say that there 
is universal mourning in Coggeshall and the neighbourhood at his 

death His delight was to serve them in whatever 

way possible, and what is more, his manner of doing it was devoid 
of the least appearance of having conferred a favour. For over a 
score of years he had been a member of the Coggeshall Church 
Restoration Committee, and as President of the Coggeshall Cricket 
Club and in other matters of local amusement, the intense geni- 
ality of the man constantly asserted itself." 

The County Chronicle and Essex Herald, after devoting con- 
siderably more than a column of their space to an account of 
Mr. Beaumont's life, death and burial, again referred to him in 
these eulogistic terms : 

"The sudden death of Mr. Joseph Beaumont will be heard 

*Died, 1 8th July, 1889. 

S 2 



260 In Memoriam. 



of everywhere in Essex, and in many other parts of the country, 
with feelings of the sincerest regret. Mr. Beaumont possessed 
and that in goodly measure qualities which will always command 
respect so long as Englishmen remain what they are. He was a 
man of far more than common ability, of rare industry, and of the 
friendliest disposition. His practice as a solicitor was large and 
varied. He was equally at home in conveyancing work and as an 
advocate in the courts, his sagacity, penetration, and clearness of 
view and utterance never failing him. He knew how to buy and 
how to sell property ; he knew how to manage it ; he knew how 
to give wise advice to a multiplicity of clients ; he knew how to 
deliver an effective speech, and he knew how to make himself in- 
teresting and agreeable in company. It has been said, very truly, 
if somewhat severely, that no man is entitled to public esteem 
unless he does something beyond the bounds of his well-known 
duties and obligations. Tried even by that test, Mr. Beaumont 
comes out satisfactorily, for he was of constant and valued assist- 
ance to institutions and movements intended for the general good 
both in the neighbourhood of his own home at Coggeshall and in 
the county at large. From time to time he discharged with true 
zeal and fidelity various unpaid offices ; he did all he could to 
elucidate and settle the more difficult questions of agricultural 
politics by taking a leading part in the discussions at the Essex 
Chamber of Agriculture, at the Farmers' Club, and elsewhere, 
and, in fact, there was nothing, from a county meeting to a village 
concert or a cricket match at Coggeshall, in which he did not 
exhibit the kindliest and the liveliest interest. 

" Such a citizen will be really missed. Men may be no worse 
than they ever were, but, whether that be so or not, there are not 
too many of Mr. Beaumont's sort among us. How seldom it is 
that you meet with a man whose industry scarcely knows a pause, 
and yet with as much capacity for play as a boy, and yet as amiable 
a nature as a woman. Those were the characteristics of Mr. 
Beaumont in a marked degree. In his time he went through 
trouble, but he bore it well not defiantly, but in a becoming 
spirit at once of manliness and resignation. He seemed to be 
helpful, in some way or other, to most people who came across 
him, and so was deservedly popular. To us and our predecessors 
he was frequently of good service. As a youth he was a corres- 
pondent of the Chronicle, and his interest in the paper never 






J. Beaumont. 261 

flagged to the end, for there were several valuable and interesting 
paragraphs in our last number which were founded upon informa- 
tion furnished to us by him. Like many in all parts of Essex, we 
shall long remember Mr. Beaumont with gratitude both for the 
sake of his public work and his personal kindness. It was due to 
him that we should lay this little tribute upon his bier." 

The Essex Weekly News, after a feelingly written memoir of 
the deceased gentleman, summed up his character in these well- 
chosen lines : 

" The death of Mr. Joseph Beaumont is an event which will 
cause wide-spread regret wherever it becomes known. Mr. Beau- 
mont was not an ordinary man, his admirers were not confined 
within the narrow limits of the ancient town of Coggeshall, nor 
even of the County of Essex, in the remotest corners of which 
he had become familiar by more than a mere name. As a power- 
ful advocate and a trusted legal adviser he had few compeers ; his 
wide experience of human nature and of public business made 
him a valuable ally and a formidable opponent, while his genial 
disposition and extreme kindness of heart rendered him one of 
the most agreeable of companions. In all the relations of life 
during the last quarter of a century we have ever found him a 
genuine Englishman, as full of fire as of affection." 

The Essex Standard, supplementing its obituary article, alluded 
to Mr. Beaumont in its Country Notes in these words : 

" The death of Mr. Joseph Beaumont removes from Essex a 
man who has played a prominent public part for more than a quar- 
ter of a century. Mr. Beaumont, as one of the leading Solicitors 
of the County, was naturally a public man in virtue of his profes- 
sion, but beyond this, he was by the sheer vigour of his character 
and opinions, constantly to the fore in many other public matters. 
Politics, agriculture, and philanthropic objects aroused his interest 
and enlisted his services, and he was a remarkable illustration of 
the well-known fact that the busiest men always have most time to 
spare. He was the author of several useful legal works, and he 
had indeed a right to be considered a legal authority after the 
long and large and very varied experience which he had enjoyed 
in the course of his practice. As a public man Mr. Beaumont 
will be greatly missed in Essex. His private worth was known to 
hosts of attached friends, by whom he will be remembered as one 
of the most amiable, and most genial of men. His sound common 



262 In Memoriam. 




sense, and his earnest and generous help to those in whom he was 
interested made him, as many could testify, a valuable friend in 
need." 

Mr. Beaumont was descended from 
John Beaumont, who was born about 
1470, and who, when he made his will, 
in 1543, resided at Bildeston, in Suffolk. 
On the death of John Beaumont, his 
property at Hitcham passed under his 
will to his son, Robert, who also became 
possessed of other lands in the adjoining 
parishes of Bildeston and Kettlebaston ; Robert died in 1554, 
leaving a son, Michael, who was buried in Bildeston Church, in 
1614, beneath a black marble stone inscribed to his memory. 
Michael's son, John, died in 1641, as appears from another stone, 
which, in the recent restoration of Bildeston Church, was built 
into one of the walls ; it bears the arms of the family impaling 
those of Alabaster. The former arms, duly recorded at the Herald's 
College, are azure, semee of fleurs-de-lis and a lion rampant or; 
Crest, a lion passant or. John had twelve children, of whom was 
John, baptised at Bildeston, 13 Oct., 1623, and buried there in 
1703 ; his eldest son, John, took the family estates which appear 
to have been of considerable extent ; another son, Jonathan, bap- 
tized at Bildeston, in 1660, settled at Nayland, and died in 1743, 
leaving his house in that village to his sons, Jonathan and Thomas; 
the latter had a son, John, who also lived at Nayland, where he 
owned a house called the Guildhall. John had eleven children, 
of whom was Joseph, born i2th November, 1787, whose youngest 
son, the subject of this memoir, was born at Colchester, 4th March, 
1827, came to Coggeshall about 1856, and died there, i8th July, 
1889. These genealogical notes are taken from a pedigree of the 
family containing the names of nearly 200 of the descendants of 
John Beaumont of Bildeston. 



THE END. 






Abbey, 9, 12,17,87-108, 

122, 159 
Abbots, 104 
Ad Ansam, 11 
Almanack, 3 
Alms Basin, 33 
Alms-houses, 171, 175, 

177 
Amalgamated Charities, 

173-181 
Ancient Houses, 3, 230- 

241 
Antoninus, Itineraries of, 

11 

Apprentices, 38 
Archdeaconry, 2 
Area, 1 
Arms, 27, 32, 40-48, 54, 

66, 75, 93, 108, 127, 

152,166,188,197,200, 

203, 209, 262 

Banks, 3 

Baptistery, 16 

Baptists, 119, 148 

Barrows, 244-246 

Baymakers, 190 

Bede-roll, 76 

Beer, Tasters of, 116, 

118, 120 

Bells, Church, 22, 77 
Black Death, 244 
Brasses, 41, 42, 208 
Bread, Taster of, 118 
Brewing, 196 
Bridges, 9, 234-235, 241. 

(See also Place Names) 
British Schools, 182 
Brownists, 137 
Bufton's Note Books, 220- 

229. (See also Bufton 

under index of persons) 
Buildings, Ancient, 3, 

230-2 
Burial Customs, 77, 210, 

220-229, 250 



Burial Grounds, 8, 53- 

57, 244-246 
Butts, 17 



Cage, 118,120 
Canterbury Cathedral, 

124 

Cemetery, 8, 53-58 
Chalices, 32 
Chantries, 76, 92, 174, 

191 
Charities 

Amalgamated, 173- 

181 

Cranes, 175 
Goodays, 170 
Greenwoods, 1 75 

177 

Guyons, 165-168 
Hibbens, 179 
Land in West Street, 

171 

Richardson's 172 
Sir Robt. Hitcham's, 

108, 150, 169 
Smith's, 178 
Swallow's, 159, 169 
Tilbury Bread Mo- 
ney, 178 
Weever's, 179 
Wordsworth's, 173 
Chapel, St. Nicholas, 

100, 159 
Chapels, Nonconformist, 

136-149 

Churches, 14-58, 71, 100 
Churchyard, 53-58 
Cistercian Monks, 87 
Clergy, 58-70 
Clocks, 174, 177, 230, 

238 

Cloth-trade, 183-195 
Cock-fighting, 234 
Coggeshall, Etymology 
of, 11 



Hall, Manor of, 
124-135 

Volunteers, 252 
Jobs, 255 



Congregationalists, 136 
Constables, 116-121, 187 
Correction House, 234 

Post, 120 

County Court District, 3 
Crosses, 16, ~7, 175, 23 o 
Cucking Stool, 257 
Curates, 65-70 
Customs, 112 

Deanery, 2 

Dedication of Churches, 

19, 95, 249 
Diocese, 2 
Domesday Survey, 88, 

109, 124 

Drawbridge, 112 
Duchy of Lancaster Rolls, 

7 
Ducking Stool, 257 

Earls Colne Charity, 169 
Early History, 6-11, 14 
Earthquakes, 256 
Ecclesiastical History, 

14-86 

Epitaphs, 40-57 
Etymology, 11, 244 

Fairs, 91, 175, 249 
Fields. (See Place Names) 
Fighting Cocks, 236 
Fishery, 109, 114 
Fishmarket, 119, 234 
Flagons, 32 
Fonts,, 16, 29. (See 

Church Pond) 
Free-warren, 91 
Friends, Society of, 143 
Friezes, 160, 237 
Fullers, 174, 190 



264 



General Index. 



Funeral Customs, 210, 

219, 220, 229 
Monuments, 39-52 

Gallows, 243 
Gelatine Works, 195 
Geology, 3-5 
Glebe, 16 

Gooday's Charity, 1 70 
Green wood's Charity, 175 
Guild-hall, 191 
Guilding Morn, 192 
Guyon's Charities, 165 

Head -boroughs, 187 
Heriot, 123 
Hibben's Charity, 179 
Hitcham's (Sir R. ) Tomb, 

152 
Will, 153 

Charity, 103, 150 
Holyland, Chron. of, 105 

Independents, 136 
Inns. (See Place Names) 
Inscriptions, Monumental 

39-57 
Isinglass Works, 195 

Katherine, St., Aisle of, 

33, 7b 
King's Evil, 39 

Lace, Tambour, 195 
Lanes. (See Place Names) 
Leather Sealers, 116, 120 
Lip Artist, 217 
Lord's Fines, 116 
Lych-gate, 53 

Magazine, 3 
Magisterial District, 3 
Manor of Great Cogges- 

hall,.88, 107, 109-123, 

204, 212 
Little Coggeshall, 

107, 109, 204 

Coggeshall Hall,124 

Manse, I -JO 

Manufactures, 3, 183-196 
Maps, Ic5 

Market Cross, 175, 230 
Market-houses, 173, 177, 

230 
Markets, 91, 118, 119, 

122, 174, 230, 234 
Martyrs, 212 



Maypole, 236 
Measures, 118, 119 
Merchants' Marks, 42, 

160 

Mills, 94, 124, 125, 243, 
Months-mind, 76 
Monumentallnscriptions, 

39-57 
Morden Coll. Rents, 86 

National Schools, 181 
Notable Men, &c., 197- 
229 

Obits, 76 
Orations, 192 
Organ, 30 

Patens, 32 

Paycocke's Charity, 159 

Gateway, 160 

Pest-house, 178 
Pews, 31 
Pillory, 257 

Pilgrim Fathers, 202, 217 
Piscina, 29, 102 
Plagues, 37, 244 
Playgrounds, 17, 250 
Polychromatic Decora- 
tion, 28, 102 
Population, 2 
Pottery, Ancient, 6 
Pound, 116, 120 
Probate Registry, 3 
Preachers, 59 
Processions, 192 
Pulpit, 30 
Punishments, 257 

Quakers, 143 
. Queen Anne's Bounty, 75 

Victoria's Jubilee, 

239 

Record Room, 21 
Rectory, 71 
Registers, 36 
Reredos, 28 

Roads. (See Place Names) 
Romans, 5-11, 241, 246 
Rood, 235 
Roodloft, 30 

Sabbath Trading, 114, 

120 
Saxon Church, 14 



Schools, 79, 103, 150, 

169, 176, 181 
Screens, Church, 30 
Seats, 31 
Sedilia, 32, 102 
Seed-growing, 196 
Sexton, 22 
Shambles, 86 
Silk-throwsting, 195 
Smith's Charity, 178 
Society of Friends, 143 
Spanish Armada, 187 
Stained Glass, 24-27, 103 
Stocks, 118, 120 
Stoop, 21 

Streets. (SeePlace Names) 
Swallow's Charity, 159, 

169 

Tabernacles, 34, 77 
Tambour Lace, 195 
Tilbury Bread Mon,, 178 
Tithes, 71-76 
Tokens, 194 
Tombs, 39, 54-57 
Torches, Making of, 250 
Town-clock, 177, 238 
Trades, 183-196 
Trade-signs, 231. (See 

also Place Names) 
Train-bands, 212, 222 
Tryntal of Priests, 77 

Union, 3 

Vestments, 33 
Vicarage, 16, 71-75 
Vicars, 58-70 
Vineyard, 10, 247 
Volunteers, 252 

Watch -bell, 174 
Water-bailiffs, 116, 120 
Weavers, 174 
Weaver's Chanty, 179 
Weights and Measures, 

118, 119 

Wells, 4,15, 16,119,232 
Wesleyan Methodists, 149 
Windows, Church, 22 
Witches, 251 
Wool-hall, 175 
Wool-trade, 183-195 
Wordsworth's Charhy, 

173 
Workhouse, 119, 239 



of 



Algors, 83 
Ardlies, 134 
Aylett's Cross, 11 3 
Ayworths, 145, 231 
Adam-field, 247 

Babbs Farm, 247 
Back Ditch, 1 16 
Back Lane, 2 
Bakers, 13], 247 
Bancroft, 129, 132 
Barnold's Croft, 135 
Barren Dansons, 247 
Barrows, 134, 245 
Bawnes Shott, 7 
Bells and Brewers, 234 
\Bird in Hand, 82, 118, 
\ 193,240-241 
Hissing Gutter, 83 
/Black Boy, 238 
/Black Horse, 239 
Blackwater Bridge, 9, 241 
Blackwater Field, 73 
Blest End, 130, 135 247 
Blue Boar, 233, 240 
Blue House, 241 
Boonshotts, 7, 246 
Bouchier's, or Bower's 

Grange, 10, 74 
Braxted Mede, 120 
Brew House, 82 
Brick Bridge, 118, 120 
Bridge Street, 2 
Brookmans 83, 131, 247 
Broomfield, 247 
Bungate, 247 
Burnthouse, 246 
Butt Field, 83, 115, 175, 

177 

Buttal Land, 135 
Bucks, 240 
Bull Inn, 237 



Bullock's Cross, 74 
Bunn Field, 247 
Burnthouse, 131 
Buskett, 82 

Callows-end Lane, 246 
Cannus Hall, 134 
Canonium, 11 
Capons, 247 

CastellofGynes, 122, 233 
Causy, The, 118 
Cedars, The, 237 
Cellar, 131 
Cellar Lane, 2 
Chapel Inn, 145, 231 
Church Field, 11, 117, 

121, 244, 246 
Church Green, 236 
Church Lane, 2, 114 
Church Pasture, 244, 247 
Church Pond, 15, 16, 83, 

111, 112, 114,117-121 
Church Street, 2, 113, 

117, 236 
Clappers, 84 
Cock, The, 84, 86. 123, 

234 

Cocke-atte-hilles, 237 
Cockerills, 121 
Cock Orchard, 231 
Coggeshall Grove, 247 
Coggeshallhay, 82 
Cokers, 247 
Colman's Lane, 2, 7 
Coleman's Crofts, 247 
Colvercroft, 7 
Constantines, 36, 212, 231 
Corner House, 132, 238 
Copt Hall, 135 
Courtfield, 247 
Cowlees, 74, 81 
Cranbourne Moors, 135 



Cricketers' Inn, 233 
Cross Path Field, 130, 

166, 167 

Cross Path, Bradley, 247 
Crouches, 16, 85, 117, 

145, 239 

Crouch House, 1 22, 239 
Crouches Lane, 2, 145 
Crown, The, 112, 134, 

232 
Crow Barn, or Crop Barn, 

or Crowfield, 7, 243 
Crowland, 13, 73 
Cucumber Hall, 239 
Culies Beninshether, 85 
Curd Hall, 10, 85, 247 
Curd Hall Lane, 2 
Cut Hedge, 130,134,246 
Cut Hedge Lane, 2 
Cutler's Croft, 7, 130, 247 

Dairy House, 81 
Deadman's Hill, 244, 246 
Deadwoman's Hill, 244 
Dead Lane, 2, 117, 243, 

244 

Dovernells, 132 
Dragon, The, 129, 233 
Drapers, 81 
Durdens, 132, 241 
Dye House, 132, 241 

Earlswell,or Eareswell,83 
East Ford, or Easter Mill, 

126, 135 

East Street, 1, 2, 231 
Ennews, 134 

Fabians, 210 
Peering Crofts, 135 
Felix, or Filiol's, Hall, 
89, 126 



266 



Index of Places. 



Finch Field, 247 
Flakey Field, 96 
Fleece, 241 
Folly, 244 
Foresters, 149 
Foxes, 234 
Frances, 84 

Gallows Places, 243, 246 
Gallows Street, 1, 123, 

129, 243 
Garden Fields, 7 
Gate Fields, 247 
Gate House, 122 
Gate House Farm, 74 
George, The, 241 
Goddard's Garden, 79 
Gofts, 133, 13o 
Golden Field, 247 
Goldevers, or Goldwires, 

132 

Gotiers, 83 
Grange, The, 85 
Grange Hill, 235, 236 
Grangers, 133 
Grange Wood, 74 
Grate, Le, 118 
Great Bridge, 236 
Green Dragon, 131, 233, 

237 

Green Man, 133, 23 
Greensteds, 132 
Greyhound, 238 
Griggs Farm, 82, 225 
Groggery, 246 
Guild Hall, 80, 191 
Gulls Croft, 130, 246 
Gull-hole, 246 

Hare Field, 121, 247 
Hare's Bridge, 78, 111, 

112, 114, 117, U8, 119, 

129, 132, 134, 243 
Hart Field, 117, 239 
Haywards, 123, 134 
Herrings, 121, 131,238, 

247 

Highfieldsll, 81, 247 
High Hall, 247 
Hodscroft, 247 
Homefield, 135 
Home Grange, 81,85,1(9, 

^3ij 

Hop Ground, 247 
Horn Lane, 237 
Horse Lees, 81 



Horse Pasture, 73, 74, 
81,83 

Horse River Bridge, 235 

Hovels, or Ilolfield, or 
Holville, or Old Field, 
10, 73, 85, 200, 211, 
212, 221,222,242,247 

Hungertons, 247 

Ingring Down, 123 
Jackletts Hawks, 85 

Kemmers, 84 
Keyse's Field, 247 
King's Arms, 170, 240 
King's Croft, 83 
Kitchen Field, 11, 246 

Ladywoods, 241 
Lavenders, 123 
Leech Fields, 244, 246 
Lion Inn, 231 
Little Yards, 83 
Loam Pit Field, 167 
Locomotive, 239 
Longbridge, 74, 82, 83, 

235 

Longlands, 128, 132, 245 
Long Pitch Shot, 166 
Love's Garden, 81 
Lower Crop Barn Field, 7 
Lows, 247 

Mabsons, or Mavesons, 

129, 133, 232 
Man's Green, 118, 119 
Market Hill, 14, 175,213, 

230 

Marygolds, 131 
Mavis, 233 
Maykynes, 129, 233 
Messing Fields, 132 
Mills, 133 
Moat Field, 247 
Mock Beggars, 132 
Moises, 122, 239 
Monk Downs, 74, 8-"> 
Woods, 73, 74, 82, 

90 
Mount, The, 1, 6, 222 

Fields, 132, 247 

Park, 239 

Neals, 241 

Nether Church Field, 80, 
123 



New England, 247 
New House, 131, 133 
New Row, 117 
Norfolk's, 131 
North Fields, 71 

Old Ales, 16, 137 
Old Church Field, 123 
Oldfield. (See Holfield) 
Old Hall, 120, 135, 233 
Overchurch Field, 58, 123 
Oynes Mede, 132 

Pagett's, 170 
Panterlands, 246 
Pantling Lane, 246 
Paycocke's House, 161, 

241 

Peaslands, 134 
Penny Lane, 247 
Pest House, 244 
Peter's Well, 15, 16,119, 

232, 237 
Pitman's, 134 
Pitt Field, 58, 246 
Plumleys, 246 
Plummers, 45, 81, 121, 

238 

Pointell Mill, 125, 133 
Pointell Mill Lane, 2, 130 
Pointell Street, 2, 125, 

128 

Polerd's Mead, 122 
Pond Garden, 85 
Pope's Lees, 81, 83 
Porter's Crofts, 247 
Potash Farm, 73, 247 
Potter's Field, 167 
Pound Pasture, 82 
Priest's Chamber, 80 

Quarter-mile Field, 247 
Queen Street, 2 

Raincrofts, 74, 86, 246 
Rands, 130, 246 
Red Lion. The, 132 
Rices, 241 
Robin's Bridge, 115 
Robin's Brook, 123 
Romley, 246 
Rood House, 235 
Roode's Land, 80, 236 
Rotten Row, 1 , 243 
Royal Oak, 239 

Samson's Field, 130 






Index of Places. 



267 



Sandford's Garden, 81 
Scripp's Farm, 11, 130 
Scriveners, 84 
Seals, 231 
Sewels, 145, 231 
Shad well, 128, 245 
Shambles, The, 120, 233 
Shepenhouse, 81 
Shermans, 131 
Shirleys, 131, 246 
Shogels, 133 
Short Bridge, 112, 119, 

122, 234 
Shrives, 246 
Simons, 131 
Sorell, 81 
Spooners, 238 
Spring Fields, 130 
Staffords, 241 
Star, 135 
Star Inn, 289 
Stars, 111 
Star Walls, 244 
Stephen's Bridge, 23") 
Sterling Lees, 78, 84, 

113, 116, 133, 239 
Stock Field, 120, 247 
Stockman's, 81 
Stock Street, 1, 10, 117, 

242 
Stock Street Farm, 73 



Stokewell, 89, 96 
Stone Bridge, 118 
Stoneham Street, 1, 115, 

122, 129, 239 
Stratford, 242 
Sugar Loaf, 240 
Sunnydon, 13, 241 
Swan, The, 121, 133, 170, 

195, 22-2, 240 
Swan and Star, 239 

Tainter, or Tenter Field, 

130, 247 
Tanners, 134 
Through Inn, 82, 210 
Tom, or Town's Acre, 246 
Town Field, 247 
Tripps, 81 
True Blue, 131, 233 
Turnpike Bridge, 119 
Tyemill,94,119, 122,243 
Tye Mill Pightle, 74 
Tylkell, or Tilkey, 113, 

146 

Unicorn, 133 

Valey Croft, 247 
Vernolds, 123 
Vincent's Close, 74, 80, 
83, 241 



Vine, The, 73 
Vineyard, 10, 247 

Watering Farm, 132 
Water Lane, 112, 232 
Wayne Lane, 2, 15, 215, 

237 

Wayne Yard, 119, 237 
West Field, 6, 7, 71, 85 
West Street, 2 
Whaley Croft, 247 
White Hart, 131, 132, 

221, 223, 233 
White Horse, 241 
Widowsons, 133 
Wilcocks, 132 
Winchgate Field, 247 
Windloves, 241 
Windmill Field. 83, 166, 

167 

Windmill Lane, 81 
Woods, 134 
Woolpack, 140, 236 
Woolpack and Crown, 

239 
Woolpack and Punch 

Bowl, 236 
World's End, 135 
Wybers, 133, 238 

Yorkshire Grey, 239 




of (pereonaf Qtantes. 



Abberford, 103 Bacon, 81, 107, 200, Blackbone,130,131, Brodehill, 214 Cachpol, 158 
Abbot, 31, 67, 73, 201 134,135, 139, 225 Bromley, 109 Calandrine, 62 

115, 117, 139 Badew, 92 Blackmore, 127 Brook, 59 Camden, 7, 11, 13 

Abdy, 209, 210, 250 Baker, 33, 201 Blaise, or Blasius, Brooke, 122 Candler, 145 

Adams, 144 Bales, 117 192 Brooks, 58, 139, 228 Canon, 187 

Agard, 174 Bamford, 214 Bland, 1:'3 Brown, 68, 69, 136, Cardinal, 158 

Alegant, 190 Banks, 85, 86 Blois, 109 137, 138, 139 Cardinall, 122 

Aleward, 7 Barleyman, 21 Becking, Dean of, 2 Browning, 188 Carrington, 132 

Alleker, 22 Barnard, 33, 118, Boehm, 50, 51, 204 Bruce, 3 Carter, 45, 56, 68, 

Allen, 69 125, 133, 138, 170Bohun, 92 Bmn, 198 73, 157, 158, 217 

Alliston, 61, 179 Barrick, 138 ' Bolingbroke, 72 Brune, 205 Carausius, 10 

Ambrose, 211 Barrington, 139,255Boltwood, 74 Bryant, 22 Caswell, 73 

Amye, 80 Bartlet, 22 Bond, 190 Buck, 240 Catchpool, 16 

Andrew,49,139,168Barwell, 190 Bonner,Bp., 58, 72, Buckston, 54 Cavill, 123 

Andrews, 73, 142, Bateman, 126, 138 213 Bufton, 15, 16, 23, Cecill, 127 

148, 190, 210, Batter, 202 Bonton, 27, 53, 57 27, 31, 60, 62, 63, Chad, St., 245 

224,237 Batty, 39, 233 Boone, 201 109, 141, 1 45, Chadley, 140 

Ansell, 182, 187 Beard, 140, 180, Booth, 204 175, 176, 179, Chamberlain, 214 

Antoninus, 8, 10, 11 190,237 Bore, 71 188, 190, 192, Chamberlayn, 126 

Applebe, 158, 160 Beaumont, 10, 31, Borte, 128 210, 216, 219, Chapman, 123, 129 

Appleby, 133 70, 81, 84, 158, Bothem, 186 229, 232, 233, Chassey, 186 

Appleford, 25, 57, 162, 180, 245, 259 Bott, 145, 146, 167 234, 236, 250, Chaulkey, 130, 158 
103,162 Beck, 143 Boulogne (Earl), 88 251, 255, 256, Chester, Earl of, 52 

Appleton, 131 Beckwith, 116 1U9 257 Chignell, 57 

Archer, 139 Belchamp, 115 Bourchier, 92 Bulgen, 58 Chilton, 251 

Armond, 157, 170, Bell, 145 Bower, 176 Bull, 65 Choate, 131 

187, 221, 23;*, Beltesford, 58 Bowers, 70 Bullock, 81, 103, Christian, 36 

238 Bene, 2uO Bowles, 25, 47 107, 108, 122, Clark, 144, 179, 191 

Armstrong, 60 Benedict, 106 Boys, 49, 50, ( 3, 64, 128, 133, 159, Clarke, 69, 80, 118, 

Arnold, 83, 190 Benion, 73,107, 194 74,219,250 209,210,239 134, 140, 180, 

Arrold, 77 Bennet,H3,132, 143Bowyer, 116, 119 Bure, 157 187, 190, 250 

Asly, 190 Bennett, 63 ' Braddye, 190 Burgerseth, 58 Clayton and Bell, 

Asyle, 190 Bentley, 56, 67, 138 Bramstone, 135 Burgwash, 58 24, 25, 28 

Atkinson, 223 142 Brand, 6 Burke, 206 Clemance, 140, 179 

Attwood, 117 Benton, 108 Brett, 139 Burnet, 64 Clerk, 132, 138 

Auger, 1 ->7 Benyan, 107, 194 Brewer, 38, 56, 1 33, Butler, 214 Clerke, 80, 113, 122, 

Augers, 210 Benyon, 72, 73, 160 138 Butts, 153, 155, 156 123 

Aurelanus, 10 11)2,19* Brewninge, 45 Buonaparte, 23 Clift, 134 

Aurelius, 10 Bernard, St., 94 Briant, 23 Buxton, 54, 55, 56, Clifte, 39 

Aylet, 43, 60, 73 Bery, 128 Bridge, 85, 177, 179 115, 137, 138, Coates, 111 

Aylett, 39, 44, 61, Bettonson, 72, 107 Bright, 196 139, 146, 147, Coccillus, 8, 12 

162, 178, 211, Beversham, 2uO Bright wen, 39, 145, 157, 166, 1 70, Cockerell, 67, 115, 
212,223,236 Bewpre, 126 102, 168, 190 176, 238, 241, 116, 118, 166, 

Aylmer, 59 Bickmore, 135 Bringest, 190 257 178, 188, 190 

Aylward, 7, 128 Bidwell, 108 Brise, 65 Byeby, 38 Cockerill, 176 

Ayworth, 231 Binion, 221 Britton, 148 Coggeshall, 52, 91, 

Birkin, 131 Brittle, 162 Cable, 57, 115, 158, 9H, 1*2, 125, 126, 

Babbs, 139, 247 Birles, 57 Brockwell, 220, 221 257 197, 203, 217 



Index of Personal Names. 269 

Coker, 39, 247 Crompton, 85 Doubleday, 82, 148, Exeter, Earl, 127 Giggins, 84, 215, 

Cokerel, 113 Grossman, 140 162 Eyre, 22, 23, 69, 70 216 

Coldham, 65, 66 Crow, 140 D'Oyley, 62, 65 Giles, 140, 162 

Coldwire (see Gold- Crumpton, 177 Dover, 200 Fabian, 78, 122, Glasscock, 223 

wyre), 79 Cuddon, 128 Draper, 187 128, 210, 211 Gladwin, 51, 60, 

Cole, 187 Cudmore, 73, 127 Drummond, 32 Fairs, 180 133, 157, 170, 

Coleman, 52, 247 Cults, 7, 14, 27, 35, Drywood, 145, 166, Farmer, 142 179, 188, 189, 

Collis, 149 68, 105. 236 167 Farringdon, 58 190, 220, 222, 

Colo, 109 Cudworth, 59 Du Cane, 27, 32, Farrington, 44, 45 238 

Colvill, 92 Cumberland, Earl, 50, 64, 65, 66, 67, Fauconbergh, 71 Glover, 129 

Coma, 38 127 72, 85, 86, 109, Faustina, 10 Godard, 217 

Commodus, 10 Curzon, 158, 239 119, 131, 138, Fellex, 129 Godfrey, 57, 139, 

Comon, 251 158, 166 Fenn, 118 167, 168 

Constantine, 10, 36, Dacre, 126, 199 Du Quesne, 109, Fielding, 142 Goldewer, 129 

82, 100, 231 Daintree, 128 203, 206 Filiol, 89, 96, 125 Goldwyer, 19, 44, 

Constantinus, 10 Dale, 23, 44, 121, Duddell, 47, 65, Fitzwalter, 64 128 

Constantinopolis, 10 142 148 Flower, 214 Gold wyre, 44 

Cook, 139, 163, Dalton, 67 Dugdale, 87, 93, Foliol, 95 Good, 139 

172, 177, 223, Dammat, 187, 201 104 Fontibus, 71 Gooddaye, 187 

224 Dammet, 162 Dunkin, 12, 105 Fonte, 71 Gooday, 116, 170, 

Cooke, 107, 115, Dampier, 22, 24, Durant, 84, 86, 195 Forbes, 56 171,208 

116, 144, 169, 28, 29, 30, 32, Durranf, 158, 168 Forster, 32, 146, Gorbell, 82 
17*>, 188, 190, 34, 35, 53, 67, Dyke, 59 212 Gothicus, 10 

231 68, 75, 95, 103, ' Foster, 73, 117, 243, Gouge, 140, 141, 

Cooper, 138 162, 169, 218 Eagle, 168 257 142 

Copschief, 128 Daniell, 211 Earee, 69 Fox, 143 Gray, 36, 83, 179, 

Copley, 206 Davey, 139, 199 Edgar, 158, 159, Francis, 86, 139 190, 209, 237 

Corder, 131, 145 Dawes, 115, 116, 180 Francys, 79 Graye, 22, 187 

Cornell, 141 128, 170 Edith, 71 Francqueville, 204 Granger, 80 

Cornill, 225 Day, 134 Edward the Con- Frank, 92 Green, 82, 199 

Cornwall, Duke, 52 Decks, 66, 158 fessor, II, 88, 94Fraser, 69 Greene, 22, 69, 70, 

Cornwallis, 215 Delbroch, 71 Eley, 66 Freeland, 66 201 

Cornwell, 131 Dell, 145 Elfwine, 124 Frith, 180 Greenwood, 145, 

Costered, 190 Dennis, 49, 162, Ellis, 74 Frost, 132, 190 177, 178 

Cott, 64 180 Elliot, 201 Fryitt, 118 Greeve, 201 

Cotton, 200, 201 Dene, 186 Ellisdon, 131 Fuller, 46, 57, 84, Gregory Great, 249 

Cowell, 81, 190 Denney, 140, 177 Ellistone, 137, 141 85, 121, 157, 162, Gregory, St., 246 
Cox, 13,31,50, 57, Desbouverie, 204 Elliston, 118 178, 179, 256 Grey, 188 

61, 63, 69, 108, Desmadrille, 64, 205 Ely, Bp. of, 71 Fullerton, 86, 109 Griffinnhoofe, 68 
115, 117, 118, Digby, 189, 194, Elizabeth, 36, 37, Griffith, 69 

119, 166, 168, 223,224 ^2, 80, 103, 1 1 1 Galfridus, 58 Grimes. 45, 118, 

170, 176, 188, Dimbleby, 190 Emery, 159, 175, Gallicus, 71 222 

190, 194, 220, Diocletian, 10 176 Gallienus, 10 Grime, 45, 238 

222, 223, 224, Dixon, 158, 167 Emen, 190 Gambier, 128 Groome, 223 

225, 237, 256 Dockwray, 82 Emeng, 187 Gardiner, 22, 115 Grove, 137, 141 , 

Coxall, or Coxill, Docwra, 132, 134, Emming, 39, 236 Gardner, 4, 25, 26, Gullifer, 64 

see Coggeshall 145, 146, 147 Enew, 115, 117 32, 57, 84, 133, Gulliford, 64 

Coxchief, 114 Dod, 60 Enewe, 82 140, 158, 162, Gurton, 139 

Crane, 60, 61, 73, Dodd, 38, 59, 60, Ennew, 137, 138, 171, 196,200 Guyon, Gyon, or 

176, 176, 179, 81, 236 190 Garrard, 129 Gion, 40, 41, 61, 

181, 189, 217, Dodding, 121 Ennow, 23, 38 Garratt, 144 63, 73, 83, 107, 

255 Doe, 1 6 Eustace Earl, 88, 89 Garrett, 144 116-17, i3 2 -33, 

Creeke, 116 Dollow, 144 Evans, 70, 139, i44Gastrell, 86 152, 158, 165, 

Cressing, 122 Domitian, 10 145, 163, 171, Gaule, 251 166, 167, 168, 

Croe, 137 Domna, 10 180 Gee, 206 171, 176, 179, 

Cromwell, 36, 61, Doreward, 123, 126, Evens, 131 Gent, 201 187-88, 189-90, 

62 198 Everett, 117, 139 Geoffrey, 106, 20 1 194, 209, 210, 



270 



Index of Personal Names. 



Guyon (continued) Hereford, Countess Jegon, 57, 84, I IO, Leland, 87 
212, 220, 221, of. 92 1 12, 187, 215, 237 Leman, 129 

222, 225, 226, Heward, 131 Jenkins, 94, 149 Lennard, 38 

228, 234, 237, Heyley, 59 
250, 251 Heysand, 78 

Gyant, 156 Hey ward, 80 

Gyffrey, 58 Hibben, 179, 181 

Gymlett, 179 Hinting, 190 

Gynes, 233 Hilles, 79 

Hill, 68 



Mathew, 51, 65, 66, 

127, 128, 168 
Matthews, 43 

Jepps, 115, 116, 117 Leppingwell, 138 Maurois, 204 
Jepp, 133 Leventhorpe, 109 Maxey, 174 

Jessop, 62, 63, 220, Levitt, 135, 223 Maximinus, 10 

226, 227 Ley, 63, 70 Maxwell,86,iO9,207 

Johnson or Johnston, Litherland, 83, 162 Mayhew, 29, 73, 81, 
65,66,139, 188, Livermore, 64, 134, 109, no, 153, 
190 225, 229, 250 190, 238 



Hadfield, 19, 23 Hills, 145, 188, 190, Joldayn, 106 London, Bp. of, 57, Mede, 227 

Hadrian, 10 222,236 Jordan, 31 71,72,95,105 Mellitus, 249 

Hall, 21, 29, 57, Hitcham, 103, 1 50, Joyce, 222 London, 116, 190 Merrill, 84, 220, 

195 151, 152, 153, Lloyd, 179 221, 223, 224 

Halle, 19, 34, 174 157, 164, 176, Katherine, St., 25, Long, 126, 141 Meyer, 25 
Halls, 139 241 76, 77 Love, Si, 106, 175, Michael, St., 90 



Miles, 79, 224 
Mills, 190 
Millaway, 137, 141 
Montgomery, 78 
Moore, 140,162,222 
Mooton, 257 
Morant, 119, 206, 

209, 210, 212 
Moray, Bp., 104 



Hamberstane, 92 Hitchcock, 148 Kay, 142 195 

Hampser, 79 Hobert, 126 Keable, 116 Lovett, 212 

Hanbury, 24, 25, Hollingworth, 174 Kebul, 22, 116 Lounds, 86 

32, 131, 133, 145, Holditch, 31 Keeble, 63, 156, Lownds, 86 

146, 147, 162, Holland, 6 166, 168, 176, loxiLowndes, 255 

166, 167, 168, Holman, 13, 24, 34, Kelvedon, 92 Lowry, 137 236 

179, 206, 207, 39, 44, 52, 95, Kent (Earl of), i27Lowrye, 62 

212 loo, 197, 198 Kettle, 140 Lowrey, 140, 141 

Hance, 57, 116, Honywood, 32, 131, Keys, 171 201 Lude, 87 

117 229,232,255 King, 33, 34, 86, Ludgater, 118, 121 Mord'en, 12, 86 

Harbord, 86 Haselfoot, 209 134, 144, 145, 144, 145, 191 More, 106 

Harding, 94 Hopper, 162 162, 196, 208 Lyance, 190 Morley, 80 

Hares, 122,243 Horrocks, 69, 159 Kirkham, 145, 162, Lyde, 72,81,85,86, Morton, 30, 70 
Harlackendon, 39 Houston, 108 220 109,114, 119, 120, Moss, 22, 158 

Harleston, 6 Hovel, 90 Kinning, 218 138, 204, 235 Motos, 190 

Harrington, 39, 132 Howell, 22 Knight, 135 Lyhert, 126 Mount, 119, 121, 

Harris, 252 Hewlett, 134 Lyle, 140 158, 170, 223 

Harrison, 50, 73, Hubbard, 140, 167, Lake, 132, 134 Lyndhurst, 206 Mullings, 56, 176, 

131, 133, 223 176, 255 Lambe, 134 Lytherland, 187 225, 257 

Harold, 208 Hubberd, 166 Lamberd, 129 Murdock, 9 

Lamplow, 212 Musket, 135 

Lamot, 229 Mabson, 232 Mytton, 58 



Hart, 145 Hull, 116 

'Harvey, 74, 115, Hubert, 58 

144, 190, 232 Huke, 116 
Hastings, 185, 186 Hull, 201 
Hatton, 190 Humphrey, 142 

Hatten, 116, 190 Hughes, 23 
Haven, 38 Hunt, 92, 133 

Hawes, 61, Huntsman, 190 

Hawkes, 108, 212, Hutley, 132 

213 Hutchins, 148 

Hawkwood, 198 Hutchings, 149 
Hawley, 86 Hyde, 58, 159 

Haynes, 50, 224 
Hayward, 86, 146, Ilger, 115 

Ingrowe,2Oi 



Mabson, 232 
Larke, 84, 117, 187, McAll, 142 

194 Magnaville, 89 Napleton, 125 

Latham, 127 Magnentius, 10 Napper, n 

Lavers & Westlake, Malins, 169 Nash, 116, 163 

26 Mann, 84 Neal, 59 

Lawford, 122 Mant, 65, 216 Neele, 190 

Lawrence, 37, 51, Mapletoft, 157 Ners, 10 

80, 84, 162, 187 Mareant, 38 Nesfield, 79 

Layman, 131, 139, Margaret, St., 77 Newcourt, 58, 59, 

167 Markeshall, 91 6l, 62, 75, 87, 93 
Lay> 139, 191, 195, Marlborough, Duke Newman, 36, 128 

222, 240 of, 48, 63 Newport, 85 

Leake, see Martin Marney L 92 Newton, 127, 139 



Leake 



158, 170 
Heaton, Butler, and Irland, 190 

Co., 25 Ireland, 191, 224 Leaper, 132, 135 67, 68 

Hecham, 150 Iremonger, 68 Lee, 127 Marten, 84 

Hedgethorne, 219 Lees, 190 

Heneage, 187 Jackson, 68 Leazewell, 84 

HeronMaxwell,2O7 Jay, 139 Legg> 140 



Martin-Leake, 32, Nicholas, St., 95,100 
Nicholas, Pope, 92, 

190 

Mary, St., 18, IOO Nichols, 138 
Mast, 144 Nicholls, 39, 73, 

Mather, 217 115, 1 68, 190 






Index of Personal Names. 



271 



Nicolls, 138 
Niger, 105 
Norman, 92 
Norris, 64, 67, 205 
Northey, 38 
Norwich, Bp., 84, 
156 

Odo, 104 
Oldham, 45 
Olive, 158 
Oliver, 38, 140 
Onge, 73 
Orange, 200 
Ormond, 45 
Osgood, 206, 207 
Osmond, 214 
Overall, 116 
Owen, 61, 62 
Oxford, Earl of, 2 1 2, 
240 

Pabenham, 1.06 

Page, 38, 190 

Paisey, 134 

Parker, 121 

Parnell, 143, 144 

Patch, 70, 158, 162, 
1 80 

Pattisson, 108, 139, 
162 

Paicock, 123 

Paycock, 3, 41, 42, 
43, 76, 129 

Paycocke, 33, 34, 
37, 41, 42, 76, 
160, 164, 175, 
207, 209, 233, 
241, 243, 250 

Payne, 133 

Pecock or Peacock, 

4i, 76, 79, 139 
Pearson, 225 
Pelham, 39 
Pemberton, 115, 

144, 176, 190 
Pennock, 137 
Pepper, 214 
Perry, 144 
Ferryman, 190 
Pertwee, 69 
Peter, Lord, 104 
Peterborough, Bp 

of, 137 
Pettingal, 249 
Peverell, 92, 128 
Peyto, 142 



Philbrick, 116, 190 Richardson 57, 138, Severus, 10 

Phillebrowne, 221 172, 173 

Phillpott, 58 Richmond, 57 

Phillips, 85, Ridley, 72 

Philps, 142,158, 162 Rikedon, 92 

Pickard, vide Pick- Rivers, 83, 84, 85 



eld, 6 1 
Picknet, 116 
Pierceson, 187 
Pickeld, 61 
Pilkington, 149 
Pitchfourd, 187 
Playter, 33 
Playel, 135 
Plum, 74 
Plumb, 221 
Pointell, 2, 125 
Pole, 163, 214 
Polley, 30, 32 
Porter, 128, 139 



Robert, St. 94 
Robson, 36 
Roche, 54 
Rodley, 83, 190 
Roddley, 144 
Rogers, 201, 217 
Rolfe, 158 
Rooke, 6 1 
Roppeley, 126, 198 
Rouet, Baldwin de 

89 
Rowland, 149, 180 



Royce, 190 
Rudkin, 139, 177 
Potter,3, 22,73,138, Ruggles-Brise, 65 

139, 149, 157, Rushenden, 58 

167, 170, 176, Russell, 126, 132, Simpson, 



Staveley, 16 
Sewell, 58, 144, Stawell, 70 

210, 231 Stedman, 84 

Seward, 85 Stephen (King), 89 

Seymour, 107, 109 Stephen (Master), 
Sharp, 128 104 

Sharpe, 107 Sterling, 78, 79 

Sheldtake, 84 Stevens, 65 

Sheppard, 166, 167, Stevenson, 104, 105 

176, 188, 190,20081. John, 72 
Shepheard, 61 Stockton, 59. 72 

Shetelworth, 135, Stockstone, 92 

139, 1 77 Stokes. 224 

Shortland, 6l, 116, Straford, 126 
166, 167, 176, Strangeman, 201 
179, 188, 190, Streete, 190 
220, 222, 224, Stulham, 140 
227, 236 Sturges, 190 



Shuttleworth, 162, Sudbury, 220 

180 Sullings, 135 

Simon, 104 Suffolk (Duke of). 

Simmons, 162 151, 153, 154 

57, 82, Surridge, 22, 26, 



134 

Rustylford, 71 
Ryce, 151 
Ryse, 162 



225, 232 
Poulter, 82 
Powell, 132, 139 
Pridmore, 190 
Pudney, 131, 14$ 
Purcas, 129, 144, Sadler, 24, 32 

162, 190, 194 
Putner, 74 
Pyper, 128 



Rackham, 158 

Radley, 1 1 7 

Ralph, 90, 95, 101, 162 

104, 105 Sampford, 81 



15*8, 162, 1 80 162 

Skingley, 25,26, 31, Sussex, Earl, 127 
35, 46, 47, 66, 67, Sutton, 56, 68, 113, 
68,73,75,76,i3 ' "4' "9- 1 68, 
X 33> J 34> J 58- !7, 176, 186, 
168, 210, 239 187, 190, 195, 

Sach, 57, 81, 82, Sloane Stanley. 207 221,223 

139, 140, 162, 221 Sloman, 190 Swinborne, 4, 22, 

Samford, 106 Smith, 16, 31, 37, 57.67,81.83,139, 

Salmon, 94, 138 66, 8l, 115, 121, 158, 162, 168, 

Sames, 62, 141 134, 135. 149, 171, 195, 239. 

Sammes, 137, 141, 178. 179, 1 8 1, Swallow, 169 
190, 200, 
205, 207 



201, Swan, 190 

Sweeting, 123, 187, 

Ram, 137 Sampson, 176, 188, Smyth, 174 211 

Rand, 140, 148, 209 190 Somerset, Duke of, Symonds 39, 44 

Randolph, 80 Samson, 194 107 

Rande, 128 Sanclford, 52, 135, South, 158 Tacitus, I O 

Ranew, 62 139 Southwell, 126 Tailor, 38, 81 

Rawlinson, 190 Sanders, 84 Southyn, 58 Talbot, 86 

Raven, 132, 134, Sansum, 134 Sparhawke, 31, 6 1, Tanner 6 1, 87, 1 88, 

157,170,176,188, 190,225 
190 Taseler, 106 

Sparrow, 3, 144 Tayler, 22, 39 
Spicer, 195, 240 Taylor, 115 138, 158 
Sprotburgh, 53 Tedric, 125 
Spooner,i29,2Oi,238Tedricus, 10 

Scott, 4.5, 70, 81, Stacey, 144, 239 Theodosius, 10 
Stafford, 31,73,158, Thetford, 139 



138, 139, 144, Saunder, 113,114 
145, 180, 221 186, 187 

Rayment, 222 Savill, 139 

Raymond, 69, 73, Sawbyn, 122 
127, 202 Sayer, 132 

Reeve, 200, 201 Scot, 61 

Revett, 134 

Reynolds, 115 

Rich, 213 



135, 201 

Sebroke, 190 221 223, 224 

Riche, 72 Sedgwick, 6c, 61,74 Stammers, X 35 

Richold, 83, 1 66, Seebohn, u Stanton, 198 

168, 176, 179, Seex, 191 Stanley, 207 

1 90, 220, 221, 236 Serle, 65 Starling, 1 76 



Thoeby, 133 
Thompson, 134, 148 
Thomas, 104, 108 
Thome, 31, 115,124 
Thoyts, 73, 128 



272 



Index of Personal Names. 



Threadkell, 149 
Thurgar, 171 
Thorowgood. 211 
Thursby, 126, 201 
Till, 162, 190, 191 
Tiselinus, 125 
Todd, 82, 108, 221 
Toni, 95, 104 
Totman, 132, 135, 

158 

Tollman, 131 
Tower, 145, 206 
Townsend, 22, 24, 

32,47,48,49,132, 

157, 166, 168, 170 
Trajan, 10 
Tredcrofl, 110,205 
Tregoz, 89 
Trewe, 38, 82, 108, 

123, 187, 250 
True, 80, 113 
Tufnell, 3 
Tuke, 59 
Tupper, 57 
Turner, 116, 119, 

123, 148, 157 



Tunbridge, 115, 223 Waleis, Waleys, orWebbe, 112 Wilbore, 116 

Turvey, 128 Wallis, 128 !29,Weever, 6. IO, n,\Vilkins, 74 

Tyler, 187 134 39, 42, 44. 52, 87 William, Abbot of 

Tyll, 113. 187, 209 Walfprd. 32, 1 39, Wellington, 23 Coggeshall, 104 



Tyrrell, 

20 1 
Tyssen, 128 



126, 



198, 158, 167, 177 
Walker, 135 
Wallace, 66 
Waller, 69 
Unwin, 55. 56, 108, Wallinglon, 195 
131, 132, i33,Wallman, 108 
140, Ward. 156 
i77,Warde, 80 
Warley, 115 



135' 139. 
1 66, 167, 
232 
Upcher, 208 



Wells, 109. 142, 198 Williams, 59, 148 
Wilbore. 115, 221 Willsher, 139, 167, 

225, 238 173, 222 

Wenlworlh, 38, 2OI Wilsher, 172 
Weslminsler, 125 Wilton, 201 
Weslern, 35, 127 Wimborne, 80 
Weslon, 9 Winchester, Bp., 67 

Wheeler, 149. 190 Windlove, 123 
Wolfgith, 124 
Wolley, 8 1, 236 
Wood, 62, 73, 121, 
223, 224 



Whelpsted, 37 

Warner. 22, 38, 109, Whepsted, 123 
162, 178, 190, Whitacre, 115 

Vaisey. 163 236 Willbore, 176 

Vane, 38 Warren, 88, 214 While, 30, 32, 49, Woodward, 145 

Vaughan, 58, 59 Warwick. Earl of,6i 58 63. 64, 70, 84, W r ordsworlh, 1 74 
Ventris. 231 Warwicker, 22 130, 158, i62,Worseler, 52 

Vere, 126, 169 Walson, 108, 187, 168, 170, 175, Wren 156 

Vespasian, I o 201 177, 179, 215, Wright, 139, 157 

Victorinus, 10 Waynflet, 33 223, 237 158, 199 

Vincenl, 241 Weadlingburgh, 58 Whilaker, 132, 158 \Vyseman, 174 

Weaver, 179, igS.Whilmore, 162. 166 
Wade, II 199, 208 Whilamore, 172 

Wakering, 39 Webb, 133, 214 Whillinglon, 69 York, 1 1 6, 201 











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